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Nuclear Engineering Commons

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Environmental Sciences

2008

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Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

Nuclear Energy, Steve Kraft Apr 2008

Nuclear Energy, Steve Kraft

Native American Forum on Nuclear Issues

Abstract:

-Why Nuclear Energy?

-The lesson of the last 20 years in U.S. electricity policy:

– Diversified fuel and technology portfolio is essential

– All fuels and technologies (nuclear, coal, natural gas, renewables, efficiency) have a legitimate role

-The challenge for the future:

– Preserving/restoring diversified portfolio

– Ensuring resource adequacy, particularly in competitive markets

-Expanded use of nuclear energy is part of the answer

– Integrated used fuel management supports nuclear competitiveness


Knowledge-Based Information Resource Management System For Materials Of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor, Sean Hsieh Jan 2008

Knowledge-Based Information Resource Management System For Materials Of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor, Sean Hsieh

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

In the development of advanced fast reactors, materials and coolant/material interactions pose a critical barrier for higher temperature and longer core life designs. For advanced burner reactors (sodium cooled) such as EBR-II and FFTF, experience has shown that the qualified structural materials and fuel cladding severely limits the economic performance. In other liquid metal cooled reactor concepts, advanced materials and better understanding and control of coolant and materials interactions are necessary for realizing the potentials.

Liquid sodium has been selected as the primary coolant candidate for Gen. IV nuclear energy systems. Global Nuclear Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Burned Reactor (ABR ...


Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility Design, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh Jan 2008

Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility Design, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The major objectives will lead to the creation of a framework that combines all the strengths of AMUSE’s complicated calculations, well-established commercial system process package, and ISOPro’s flexible parameter optimization modules. Development of the process simulation code can be done using the solvent extraction process at Argonne National Laboratory in collaboration with the research team from the Mechanical Engineering Department at UNLV.

Research accomplishments:

• Completed final version of the ISOPro User Manual associated with summarized ISOPro source codes.

• Redesigned and completed use case and design class diagrams (DCD) of the ISOPro package using ArgoUML.

• Improved ISOPro system and ...


Decoupling And Disturbance Rejection Control For Target Circulation, Jian Ma, Joon S. Lee, Woosoon Yim Jan 2008

Decoupling And Disturbance Rejection Control For Target Circulation, Jian Ma, Joon S. Lee, Woosoon Yim

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

The Target Complex loop TC-1 was originally conceived as part of an accelerator-driven system (ADS) pilot plant that was designed and developed by the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) and Experimental and Development Organization (EDO) “Gidropress” in Obninsk, Russia, under the International Science and Technology Center Project #559 in 1998. It was to be used as the target in a 1 MWth ADS experiment run off of the LANSCE proton accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). When the U.S. transmutation program changed priorities from accelerator-driven systems towards nuclear fission reactors, the TC-1 loop was brought to ...


Modeling And Design Algorithms For Electromagnetic Pumps, Daniel P. Cook, Yitung Chen, Jian Ma Jan 2008

Modeling And Design Algorithms For Electromagnetic Pumps, Daniel P. Cook, Yitung Chen, Jian Ma

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

Electromagnetic (EM) induction pumps are used extensively in current and proposed nuclear power systems and industrial molten metal transfer operations. Although the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory that underlies the operation of these types of pumps has been studied extensively in the past few decades, the design of specific EM pumping systems for specific flow cases requires computational tools and expertise, which is lacking in the U.S. However, for the past two years, researchers at UNLV have been utilizing the TC-1 liquid metal loop system at UNLV and an Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) to drive the liquid metal and to ...


Thermal Transient Flow Rate Sensor For High Temperature Liquid Metal Cooled Nuclear Reactor, Yingtao Jiang, Jian Ma Jan 2008

Thermal Transient Flow Rate Sensor For High Temperature Liquid Metal Cooled Nuclear Reactor, Yingtao Jiang, Jian Ma

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

In nuclear power plants and accelerator driven systems (ADS) for nuclear waste treatment, it is important to monitor the coolant flow rate in the reactor core and pipe-line. In such a strong irradiation, high pressure, and temperature environment, the existing flow measurement techniques (such as Electromagnetic flow meters, Ultrasonic flow meters, Turbine flow meters, etc.) are not accurate and reliable.

