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Steel — Corrosion

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Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry Morphology, And Surface Preparation, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson Jan 2008

Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry Morphology, And Surface Preparation, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced nuclear processes and facilities (e.g., transmutation of nuclear waste, fast reactors, and spallation neutron sources) impose special demands on materials, which must withstand high temperatures, high radiation fields, and chemical corrosion. Proposed schemes for transmuting nuclear waste require a nonmoderating coolant such as lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) or liquid sodium. While LBE corrodes most steels, small amounts of oxygen in the LBE greatly reduces the corrosion rate, and could ideally re-grow a damaged oxide layer in situ. The protective oxide layer would thus be self-healing. However, a fundamental understanding of the role of oxygen and passivating oxide layers is ...


Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead Alloy Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Taide Tan, Jinsuo Zhang, Jichun Li Jan 2008

Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead Alloy Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Taide Tan, Jinsuo Zhang, Jichun Li

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

In advanced nuclear energy systems, lead alloys emerge as strong candidates for transmutation and advanced reactor systems as nuclear coolants and spallation neutron targets. However, it is widely recognized that corrosion of materials caused by lead alloys presents a critical barrier to their industrial use. A few experimental research and development projects have been set up by different groups such as at Los Alamos National Laboratory to study the corrosion phenomena in their test facilities and to develop mitigation techniques and materials. One of the central or main techniques under development is to use active control of oxygen thermodynamic activity ...


Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das Jan 2008

Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced transmutation systems require structural materials that are able to withstand high neutron fluxes, high thermal cycling, and high resistance to chemical corrosion. The current candidate materials for such structures are ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels due to their strong resistance to swelling, good microstructural stability under irradiation, and the retention of adequate ductility at typical reactor operating temperatures.

In parallel, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) has emerged as a potential spallation target material for efficient production of neutrons, as well as a coolant in the accelerator system. While LBE has excellent properties as a nuclear coolant, it is also highly corrosive to ...


Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry Morphology, And Surface Preparation, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry Jan 2007

Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry Morphology, And Surface Preparation, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced nuclear processes and facilities (e.g., transmutation of nuclear waste, fast reactors, and spallation neutron sources) impose special demands on materials, which must withstand high temperatures, high radiation fields, and chemical corrosion. Proposed schemes for transmuting nuclear waste require a nonmoderating coolant such as lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). While LBE corrodes most steels, small amounts of oxygen in the LBE greatly reduces the corrosion rate, and could ideally re-grow a damaged oxide layer in-situ. The protective oxide layer would thus be self-healing. However, the fundamental understanding of the role of oxygen and passivating oxide layers is presently incomplete.

During the ...


Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead Alloy Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Jinsuo Zhang, Jichun Li Jan 2007

Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead Alloy Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Jinsuo Zhang, Jichun Li

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal of the proposed research project is to provide basic understanding of the protective oxide layer behaviors and to develop oxide layer growth models of steels in non-isothermal lead-alloys (lead or lead-bismuth eutectic) coolant systems. Precise studies and simulations of all hydrodynamics with thermal conditions encountered in practical coolant loop systems by use of different flowing conditions in the laboratory are difficult and expensive, if not impossible. Therefore it is important and necessary to develop theoretical models to predict the protective oxide layer behaviors at the design stage of a practical lead-alloy coolant system, to properly interpret and apply ...


Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das Jan 2007

Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced transmutation systems require structural materials that are able to withstand high neutron fluxes, high thermal cycling, and high resistance to chemical corrosion. The current candidate materials for such structures are ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels due to their strong resistance to swelling, good microstructural stability under irradiation, and the retention of adequate ductility at typical reactor operating temperatures.

In parallel, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) has emerged as a potential spallation target material for efficient production of neutrons, as well as a coolant in the accelerator system. While LBE has excellent properties as a nuclear coolant, it is also highly corrosive to ...


Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead-Alloys Coolant Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (01/01/06- 03/31/06), Yitung Chen Mar 2006

Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead-Alloys Coolant Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (01/01/06- 03/31/06), Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Research highlights:

• A cellular automaton model using method of global restructuring on the growth and corrosion during the formation of the passive layer has been developed.

• A stochastic model, which combines the surface growth and internal oxidation, has been developed to explain the oxidation mechanism of steels in liquid lead alloys.

• Two conference papers have been accepted and will be presented in 2006 International Congress on the Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP '06).


Corrosion Mechanisms And Kinetics Of Steels In Lead-Bismuth Eutectic: Quaterly Report, Allen L. Johnson, John Farley Jan 2006

Corrosion Mechanisms And Kinetics Of Steels In Lead-Bismuth Eutectic: Quaterly Report, Allen L. Johnson, John Farley

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

A large number of studies of corroded samples were conducted using SEM, XPS, probe, and the TEM. Samples from the DELTA loop at LANL and from other sources were examined. Also, the investigation of 316 class stainless steel in LBE is continuing.

