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Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

Development Of A Mixed-Radiation Directional Rotating Scatter Mask Detection System, Bryan V. Egner Mar 2019

Development Of A Mixed-Radiation Directional Rotating Scatter Mask Detection System, Bryan V. Egner

Theses and Dissertations

Previous work demonstrated gamma-ray directional detection through the integration of a radiation detection system and an additively manufactured rotating scatter mask (RSM). This work advances the RSM directional detection system through improvements in the system's design, validation of a new scatter mask, and the novel ability to directionally detect both neutrons and gamma rays, a desirable feature for many nuclear safeguard and counterproliferation applications. The mixed-radiation RSM system developed for this research utilized the Spartan I mask design coupled with a 1" EJ-309 liquid scintillator. A GEome-try ANd Tracking (Geant4) model is developed and quantitatively compared to experimental measurements ...


Neutron Spectroscopy Using Rubberized Eu:Licaf Wafers, Michael A. Ford Sep 2018

Neutron Spectroscopy Using Rubberized Eu:Licaf Wafers, Michael A. Ford

Theses and Dissertations

With the increasing cost and decreasing availability of 3He, there have been many efforts to find alternative neutron detection materials. Lithium calcium aluminum fluoride (LiCAF) enriched to 95% 6Li doped with europium was evaluated here as a replacement material for 3He, based on the absorption of thermalized neutrons by the 6Li and subsequent energy release of the 6Li(n,t)4He reaction. Wafers 0.5 cm thick, consisting of LiCAF crystals in a rubberized matrix, were embedded with wavelength shifting fibers (WSF) and mated to silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) to measure the photon response in ...


Neutron Radiation Effects On Ge And Gesn Semiconductors, Christopher T. O'Daniel Mar 2016

Neutron Radiation Effects On Ge And Gesn Semiconductors, Christopher T. O'Daniel

Theses and Dissertations

Two different semiconductor materials received neutron radiation for assessment of radiation damage. The two materials are undoped bulk Ge and epitaxial Ge0.991Sn0.009, which is doped heavily with phosphorous. At room temperature, the Ge sample has direct and indirect bandgaps at 0.78 eV and 0.66 eV, respectively. The Ge0.991Sn0.009 sample has direct and indirect bandgaps at 0.72 eV and 0.63 eV, respectively. Two samples of each material were exposed to research reactor neutrons, delivering a 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence of 2.52 × 1015 n/cm2. In order to assess the ...


Differential (P, P′) And (P, D) Cross Sections Of 89Y And 92Zr, Molly A. Wakeling Mar 2016

Differential (P, P′) And (P, D) Cross Sections Of 89Y And 92Zr, Molly A. Wakeling

Theses and Dissertations

Differential cross sections for the (p, p′) and (p, d) reactions on 89Y and 92Zr were measured using a 28.25-MeV proton beam at the 88-inch cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Angular distributions were obtained for the ground state and several excited states of each isotope using silicon detector telescopes over angles 10° to 140° in the reaction plane. These data were obtained by fitting a Gaussian function to each peak in the energy spectra and integrating the number of counts under each peak. These cross sections will be included in nuclear structure models so that neutron ...


Radiation Response From A Novel Uo2 Crystal, Stephan A. Varga Mar 2016

Radiation Response From A Novel Uo2 Crystal, Stephan A. Varga

Theses and Dissertations

The radiation response of a novel, single-crystalline UO2 sample was analyzed using several types of radiation. The crystal was exposed to alpha, gamma, and neutron radiation under various environmental conditions and the electronic response of the crystal was measured using a pulse shape discrimination algorithm. The distributions of pulse amplitude (Vmax) and pulse decay times (τ) were used to compare the output. This research revealed that the crystal radiation response is exceptionally sensitive to surface conditions, specifically humidity, which tends to alter the time dependent currents resulting from the radiation interactions. The pulse τ can be made to be uniquely ...


Neutron Versus Gamma Radiation Effects On Ytterbium-Doped Optical Fibers, Olivia M. Borman Mar 2016

Neutron Versus Gamma Radiation Effects On Ytterbium-Doped Optical Fibers, Olivia M. Borman

Theses and Dissertations

Multimode ytterbium-doped optical fibers (YDFs) are increasingly utilized in military applications involving fiber lasers and amplifiers. YDFs were irradiated with three different radiation sources (neutron, gamma, and mixed gamma/neutron) in order to determine the independent effects that gamma and neutron radiation have on the fibers. The transmission spectra of the fibers were measured during each irradiation and the spectral shapes and attenuation were compared at similar doses. Comparisons of the spectra showed that gamma radiation results in increased attenuation over the 550-975 nm wavelengths. Fast neutrons were found to contribute to increased attenuation near 500 nm. Neutron radiation also ...


