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Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

Isotopically-Resolved Neutron Cross Sections As Probe Of The Nuclear Optical Potential, Cole Davis Pruitt May 2019

Isotopically-Resolved Neutron Cross Sections As Probe Of The Nuclear Optical Potential, Cole Davis Pruitt

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Neutron scattering experiments provide direct access to the forces experienced by nucleons in the nuclear environment. Due to the experimental difficulty of cross section measurements with neutrons, isotopically-resolved neutron scattering cross sections are sorely needed as inputs for many nuclear models. This dissertation presents the results from a campaign of isotope-specific neutron total cross section measurements on 16,18O, 58,64Ni, 112,124Sn, and 103Rh from 3-450 MeV and elastic scattering differential cross section measurements on 112,nat,124Sn at 11 and 17 MeV. Equipped with these new data and with computational improvements to the Dispersive Optical Model (DOM), we ...


An Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of Flow Accelerated Flibe Corrosion, David B. Weitzel Jan 2019

An Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of Flow Accelerated Flibe Corrosion, David B. Weitzel

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Renewed interest in molten salt reactor technology has brought to light the need for a better understanding of FLiBe corrosion. To this end a flowing FLiBe corrosion test loop was designed to test the flow effects of FLiBe corrosion. The loop consists of a pump, melt tank, and stainless-steel tubing assembly that heats the molten salt to high temperatures and circulates it over test specimens. The experiment has been constructed and has completed initial shakedown testing.

To support the flowing FLiBe experiment, a numerical corrosion model that couples FLiBe electrochemistry, solid metal diffusion, and mass transport was implemented. The model ...


Measurement And Analysis Of The Extreme Physical Shock Environment Experienced By Crane-Mounted Radiation Detection Systems, Matthew Boyd, Jennifer Erchinger, Craig M. Marianno, Gene Kallenbach Jan 2019

Measurement And Analysis Of The Extreme Physical Shock Environment Experienced By Crane-Mounted Radiation Detection Systems, Matthew Boyd, Jennifer Erchinger, Craig M. Marianno, Gene Kallenbach

International Journal of Nuclear Security

At ports of entry, radiation detectors could be mounted on container gantry crane spreaders to monitor cargo containers entering and leaving the country. These detectors would have to withstand the extreme physical conditions experienced by these spreaders during normal operations. Physical shock data from the gable ends of a spreader were recorded during the loading and unloading of a cargo ship by two hard mounted PCB Piezotronics model 340A50 accelerometers and two Lansmont SAVER 9X30 units (with padding). The majority of large shocks were observed in the vertical direction. The Lansmont units recorded mean shocks of 22.215 ± 1.174 ...


Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Dec 2018

Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Radiolabeled Nanohydroxyapatite As A Platform For The Development Of New Pet Imaging Agents, Stacy Lee Queern Dec 2018

Radiolabeled Nanohydroxyapatite As A Platform For The Development Of New Pet Imaging Agents, Stacy Lee Queern

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging utilizes drugs labeled with positron emitters to target and evaluate different biological processes occurring in the body. Tailoring medicine to the individual allows for higher quality of care with better diagnosis and treatment and is a key purpose for advancing research into developing new platforms for PET imaging agents. A PET nuclide of high interest for the development of these agents is 89Zr. This can be attributed to the long half-life of 3.27 days and low positron energy of 89Zr.

In this work, we developed a production method for 89Zr using Y sputtered coins ...


Corrosion Dynamics Of Carbon Steel In Used Fuel Container Environments, Dan Guo Dec 2018

Corrosion Dynamics Of Carbon Steel In Used Fuel Container Environments, Dan Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The current Canadian used nuclear fuel container (UFC) design uses a pressure‑grade carbon steel (CS) vessel with its outer surface coated with a thin layer of copper. One concern regarding the structural integrity of the UFC design is the potential internal corrosion of the CS vessel. Moisture trapped inside a UFC could condense within the gap between the hemispherical head and the cylindrical body of the vessel. The internal UFC environment will be exposed to a continuous flux of ionizing radiation arising from the decay of radionuclides trapped in the used UO2 fuel matrix.