Corroded samples of D-9 steel have been in the process of being studies, which is a variant of 316 stainless steel that is optimized for resistance to swelling. The D-9 samples are notable for the process in which a localized failure of the protective oxide layer becomes widespread corrosion. The research group is examining the D-9 samples using ...


Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das Jan 2006

Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced transmutation systems require structural materials that are able to withstand high neutron fluxes, high thermal cycling, and high resistance to chemical corrosion. The current candidate materials for such structures are ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels due to their strong resistance to swelling, good microstructural stability under irradiation, and the retention of adequate ductility at typical reactor operating temperatures.

In parallel, lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) has emerged as a potential spallation target material for efficient production of neutrons, as well as a coolant in the accelerator system. While LBE has excellent properties as a nuclear coolant, it is also highly corrosive ...


Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance: Quarterly Report (April 2006), Biswajit Das Jan 2006

Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance: Quarterly Report (April 2006), Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

As reported in the last quarterly report, synthesis of Cr nanowires was found to be problematic in terms of uniform coverage. Hence Ni was identified as the alternative metal to form the nanowires. The purpose of the metal nanowires is to provide structural integrity to the nanoporous alumina, as well as a second defense mechanism against corrosion by oxidizing in case the top alumina layer is compromised. Nickel was selected due to its established electrochemical synthesis procedure. While Ni can provide very good structural integrity to the porous alumina, one potential problem is its higher dissolution rate in LBE. However ...


Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry Morphology, And Surface Preparation, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry Jan 2006

Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry Morphology, And Surface Preparation, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced nuclear processes such as the transmutation of nuclear waste, fast reactors, liquid-metal-cooled reactors, and spallation neutron sources require advanced materials systems to contain them. The required structural materials must be stable in the presence of nonmoderating coolants. A prime candidate for such a coolant is Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE). Materials in these systems must be able to tolerate high neutron fluxes, high temperatures, and chemical corrosion. Unfortunately, LBE corrodes stainless steel.

The corrosive behaviors of structural materials in LBE are not well understood. The Russians have over 80 reactor-years experience with LBE coolant in their Alpha-class submarine reactors. The ...


Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead Alloy Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Jinsuo Zhang, Huajun Chen, Jichun Li Jan 2006

Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead Alloy Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Jinsuo Zhang, Huajun Chen, Jichun Li

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal of this research project is to provide a basic understanding of the protective oxide layer behaviors and to develop oxide layer growth models of steels in non-isothermal lead alloys (lead or lead-bismuth eutectic) coolant systems. Precise studies and simulations of all hydrodynamics with thermal conditions encountered in practical coolant loop systems by use of different flowing conditions in the laboratory are difficult and expensive, if not impossible. Therefore it is important and necessary to develop theoretical models to predict the protective oxide layer behaviors at the design stage of a practical lead-alloy coolant system, to properly interpret and ...


Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry, Morphology, And Surface Preparation: Quarterly Report (January 2005-April 2005), Allen L. Johnson, John Farley, Dale L. Perry Apr 2005

Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry, Morphology, And Surface Preparation: Quarterly Report (January 2005-April 2005), Allen L. Johnson, John Farley, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

This project has four components:

  • The fabrication of a materials test apparatus with unique capabilities,
  • Comparative studies of steel corrosion under gas phase conditions comparable to the Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) oxygen control conditions,
  • Isotope labeling studies, and
  • Collaborative efforts with other workers in the field.

Summary of accomplishments:

  • Started occupation of the High Temperature Materials Experimental Facility.
  • Presented a paper at the meeting of the American Chemical Society in San Diego in March 13-17.
  • Currently reviving the ion beam for implantation experiments.
  • Currently analyzing 38 steel samples from the DELTA loop from LANL.


Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead-Alloys Coolant Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (01/01/05- 03/31/05), Yitung Chen Mar 2005

Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead-Alloys Coolant Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (01/01/05- 03/31/05), Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal of the proposed research project is to provide basic understanding of the protective oxide layer behaviors and to develop oxide layer growth models of steels in non-isothermal lead-alloys (lead or lead-bismuth eutectic) coolant systems. It is widely recognized that the corrosiveness of the lead-alloys is a critical obstacle and challenge for which it can be safely used or applied in the nuclear coolant systems. Active oxygen control technique can promote the formation of the “self-healing” oxide films on the structural material surface, drastically reducing steel corrosion and coolant contamination. Many experiments of steels exposed to flowing lead-alloys have ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Jan 2005

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The corrosion of structural materials is a major concern for the use of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) systems for nuclear applications such as in transmuter targets or fast reactors. Corrosion in liquid metal systems can occur through various processes, including, for example, dissolution, formation of inter-metallic compounds at the interface, and penetration of liquid metal along grain boundaries. Predicting the rate of these processes depends on numerous system operational factors: temperature, system geometry, thermal gradients, solid and liquid compositions, and velocity of the liquid metal, to name a few. Corrosion, along with mechanical and/or hydraulic factors, often contributes to component ...


Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry Jan 2005

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

There is an active international interest in lead-bismuth eutectic and similar liquid lead systems because of the relevance to the transmutation of nuclear waste, fast reactors, and spallation neutron sources.

Materials in these systems must be able to tolerate high neutron fluxes, high temperatures, and chemical corrosion. For lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) systems, there is an additional challenge because the corrosive behaviors of materials in LBE are not well understood. Most of the available information on LBE systems has come from the Russians, who have over 80 reactor-years experience with LBE coolant in their Alpha-class submarine reactors. The Russians found ...


Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance, Biswajit Das Jan 2005

Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

In the last quarter, a specialized sample holder was developed for the anodization of alumina on steel. In addition, it was determined that oxalic acid was the most appropriate acid for the anodization of these structures. The steel samples obtained from LANL were first cut into a number of pieces, each measuring 11mm x 8mm x 1.6mm, to allow multiple experiments. Special care was taken to ensure that the cutting process did not damage the samples. After investigation of several techniques, including laser cutting, the samples were cut using EDM wires. The cut steel pieces did not show any ...


Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance: Quaterly Report, Biswajit Das Jan 2005

Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance: Quaterly Report, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

With the demonstration of formation of nanoporous alumina on steel and its good adhesion to substrate under thermal cycling, the next project task was to synthesize Chromium nanowires inside the alumina pores. During the previous quarter, a specialized sample holder was developed towards this goal. Various techniques for the deposition of Chromium were investigated and electro-deposition was determined to be the most suitable approach due to the large aspect ratio of the pores. A challenge in using electro-deposition for porous alumina is the potential sealing of the pores in aqueous solutions at higher temperatures. To avoid this problem, a search ...


Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das Jan 2005

Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced transmutation systems require structural materials that are able to withstand high neutron fluxes, high thermal cycling, and high resistance to chemical corrosion. The current candidate materials for such structures are ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels due to their strong resistance to swelling, good microstructural stability under irradiation, and the retention of adequate ductility at typical reactor operating temperatures.

In parallel, lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) has emerged as a potential spallation target material for efficient production of neutrons, as well as a coolant in the accelerator system. While LBE has excellent properties as a nuclear coolant, it is also highly corrosive ...


Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry Morphology, And Surface Preparation, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry Jan 2005

Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry Morphology, And Surface Preparation, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced nuclear processes such the transmutation of nuclear waste, fast reactors, and spallation neutron sources require advanced materials systems to contain them. In particular, a successful program in nuclear waste processing that includes transmutation in accelerator-driven systems and fast reactors requires structural materials that are stable in the presence of non-moderating coolants. A prime candidate for such a coolant is Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE).

Materials in these systems must be able to tolerate high neutron fluxes, high temperatures, and chemical corrosion. For LBE systems, there is an additional challenge because the corrosive behaviors of materials in lead bismuth are not ...


Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead Alloy Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Jinsuo Zhang, Huajun Chen, Jichun Li Jan 2005

Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead Alloy Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Jinsuo Zhang, Huajun Chen, Jichun Li

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

In advanced nuclear energy systems, lead-alloys (e.g., lead, lead bismuth eutectic) emerge as strong candidates for transmutation and advanced reactor systems as nuclear coolants and high-power spallation neutron targets. However, it is widely recognized that corrosion of materials caused by lead-alloys presents a critical barrier to their industrial use. A few experimental research and development projects have been set up by different groups such as LANL to study the corrosion phenomena in their test facilities and to develop mitigation techniques and materials.

The goal of the proposed research project is to provide basic understanding of the protective oxide layer ...


Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead-Alloys Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen Dec 2004

Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead-Alloys Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal of the proposed research project is to provide basic understanding of the protective oxide layer behaviors and to develop oxide layer growth models of steels in non-isothermal lead-alloys (lead or lead-bismuth eutectic) coolant systems. It is widely recognized that the corrosiveness of the lead-alloys is a critical obstacle and challenge for which it can be safely used or applied in the nuclear coolant systems. Active oxygen control technique can promote the formation of the “self-healing” oxide films on the structural material surface, drastically reducing steel corrosion and coolant contamination. Many experiments of steels exposed to flowing lead-alloys have ...


Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry, Morphology, And Surface Preparation: Quarterly Report (October-December 2004), Allen L. Johnson, John Farley, Dale L. Perry Dec 2004

Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry, Morphology, And Surface Preparation: Quarterly Report (October-December 2004), Allen L. Johnson, John Farley, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

This project has four components:

(1) the fabrication of a materials test apparatus with unique capabilities,

(2) comparative studies of steel corrosion under gas phase conditions comparable to the Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) oxygen control conditions,

(3) isotope labeling studies, and

(4) collaborative efforts with other workers in the field.


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Trp Final Report 09/01/2003-08/31/2004, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Aug 2004

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Trp Final Report 09/01/2003-08/31/2004, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has been determined from previous experimental studies by the Russians and the European scientific community to be a potential material that can be used as a spallation target and coolant for the TRP proposed application. Properly controlling the oxygen content in LBE can drastically reduce the LBE corrosion to structural steels. However, existing knowledge of material corrosion performance was obtained from point-wise testing with only very sparse experimental data. Scientists have noticed that the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the liquid alloy could control the corrosion rate of steels exposed to Pb or Pb-Bi. At high ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Fourth Quarterly Report 06/01/2004-08/31/2004, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Aug 2004

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Fourth Quarterly Report 06/01/2004-08/31/2004, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has been determined from previous experimental studies by the Russians and the European scientific community to be a potential material that can be used as a spallation target and coolant for the TRP proposed application. Properly controlling the oxygen content in LBE can drastically reduce the LBE corrosion to structural steels. However, existing knowledge of material corrosion performance was obtained from point-wise testing with only very sparse experimental data. Scientists have noticed that the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the liquid alloy could control the corrosion rate of steels exposed to Pb or Pb-Bi. At high ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Third Quarterly Report 03/01/2004-05/31/2004, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen May 2004

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Third Quarterly Report 03/01/2004-05/31/2004, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has been determined from previous experimental studies by the Russians and the European scientific community to be a potential material that can be used as a spallation target and coolant for the TRP proposed application. Properly controlling the oxygen content in LBE can drastically reduce the LBE corrosion to structural steels. However, existing knowledge of material corrosion performance was obtained from point-wise testing with only very sparse experimental data. Scientists have noticed that the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the liquid alloy could control the corrosion rate of steels exposed to Pb or Pb-Bi. At high ...


Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das May 2004

Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The objective of this project is to develop a novel nanostructure based coating technology that will provide significantly improved corrosion resistance for steel in LBE at elevated temperatures (500 - 600oC), as well as provide long-term reliability under thermal cycling. The nanostructure based coatings will consist of a layer of nanoporous alumina with the pores filled with an oxidizing metal such as Cr, followed by a capping layer of alumina. Alumina, which is a robust anti-corrosion material, provides corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. The Cr serves two purposes: (1) it acts as a solid filler material for the pores ...


Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead-Alloys Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Jinsuo Zhang, Jichun Li Apr 2004

Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead-Alloys Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Jinsuo Zhang, Jichun Li

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal of the proposed research project is to provide basic understanding of the protective oxide layer behaviors and to develop oxide layer growth models of steels in non-isothermal leadalloys (lead or lead-bismuth eutectic) coolant systems. It is widely recognized that the corrosiveness of the lead-alloys is a critical obstacle and challenge for which it can be safely used or applied in the nuclear coolant systems. Active oxygen control technique can promote the formation of the “self-healing” oxide films on the structural material surface, drastically reducing steel corrosion and coolant contamination. Many experiments of steels exposed to flowing leadalloys have ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: First Quarterly Report 01/12/04-02/29/04, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Feb 2004

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: First Quarterly Report 01/12/04-02/29/04, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has been determined from previous experimental studies by the Russians and the European scientific community to be a potential material that can be used as a spallation target and coolant for the TRP proposed application. Properly controlling the oxygen content in LBE can drastically reduce the LBE corrosion to structural steels. However, existing knowledge of material corrosion performance was obtained from point-wise testing with only very sparse experimental data. Scientists have noticed that the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the liquid alloy could control the corrosion rate of steels exposed to Pb or Pb-Bi. At high ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Jan 2004

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The corrosion of structural materials is a major concern for the use of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) systems for nuclear applications such as in transmuter targets or fast reactors. Corrosion in liquid metal systems can occur through various processes, including, for example, dissolution, formation of inter-metallic compounds at the interface, and penetration of liquid metal along grain boundaries. Predicting the rate of these processes depends on numerous system operational factors: temperature, system geometry, thermal gradients, solid and liquid compositions, and velocity of the liquid metal, to name a few. Corrosion, along with mechanical and/or hydraulic factors, often contributes to component ...