Analysis Of Neutron Effects For Asteroid Disruption, Aaron J. Ferguson Mar 2016

Analysis Of Neutron Effects For Asteroid Disruption, Aaron J. Ferguson

Theses and Dissertations

The use of nuclear weapons is one possible method for disrupting or deflecting an asteroid on a trajectory to impact the earth. A largely unexplored component of weapon yield in a disruption scenario is the impact of the neutron output. The results of MCNP-6 simulations are presented demonstrating the effect that incident neutron energy has on the total energy deposited in an asteroid, including that the efficiency of energy deposition in a material is inversely proportional to the incident neutron energy due to negative Q-value reactions. The effects of material composition on the total energy deposited as well as the ...


Evaluation Of The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (Viirs) Cloud Base Height (Cbh) Pixel-Level Retrieval Algorithm For Single-Layer Water Clouds, Kyle E. Fitch Mar 2016

Evaluation Of The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (Viirs) Cloud Base Height (Cbh) Pixel-Level Retrieval Algorithm For Single-Layer Water Clouds, Kyle E. Fitch

Theses and Dissertations

Evaluation of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Base Height (CBH) product was accomplished. CBH is an important factor for aviation, but a lack of coverage for ground-based retrieval is a significant limitation. Space-based retrieval is essential; therefore, the VIIRS CBH pixel-level retrieval algorithm was assessed for single-layer water clouds. Accurate (truth) measurements were needed not only for the CBH product, but also for VIIRS cloud optical thickness (COT), effective particle size (EPS), and cloud top height (CTH). Data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites were used, with VIIRS-ARM matchups created from June 2013 through October 2015 for ...


Nuclear Forensics Applications Of Principal Component Analysis On Micro X-Ray Fluorescence Images, Sarah T. Castro Mar 2016

Nuclear Forensics Applications Of Principal Component Analysis On Micro X-Ray Fluorescence Images, Sarah T. Castro

Theses and Dissertations

A method is developed for rapid detection and analysis of actinides and correlated materials in nuclear fallout debris using principal component analysis on quantified micro x-ray fluorescence intensity values. This method is then applied to address goals of nuclear forensics. The first implementation is a collaborative effort with the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory to produce a standard reference material that is a surrogate for glassy nuclear fallout debris in a modern urban environment. This reference material will enable researchers in the development and validation of nuclear forensics methods. A method for ...


Applications Of Correlated 2d-Acar And Cdbar Using A Low-Energy Positron Beam, Angelo M. Bonavita Mar 2016

Applications Of Correlated 2d-Acar And Cdbar Using A Low-Energy Positron Beam, Angelo M. Bonavita

Theses and Dissertations

The three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3D-PASS) at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) correlates coincidence Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation with two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation measurements using two position-sensitive, high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The low photoelectric cross section of germanium, combined with the limited output of the radioisotope-based positron beam, produced sparse data necessitating careful data extraction. Processing techniques employed to increase 3D-PASS spectra quality include an improved algorithm for determining radiation-interaction position on HPGe double-sided strip detectors, a momentum sampling function based correction scheme and spectra folding informed by crystal symmetries. The 3D nature of ...


Multidimensional Analysis Of Nuclear Detonations, Robert C. Slaughter Sep 2015

Multidimensional Analysis Of Nuclear Detonations, Robert C. Slaughter

Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this research is to develop the methods for 3-dimensional reconstructions and temperature distributions of early time nuclear fireballs. Initial developments have resulted in the first 2-dimensional temperature distribution of a nuclear fireball using digitized film. This same process was then extended to perform the first limb darkening calculations of nuclear fireballs. Limb darkening coefficients were then used to derive a temperature profile of the nuclear fireball as a function of optical path length. A 3-dimensional reconstruction was performed using a variation of a structure from illuminance technique in combination with limb darkening coefficients to produce structure using ...


Coupling Nuclear Induced Phonon Propagation With Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Michael J. Parker Jun 2015

Coupling Nuclear Induced Phonon Propagation With Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Michael J. Parker

Theses and Dissertations

Mössbauer spectroscopy is a very sensitive measurement technique (10 (exp -8) eV) which prompted motivation for the experiment described in this thesis. Namely, can a sensitive detection system be developed to detect nuclear recoils on the order of 10 to 100 of eVs? The hypothesis that this thesis tests is: Nuclear induced phonon bursts caused by Rutherford scattered alphas, decayed from Am241, in a type-310 stainless steel material can couple with 7.3keV conversion electron Mössbauer events at the other end of the material which will have a statistically significant effect on a Mössbauer spectrum. The phonon bursts produced by ...