This thesis research project ...


Heat Transfer Comparison Of Varied Pebble Sizes And Packing Arrangements In A Pebble-Bed Reactor, Julian Spangler Nov 2018

Heat Transfer Comparison Of Varied Pebble Sizes And Packing Arrangements In A Pebble-Bed Reactor, Julian Spangler

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Pebble bed reactors are more cost efficient when heat transfer is optimized. In a pebble-bed reactor, optimizing heat transfer involves the analysis of complex flow. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate fluid movement in a structured cubic packing arrangement with a purpose in finding an optimal size of pebbles that will yield the fastest rate of heat transfer. The simple cubic pebble arrangement was used to determine if pebble size was key to optimizing heat transfer in the reactor. More complex arrangements of pebbles were used as comparison to the simple cubic packing in order to determine if ...


Spin Alignment Generated In Inelastic Nuclear Reactions, Daniel Hoff Aug 2018

Spin Alignment Generated In Inelastic Nuclear Reactions, Daniel Hoff

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The spin alignment of inelastically excited 7Li projectiles, when the target remains in its ground state, was determined through angular-correlation measurements between the breakup fragments of 7Li_ (_ + t). It was found that 7Li_ is largely aligned along the beam axis (longitudinal) in this type of inelastic reaction, regardless of the target. This longitudinal alignment is well described by DWBA calculations, which can be explained by an angular-momentum-excitation-energy mismatch condition. These calculations also explain the longitudinal spin alignment of excited nuclei in several other systems, showing the phenomenon is more general. The experiment involving 7Li was performed at the Texas ...


Incorporating Collisions And Resistance Into The Transition From Field Emission To The Space Charge Regime, Samuel D. Dynako, Adam M. Darr, Allen L. Garner Aug 2018

Incorporating Collisions And Resistance Into The Transition From Field Emission To The Space Charge Regime, Samuel D. Dynako, Adam M. Darr, Allen L. Garner

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Advancements in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microplasmas, particularly with respect to applications in combustion and biotechnology, motivate studies into microscale gas breakdown to enable safe system design and implementation. Breakdown at microscale deviates from that predicted by Paschen’s law due to field emission—the stripping of electrons from the cathode in the presence of strong surface field—and follows the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) law. As injected current increases at this length scale, electrons accumulate in the gap and FN electron emission becomes space charge limited, leading to the Child-Langmuir (CL) law at vacuum and the Mott-Gurney (MG) law at high ...


Pnnl Dark Matter Bubble Chamber, Ryan Robinson Aug 2018

Pnnl Dark Matter Bubble Chamber, Ryan Robinson

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) prototype bubble chamber is intended to address issues encountered with the current PICO dark matter search detectors and improve the functionality of future experimental designs. The PNNL bubble chamber accomplishes this with a simplified interface between the hydraulic pressure controls and the target vessel and altering the standard chamber design such that it can be easily exchanged and replaced with vessels of various sizes and materials for testing purposes. The chamber itself is a glass vessel which houses perfluorobutane and holds the target fluid above room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The target fluid becomes ...


Recommended Corrective Security Measures To Address The Weaknesses Identified Within The Shapash Nuclear Research Institute, Khadija Moussaid, Oum Keltoum Hakam Jun 2018

Recommended Corrective Security Measures To Address The Weaknesses Identified Within The Shapash Nuclear Research Institute, Khadija Moussaid, Oum Keltoum Hakam

International Journal of Nuclear Security

The Shapash Nuclear Research Institute (SNRI) data book was issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2013. The hypothetical facility data book describes the hypothetical site, which is divided into two areas: the low-security area, known as the administrative area, and the very high-security area, known as the protected area. The book contains detailed descriptions of each area’s safety and security measures, along with figures of multiple buildings in both areas, and also includes information about the site’s computer networks.

