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Environmental Sciences

Martensitic stainless steel

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Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy Jan 2008

Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The beneficial effects of Si on both the metallurgical and corrosion properties of Cr-Mo steels have previously been demonstrated at UNLV. Therefore, additions of Si ranging from 0.5-2.0 weight percent (wt%) was attempted in this investigation to explore Si effect on both the high temperature tensile properties and corrosion behavior of T91 grade steel. Corrosion studies in the presence of molten LBE could not be performed due to a lack of proper experimental facilities at UNLV. Therefore, detailed corrosion studies involving Si-containing T91 grade steels were performed in an aggressive aqueous solution of acidic pH. Further, significant efforts ...


Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements, Ajit K. Roy Jan 2007

Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

During the past academic year, this project was focused on the characterization of residual stress in welded specimens consisting of austenitic and martensitic stainless steels using an activation technique based on the Positron Annihilation Spectroscopic (PAS) method. The extent of residual stress was expressed in terms of three line-shape parameters (S-, W- and T-). Further, efforts were made to characterize linear lattice defects such as dislocations in the vicinity of Fusion-Line (FL), Heat-Affected- Zone (HAZ), and the base material of the welded specimens using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The metallurgical microstructures at these three regions have also been evaluated by ...


Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation- Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy Jan 2007

Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation- Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

This task is focused on the evaluation of the effects of silicon content on both the corrosion behavior and radiation-induced embrittlement of martensitic stainless steels having compositions similar to that of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, also known as T91 grade steel. T91 grade steel was selected to be a candidate structural material to contain molten lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), which can act both as a target material and a coolant during the spallation process. The operating temperature during this process may range from 420-550 °C. Thus, moderate tensile strength of the containment material (T91) is a major requirement.

The beneficial effects of ...


Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (November 2005 – January 2006), Ajit K. Roy Apr 2006

Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (November 2005 – January 2006), Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

This task is intended to study the effect of Si content not only on the corrosion resistance but also on the radiation-induced embrittlement of martensitic stainless steels. The susceptibility of these alloys with different Si content to stress corrosion cracking, general corrosion and localized corrosion will be evaluated in the molten LBE and aqueous environments of different pH values using state-of-the-art testing techniques. Testing in the aqueous media is intended to develop baseline data for comparison purpose. Radiation-induced embrittlement of these alloys will initially be studied by irradiating the test specimens with bremmstrahlung gamma radiation from 20-40 MeV electron beams ...


Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation- Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy Jan 2006

Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation- Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

This task is primarily focused on the evaluation of the effect of Si content on the susceptibility of modified 9Cr-1Mo-0.24V steel to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and localized cracking in both molten lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and an aqueous solution of acidic pH.

Further, significant efforts are in progress to characterize the deformation mechanism of modified T91 grade steel as a function of temperature and strain rate. Simultaneously, surface analyses of the tested materials are ongoing using state-of-the-art techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).


Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Quarterly Progress Report (March – May 2005), Ajit K. Roy Jul 2005

Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Quarterly Progress Report (March – May 2005), Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Accomplishments:

● Analyses of defects (dislocations) in martensitic Alloy EP-823, cold-reduced to different levels, have been performed by using transmission electron microscopy. The dislocation density has been related to the degree of cold-reduction and residual stress in terms of a line-shape parameter determined by the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS).

● Additional PAS measurements are ongoing on tensile, welded and cold-worked specimens of Alloys EP-823 and HT-9 at the Idaho Accelerator Center of ISU. Both Subhra and Silpa are involved in these measurements.

● Silpa is performing neutron diffraction (ND) measurements at the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River Laboratory using Cold-worked ...


Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (February – April 2005), Ajit K. Roy Jul 2005

Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (February – April 2005), Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

This proposal is intended to study the effect of Si content not only on the corrosion resistance but also on the radiation-induced embrittlement of martensitic stainless steels. The susceptibility of these alloys with different Si content to stress corrosion cracking, general corrosion and localized corrosion will be evaluated in the molten LBE and aqueous environments of different pH values using state-of-the-art testing techniques. Testing in the aqueous media is intended to develop baseline data for comparison purpose. Radiation-induced embrittlement of these alloys will initially be studied by irradiating the test specimens with bremmstrahlung gamma radiation from 20-40 MeV electron beams ...


Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Quarterly Progress Report (December 01, 2004 – February 28, 2005), Ajit K. Roy Apr 2005

Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Quarterly Progress Report (December 01, 2004 – February 28, 2005), Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The purpose of this collaborative research project involving the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), the Idaho State University (ISU), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to evaluate the feasibility of determining residual stresses in cold-worked, plastically-deformed (bent), and welded materials using a nondestructive method based on positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). This technique uses γ-rays from a small MeV electron Linac to generate positrons inside the sample via pair production. This method is known to have capabilities of characterizing defects in thick specimens that could not be accomplished by conventional positron technique or other nondestructive methods. The data ...


Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (November 2004 – January 2005), Ajit K. Roy Apr 2005

Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (November 2004 – January 2005), Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

This proposal is intended to study the effect of Si content not only on the corrosion resistance but also on the radiation-induced embrittlement of martensitic stainless steels. The susceptibility of these alloys with different Si content to stress corrosion cracking, general corrosion and localized corrosion will be evaluated in the molten LBE and aqueous environments of different pH values using state-of-the-art testing techniques. Testing in the aqueous media is intended to develop baseline data for comparison purpose. Radiation-induced embrittlement of these alloys will initially be studied by irradiating the test specimens with bremmstrahlung gamma radiation from 20-40 MeV electron beams ...


Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (August 2004 – October 2004), Ajit K. Roy Jan 2005

Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems: Quarterly Progress Report (August 2004 – October 2004), Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The purpose of this collaborative research project involving the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Idaho State University (ISU) is to evaluate the effect of silicon (Si) content on the corrosion behavior and radiation-induced embrittlement of martensitic stainless steels having chemical compositions similar to that of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. Recent studies at LANL involving Alloy EP-823 of different Si content have demonstrated that increased Si content in this alloy may enhance the corrosion resistance in molten lead-bismutheutectic (LBE). Since very little data exists in the open literature on the beneficial effect of Si ...


Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Quarterly Progress Report (September 01 – November 30, 2004), Ajit K. Roy Jan 2005

Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Quarterly Progress Report (September 01 – November 30, 2004), Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Accomplishments:

● A technical paper titled “Residual Stress Characterization in Structural Materials by Destructive and Nondestructive Techniques” has been accepted for publication in the Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, ASM International, Ohio.

● The PAS method has been applied to develop calibration curves for line shape parameters (S and T) using unstressed and stressed (different magnitude) tensile specimens of martensitic stainless steels. These curves will enable the determination of residual stresses in plastically-deformed materials once the magnitude of S or T parameter is determined by the PAS technique.

● The tensile and welded specimens have been irradiated by low energy photon beam ...


Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements, Ajit K. Roy Jan 2005

Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Engineering metals and alloys, when subjected to tensile loading beyond a limiting value, undergo plastic deformation resulting in lattice defects such as voids and dislocations. These imperfections interact with the crystal lattice, producing a higher state of internal stress, also known as residual stress, which can be associated with reduced ductility. Residual stresses are also generated in welded structures due to rapid solidification and resultant dissimilar metallurgical microstructures between the weld and the base metals. Development of these internal stresses is often influenced by incompatible permanent strain resulting from thermal and mechanical operations associated with welding and plastic deformation. These ...


Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation- Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy Jan 2005

Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation- Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

This task is focused on the evaluation of the effect of Si content on the corrosion behavior and radiation-induced embrittlement of martensitic steels having chemical compositions similar to that of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. Numerous state-of-the-art experimental techniques are currently being planned to be employed to achieve the desired research goal.


Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Quarterly Progress Report (June 01 – August 31, 2004), Ajit K. Roy Oct 2004

Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Quarterly Progress Report (June 01 – August 31, 2004), Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Highlights of Test Results:

• Residual stress measurements by the RC method on cold-worked specimens showed tensile residual stresses in austenitic stainless steel. However, compressive residual stresses were observed in martensitic stainless steel. This difference may be attributed to the difference in metallurgical phases and microstructures resulting from different thermal treatments imparted to them.

• Residual stress measurements by both ND and RC techniques on welded specimens showed similar patterns. Welded specimens consisting of similar material showed tensile residual stresses in the vicinity of the fusion line (FL). However, welded specimens consisting of dissimilar materials (austenitic and martensitic stainless steel on opposite ...


Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy May 2004

Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The purpose of this collaborative research project involving the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Idaho State University (ISU) is to evaluate the effect of silicon (Si) content on the corrosion behavior and radiation-induced embrittlement of martensitic stainless steels having chemical compositions similar to that of the modified 9Cr-1Mo 2 steel. Recent studies at LANL involving Alloy EP-823 of different Si content have demonstrated that increased Si content in this alloy may enhance the corrosion resistance in molten lead-bismuth-eutectic (LBE). Since very little data exists in the open literature on the beneficial effect of ...


Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements, Ajit K. Roy Apr 2004

Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The purpose of this collaborative research project involving the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) and Idaho State University (ISU) is to evaluate the feasibility of determining residual stresses of welded, bent (three-point-bend), and cold-worked engineering materials using a new nondestructive technique based on positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The proposed technique is to use γ-rays from a small MeV electron linear accelerator (Linac) to generate positrons inside the test sample via 2 pair production. This method can be used for materials characterization and investigation of defects in thick samples that usually cannot be accomplished by conventional positron technique or other ...


Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements, Ajit K. Roy Jan 2004

Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Metals and alloys, when subjected to tensile loading beyond a limiting value, can undergo plastic deformation resulting in lattice defects such as voids and dislocations. These imperfections may interact with the crystal lattice, producing a higher state of internal stresses characterized by reduced ductility. Residual stresses can also be generated in welded structures due to rapid rate of solidification, and dissimilar metallurgical microstructures between the weld and the base metals. Premature failures can be experienced in engineering metals and alloys due to the presence of these residual stresses. Specific thermal treatments commonly known as stress relief operations can relieve these ...


Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Quarterly Progress Report (June 01 – August 31, 2003), Ajit K. Roy Oct 2003

Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Quarterly Progress Report (June 01 – August 31, 2003), Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The purpose of this collaborative research project involving the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), the Idaho State University (ISU), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to evaluate the feasibility of determining residual stresses in cold-worked, plastically-deformed (bent), and welded materials using a nondestructive method based on positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). This technique uses γ-rays from a small MeV electron Linac to generate positrons inside the sample via pair production. This method is known to have capabilities of characterizing defects in thick specimens that could not be accomplished by conventional positron technique or other nondestructive methods. The generated ...


Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Annual Progress Report (May 2002 – May 2003), Ajit K. Roy Jun 2003

Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Annual Progress Report (May 2002 – May 2003), Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The purpose of this collaborative research project involving the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) and Idaho State University (ISU) to evaluate the feasibility of determining residual stresses of welded, bent (three-point-bend), and cold-worked engineering materials using a new non-destructive technique based on positron annihilation spectroscopy. The proposed technique is the use γ-rays from a small MeV electron Linear accelerator (LINAC) to generate positrons inside the sample via pair production. This method can be used for materials characterization and investigation of defects in thick samples, which could not be accomplished by conventional positron technique or other non-destructive methods. The data ...


Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements, Ajit K. Roy Jan 2003

Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

One of the greatest challenges in evaluating the performance of materials in the real world is the determination of residual stresses, or the stresses induced in a material. Plastic deformation of metals and alloys produces an increase in the number of lattice imperfections known as dislocations, which by virtue of their interaction results in higher state of internal stress and reduces ductility. These stresses, if not properly annealed (released) can significantly degrade the long-term performance of the materials.

Due to the high temperatures and radiation fields typically encountered in most nuclear systems, such as accelerator-driven transmutation systems (ADS) and nuclear ...


Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Quarterly Progress Report (June 1 – August 31, 2002), Ajit K. Roy Aug 2002

Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements: Quarterly Progress Report (June 1 – August 31, 2002), Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The purpose of this collaborative research project involving the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), the Idaho State University (ISU), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to evaluate the feasibility of determining residual stresses in cold-worked, plastically-deformed, and welded materials using a nondestructive method based on positron annihilation spectroscopy. This technique uses γ-rays from a small MeV electron Linac to generate positrons inside the sample via pair production. This method is known to have capabilities of characterizing defects in thick specimens, that could not be accomplished by conventional positron technique or other nondestructive methods. The generated data will ...


Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements, Ajit K. Roy Apr 2002

Use Of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy For Stress-Strain Measurements, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The purpose of this collaborative research project involving the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and Idaho State University (ISU) is to evaluate the feasibility of determining residual stresses of welded (after pre-straining) engineering materials using a new nondestructive technique based on positron annihilation spectroscopy. The proposed technique is to use γ-rays 2 from a small MeV electron Linac to generate positrons inside the sample via pair production. This method can be used for materials characterization and investigation of defects in thick samples that could not be accomplished by conventional positron techniques or other nondestructive methods. The data generated will ...