The Effect Of Anisotropic Scatter On Atmospheric Neutron Transport, Nicholas J. Mcintee Mar 2015

The Effect Of Anisotropic Scatter On Atmospheric Neutron Transport, Nicholas J. Mcintee

Theses and Dissertations

Anisotropy is present in the angular distributions of neutrons departing from a nuclear scattering event. This anisotropy cannot be defined in a closed-form solution, and it is dependent on the incident neutron energy, elastic or inelastic scatter, along with the inelastic level, and the species struck. The underlying question is, if anisotropic behavior is worth the computational cost to be included in certain simulations, and if so, what level of precision is effected by the inclusion of anisotropic scatter. A Watt spectrum of U235 fission neutrons was examined as it collided with species in a nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere. In a ...


Surface Geometry And Chemistry Of Hydrothermally Synthesized Single Crystal Thorium Dioxide, Scott W. Key Mar 2015

Surface Geometry And Chemistry Of Hydrothermally Synthesized Single Crystal Thorium Dioxide, Scott W. Key

Theses and Dissertations

The surface chemistry and geometry of hydrothermally grown, single crystal ThO2 was studied using X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The crystal was studied before and after sputter etching with Ar+, heating up to 675 K, and dehydration with dry nitrogen. The hydrothermal growth technique incorporated Cs and F into the near surface bulk. Heating to 675 K drove off the F, but did not the Cs. Sputtering with Ar+ at 75° cleaned the crystal and created a more uniform surface geometry. The Th 4f peak resolution, as measured by XPS improved by a factor of ...


Theoretical Study Of The Effects Of Di-Muonic Molecules On Muon-Catalyzed Fusion, Eugene V. Sheely Mar 2012

Theoretical Study Of The Effects Of Di-Muonic Molecules On Muon-Catalyzed Fusion, Eugene V. Sheely

Theses and Dissertations

This document presents a theoretical study di-muonic hydrogen and helium molecules that have the potential of enhancing the muon-catalyzed fusion reaction rate. In order to study these di-muonic molecules a method of non-adiabatic quantum mechanics referred to as a General Particle Orbital (GPO) method was developed. Three mechanisms that have the possibility of enhancing the muon-catalyzed fusion rate were discovered. Two involve the formation of di-muonic hydrogen molecules, and the other uses di-muonic molecules to liberate muons stuck to 3He nuclei. The effects of muon spin on dimuonic hydrogen molecules was studied. The nuclear separation in di-muonic hydrogen molecules ...


A Programmable Liquid Collimator For Both Coded Aperture Adaptive Imaging And Multiplexed Compton Scatter Tomography, Jack G. M. Fitzgerald Mar 2012

A Programmable Liquid Collimator For Both Coded Aperture Adaptive Imaging And Multiplexed Compton Scatter Tomography, Jack G. M. Fitzgerald

Theses and Dissertations

A novel, fully reconfigurable collimator device for gamma-ray and X-ray imaging was built and tested as a coded aperture. The device consisted of 10x10, 5x5x5 mm3 chambers. Each chamber either was filled with an attenuating liquid, stopping photons, or evacuated of the attenuating liquid, allowing the photons to pass through. As the pattern of on and off chambers was manipulated, different, semi-independent views of the gamma-ray source were found. Noise in reconstructed images decreased in all tests. Image reconstruction was performed with correlation methods and Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (ML-EM). Using 10 mask patterns, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in ...


Gadolinium Oxide/Silicon Thin Film Heterojunction Solid-State Neutron Detector, Christopher M. Young Mar 2010

Gadolinium Oxide/Silicon Thin Film Heterojunction Solid-State Neutron Detector, Christopher M. Young

Theses and Dissertations

The internal conversion electron emission from the de-excitation of the Gd-158m nucleus was explored as a means for neutron detection. Thin film gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) and p-type silicon heterojunction diodes were produced using a supercritical water deposition process. Pulse height spectroscopy was conducted on the novel diodes while they were subjected to a moderated plutonium-beryllium (PuBe) source flux of 104 thermal neutrons/cm2 s. Coincident gamma spectroscopy was employed to verify the 1107.6 keV photon emissions from the diode indicative of successful neutron capture by Gd-157 and the subsequent de-excitation of the Gd-158m nucleus ...