This paper aims to identify security weaknesses related to the institute’s location, the Administrative Area ...


The Continuing Quest For Missile Defense: When Lofty Goals Confront Reality, Peter J. Pella Jun 2018

The Continuing Quest For Missile Defense: When Lofty Goals Confront Reality, Peter J. Pella

Gettysburg College Faculty Books

For almost three quarters of a century, the United States has spent billions of dollars and countless person-hours in the pursuit of a national missile defense system that would protect the country from intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) carrying nuclear warheads. The system currently in place consists of 44 long-range antiballistic missiles stationed in Alaska and California to protect the United States from a possible nuclear weapon carrying ICBM attack from North Korea. After all this effort, this system is still imperfect, being successful only 10 out of 18 tests.

This book will provide an historical description of past efforts in ...


Developing Kenya’S Educational Capacity In Nuclear Security Through Nuclear Forensics Research, Hudson Kalambuka Angeyo Apr 2018

Developing Kenya’S Educational Capacity In Nuclear Security Through Nuclear Forensics Research, Hudson Kalambuka Angeyo

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Nuclear energy’s distinctive characteristics give rise to special educational requirements. These requirements are necessary to not only address the danger of nuclear proliferation, but also to build capacity for a secure nuclear fuel circle. In this paper, I assess the status of educational capacity in nuclear security both in response to, and in support of, Kenya’s nuclear power program. I highlight the nuclear security educational infrastructure’s key features in the context of nuclear power, noting the low capacity at Kenyan universities. I identify the steps required to ensure that the country’s dynamic nuclear regulatory infrastructural framework ...


An Exploration Of The Optical Detection Of Ionizing Radiation Utilizing Modern Optics Technology, Sean D. Fournier, Adam Hecht, Cassiano De Oliveira, Jeffrey B. Martin, Richard K. Harrison, Charles Potter Apr 2018

An Exploration Of The Optical Detection Of Ionizing Radiation Utilizing Modern Optics Technology, Sean D. Fournier, Adam Hecht, Cassiano De Oliveira, Jeffrey B. Martin, Richard K. Harrison, Charles Potter

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Modern ultraviolet (UV) cameras, when combined with UV-transmitting lenses/filter arrangements, can be used to detect radiation dose in air. Ionizing radiation excites nitrogen molecules in ambient air, the resulting decay includes weak emission of ultraviolet photons. Previous work has proven this phenomenon is detectable using highly-sensitive electronically cooled cameras traditionally used in astronomy for low-background imaging. While the ability to detect the presence of radiation (i.e. qualitative measurement) has been demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories, there are several challenges in correlating images to known dose-fields (quantitative measurement). These challenges include: a low signal to background ratio, interferences due ...


The "Double Standard" Of Nonproliferation: Regime Type And The U.S. Response To Nuclear Weapons Program, Alina Shymanska Mar 2018

The "Double Standard" Of Nonproliferation: Regime Type And The U.S. Response To Nuclear Weapons Program, Alina Shymanska

International Journal of Nuclear Security

There is no doubt that the NPT regime is far from being equal for all states involved. As the predominant hegemonic power since WWII, the United States plays a major role in deciding the fates of non-great power proliferators. This article tries to find the logical explanation of the phenomenon whereby some nuclear proliferators are absolved regardless of their active accumulation of nuclear arsenals while others are labeled as “rogue states” and ordered to disarm. The article suggests that a particular proliferator’s political regime could affect the way in which its state is approached by the U.S., known ...


Neutronics Studies On The Nist Reactor Using The Ga Leu Fuel, Kyle A. Britton Jan 2018

Neutronics Studies On The Nist Reactor Using The Ga Leu Fuel, Kyle A. Britton

Theses and Dissertations

The National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR) located on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Gaithersburg campus, is currently underway of fuel conversion from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. One particular challenging part of the conversion of the NBSR is the high average flux level (2.5×1014 n/cm2-s) required to maintain experimental testing capabilities of the reactor, without significant changes to the external structures of the reactor. Recently the General Atomics (GA) Training Research Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) fuel has shown some promising features as a LEU ...


Experimental Evaluation Of Uranyl Transport Into Mesoporous Silica Gel Using Fluorescence, Brandon M. Dodd Jan 2018

Experimental Evaluation Of Uranyl Transport Into Mesoporous Silica Gel Using Fluorescence, Brandon M. Dodd

Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated parameters that can affect the use of nanoporous silica gel as a media for accumulating a detectable amount of uranium. The unique fluorescence of the Uranyl (UO22+) ion was used to evaluate the transport kinetics and accumulation within silica gel in a static fluid and under pressure driven flow. The addition of fluid flow decreased the time constant from on the order of an hour to approximately 2s with a very low fluid velocity of 0.36cm/s. The 0.36cm/s fluid velocity was found to be the critical velocity above which there was ...


Customized Multi-Group Cross Section Generation With Njoy For Discrete Ordinates Computed Tomography And Radiography Simulation, Steven Michael Wagstaff Jan 2018

Customized Multi-Group Cross Section Generation With Njoy For Discrete Ordinates Computed Tomography And Radiography Simulation, Steven Michael Wagstaff

Masters Theses

"The purpose of this work was to explore the creation of photoatomic multi-group cross section libraries to be used with a software package DOCTORS (Discrete Ordinates Computed TOmography and Radiography Simulator). This software solves the linear Boltzmann equation using the discrete ordinates method [1]. To create these libraries, NJOY2016 was used, creating both fine and broad energy multi-group cross section files. The cross section's accuracy was tested against an equivalent Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP6.

Two simulation geometries were used. The first, a cylindrical water phantom with a single source projection placed in front, simulating an X-ray radiography. The ...


Modulated Photothermal Radiometry: Detector Sensitivity Study And Experimental Setup, Jessica Nicole Seals Jan 2018

Modulated Photothermal Radiometry: Detector Sensitivity Study And Experimental Setup, Jessica Nicole Seals

Masters Theses

"This thesis outlines the development of a system used for determining the surface thermal diffusivity of both non-irradiated and irradiated materials. The motivation for this work is to establish a modulated photothermal radiometry (PTR) system on the campus of Missouri University of Science and Technology. One of the main efforts described in this thesis is the design and construction of the physical apparatus. Along the way, it was necessary to perform a detailed sensitivity analysis of the system to determine whether the expected signal emitted from the sample falls within the bounds of detectivity for the HgCdTe (MCT) detector used ...


Correlation Between Delay Time And Measured Concentration And Concentration Uncertainty By Neutron Activation Analysis, James Thomas Seman Jan 2018

Correlation Between Delay Time And Measured Concentration And Concentration Uncertainty By Neutron Activation Analysis, James Thomas Seman

Doctoral Dissertations

"For the last several decades, it has been apparent that new methods of identifying explosives can help investigators trace their origins. One way to identify an explosive is through the use of taggants: materials added to a product that encodes information about the product such as when it was manufactured.

This research investigates the survivability of a new identification taggant called the Nuclear Barcode that overcomes some of the downfalls that have been identified in prior taggants. The Nuclear Barcode encodes information as a unique combination of concentrations of rare earths (Ho, Eu, Sm, Lu, and Dy) and precious metals ...


Assessing And Enhancing Nuclear Safety And Security Culture For Small Facilities That Handle Radioactive Material, Solymosi Máté Dec 2017

Assessing And Enhancing Nuclear Safety And Security Culture For Small Facilities That Handle Radioactive Material, Solymosi Máté

International Journal of Nuclear Security

The use of radioactive sources is expanding all over the world and abreast the necessity of the enhancement of its safe and secure application is increasing too. In the nuclear industry, the safety and security are top priorities since decades. They share the same goal, to protect humans from the negative affect of the ionizing radiation. The human component of them is a significant factor and technical solutions can protect us so far and thus the culture for safety and security become a major focus. On the other hand, there are still some contradiction between recommendations and international guidance of ...


The Future Of Nuclear Security In Moroccan Territory After The Creation Of The New Moroccan Agency Of Nuclear And Radiological Safety And Security: Opportunities And Challenges, Amal Touarsi, Amina Kharchaf Dec 2017

The Future Of Nuclear Security In Moroccan Territory After The Creation Of The New Moroccan Agency Of Nuclear And Radiological Safety And Security: Opportunities And Challenges, Amal Touarsi, Amina Kharchaf

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Nowadays, a security regime for protecting nuclear and radiological material—providing an intelligent national regulatory institution and establishing national security laws—is necessary in order for a state to ensure security of nuclear and radiological materials used within its borders.

This paper focuses on discussing the opportunities and challenges facing the future of nuclear security after the creation of the new Moroccan Agency of Nuclear and Radiological Safety and Security.


The Future Of Nuclear Security: A Medical Physicist’S Perspective, Katharine E. Thomson Dec 2017

The Future Of Nuclear Security: A Medical Physicist’S Perspective, Katharine E. Thomson

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Planning for the future of nuclear security is a vital and complex task, requiring cooperation and contribution from many disciplines and industries. This diversity of expertise should include the medical sector, which faces many of the same challenges as the nuclear industry: controlling access to dangerous material, creating a strong security culture, cooperating with the wider world and engaging the public.

Medical physicists, of which the author is one, oversee all aspects of small-scale radiation use. This paper discusses three key areas increasingly important to both medical and nuclear uses of radioactive materials: public engagement, prevention of nuclear and radiological ...


Solar System Battery Backups For Reactor Coolant Pumps During Electricity Outages Resulting From Natural Disasters, Md. Shamsul Huda Sohel Nov 2017

Solar System Battery Backups For Reactor Coolant Pumps During Electricity Outages Resulting From Natural Disasters, Md. Shamsul Huda Sohel

International Journal of Nuclear Security

In a nuclear power plant, its coolant system is major safety equipment. Coolant system failure causes several accidents in nuclear history. There are so many causes for coolant system failure. One of them is lack of electric power for coolant pumps. In typically NPP there is backup system for power redundancy. In this article, focus on reactor coolant system and its backup power when main grid lines failure. Here discuss about solar backup power for batteries and increases a safety lines for reactor coolant pumps. So, our main goal is providing a battery backup from reliable natural source and ensuring ...


Gamma-Radiation Induced Corrosion Of Alloy 800, Mojtaba Momeni Nov 2017

Gamma-Radiation Induced Corrosion Of Alloy 800, Mojtaba Momeni

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis presents a newly developed mechanism and predictive model for the corrosion of Alloy 800. The Fe-Cr-Ni Alloy (Incoloy 800) is mainly used for steam generator (SG) tubing in CANDU and PWR reactors and is a candidate material for the proposed Canadian Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) in which it will be exposed to extreme conditions of high radiation flux and large temperature gradients. The influence of gamma radiation and water chemistry conditions on the corrosion behaviour of Alloy 800 are studied in this work. Ionizing radiation creates reducing (•eaq, •H, •O2-) and oxidizing radiolysis (•OH, H2 ...


Electrical Characterization Of Irradiated Semiconducting Amorphous Hydrogenated Boron Carbide, George Glen Peterson Aug 2017

Electrical Characterization Of Irradiated Semiconducting Amorphous Hydrogenated Boron Carbide, George Glen Peterson

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Semiconducting amorphous partially dehydrogenated boron carbide has been explored as a neutron voltaic for operation in radiation harsh environments, such as on deep space satellites/probes. A neutron voltaic device could also be used as a solid state neutron radiation detector to provide immediate alerts for radiation workers/students, as opposed to the passive dosimetry badges utilized today. Understanding how the irradiation environment effects the electrical properties of semiconducting amorphous partially dehydrogenated boron carbide is important to predicting the stability of these devices in operation. p-n heterojunction diodes were formed from the synthesis of semiconducting amorphous partially dehydrogenated boron carbide ...


Evaluation And Enhancement Of Clean Energy Systems: Analytical, Computational And Experimental Study Of Solar And Nuclear Cycles, Nima Fathi Jul 2017

Evaluation And Enhancement Of Clean Energy Systems: Analytical, Computational And Experimental Study Of Solar And Nuclear Cycles, Nima Fathi

Mechanical Engineering ETDs

Clean (and specifically renewable) energy is steadily improving its global share. However, finite availability of fossil fuels and the growing effects of climate change make it an urgent priority to convince the industry and governments to incentivize investment in the renewable energy field and to make it more attractive by decreasing the capital cost. Until recently, uncertainties in funding limited renewable energy development, especially in the US. That limitation has been one of the barriers to progress. Another limitation of many renewable energy systems is the variability in their output, which makes them unsuitable for baseline power production. Therefore, fossil ...


Nuclear Weapons In A Changing Climate: Probability, Increasing Risks, And Perception, Adam Liska, Tyler R. White, Eric Holley, Robert J. Oglesby Jul 2017

Nuclear Weapons In A Changing Climate: Probability, Increasing Risks, And Perception, Adam Liska, Tyler R. White, Eric Holley, Robert J. Oglesby

Adam Liska Papers

Many people tend to think that the outcome of any nuclear weapons use today will result in an escalatory situation with apocalyptic outcomes for the countries involved. Yet many factors are increasing the probability of the limited use of nuclear weapons (e.g., 1 to 20 warheads) in a range of conflict scenarios. Previous atmospheric model simulations of regional nuclear conflicts employing many relatively small bombs have been estimated to cause a global “nuclear autumn,” with great reductions in agricultural productivity, stratospheric ozone loss, and spread of hazardous radioactive fallout. The totality of these effects would result in widespread ...


High Precision Refractive Index Measurement Techniques Applied To The Analysis Of Neutron Damage And Effects In Caf2 Crystals, Joseph P. Morris Ph.D. Jul 2017

High Precision Refractive Index Measurement Techniques Applied To The Analysis Of Neutron Damage And Effects In Caf2 Crystals, Joseph P. Morris Ph.D.

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Neutron irradiation damages material by atomic displacements. The majority of these damage regions are microscopic and difficult to study, though they can cause a change in density and thus a change in refractive index in transparent materials. This work utilized CaF2 crystals to track refractive index change based on neutron radiation dose. High precision refractive index measurements were performed utilizing a nested-cavity mode-locked laser where the CaF2 crystal acted as a Fabry-Pérot Etalon (FPE). By comparing the repetition rate of the cavity and the repetition rate of the FPE, refractive index change was determined. Following several irradiation experiments ...


Improving Predictive Capabilities Of Classical Cascade Theory For Nonproliferation Analysis, David Allen Vermillion May 2017

Improving Predictive Capabilities Of Classical Cascade Theory For Nonproliferation Analysis, David Allen Vermillion

Doctoral Dissertations

Uranium enrichment finds a direct and indispensable function in both peaceful and nonpeaceful nuclear applications. Today, over 99% of enriched uranium is produced by gas centrifuge technology. With the international dissemination of the Zippe archetypal design in 1960 followed by the widespread illicit centrifuge trafficking efforts of the A.Q. Khan network, traditional barriers to enrichment technologies are no longer as effective as they once were. Consequently, gas centrifuge technology is now regarded as a high-priority nuclear proliferation threat, and the international nonproliferation community seeks new avenues to effectively and efficiently respond to this emergent threat.

Effective response first requires ...