The measurement of flow rates (mass flow rates or volume flow rate) plays a notable role in monitoring and controlling the experimental conditions. The bulk flow rates can be obtained through direct methods, which measure the amount of discharged fluids ...


Knowledge-Based Information Resource Management System For Materials Of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor, Sean Hsieh Jan 2008

Knowledge-Based Information Resource Management System For Materials Of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor, Sean Hsieh

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

In the development of advanced fast reactors, materials and coolant/ material interactions pose a critical barrier for higher temperature and longer core life designs. For sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) such as the Experimental Breeder Reactors in Idaho and the Fast Flux Test Facility in Hanford, experience has shown that qualified structural materials and fuel cladding severely limits their economic performance.

Liquid sodium has been selected as the primary coolant candidate for the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) of the Global Nuclear Partnership (GNEP). Materials improvement has been identified as a major thrust to improve fast reactor economics. Researchers from universities, national ...


Implementation Of Uncertainty Propagation In Triton/Keno, Charlotta Sanders, Denis Beller Jan 2008

Implementation Of Uncertainty Propagation In Triton/Keno, Charlotta Sanders, Denis Beller

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

Monte Carlo methods are beginning to be used for three dimensional fuel depletion analyses to compute various quantities of interest, including isotopic compositions of used nuclear fuel. The TRITON control module, available in the SCALE 5.1 code system, can perform three-dimensional (3-D) depletion calculations using either the KENO V.a or KENO-VI Monte Carlo transport codes, as well as the two-dimensional (2-D) NEWT discrete ordinates code. To overcome problems such as spatially nonuniform neutron flux and non-uniform statistical uncertainties in computed reaction rates and to improve the fidelity of calculations using Monte Carlo methods, uncertainty propagation is needed for ...


Monaco/Mavric Evaluation For Facility Shielding And Dose Rate Analysis, Charlotta Sanders, Denis Beller Jan 2008

Monaco/Mavric Evaluation For Facility Shielding And Dose Rate Analysis, Charlotta Sanders, Denis Beller

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

The dimensions and the large amount of shielding required for Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) facilities, advanced radiation shielding, and dose computation techniques are beyond today’s capabilities and will certainly be required. With the Generation IV Nuclear Energy System Initiative, it will become increasingly important to be able to accurately model advanced Boiling Water Reactor and Pressurized Water Reactor facilities, and to calculate dose rates at all locations within a containment (e.g., resulting from radiations from the reactor as well as the from the primary coolant loop) and adjoining structures (e.g., from the spent fuel pool).

The ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske Jan 2008

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project focuses on the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles for gas-cooled reactors. By combining surface- and bulk-sensitive spectroscopic and microscopic methods, intermediate chemical phases at the interface, intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure for different coating materials and metals are examined.

In detail, the project studies the interface formation of Pd, Cs, and Ag with SiC and pyrolytic carbon. Using SiC single crystals and highly-ordered pyrolytic carbon (HOPG) as substrates, interfaces are prepared under controlled conditions in an ultra-high vacuum environment and are ...


Design Concepts And Process Analysis For Transmuter Fuel Manufacturing, Georg F. Mauer Jan 2008

Design Concepts And Process Analysis For Transmuter Fuel Manufacturing, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The safe and effective manufacturing of actinide-bearing fuels for any transmutation strategy requires that the entire manufacturing process be contained within a shielded hot cell environment. To ensure that the fabrication process is feasible, the entire process must be designed for remote operation. The equipment must be reliable enough to perform over several decades, and also easy to maintain or repair remotely. The facility must also be designed to facilitate its own decontamination and decommissioning. In addition to these design factors, the potential viability of any fuel fabrication process will also be impacted by a number of variables, such as ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski Jan 2008

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project will examine inert fuels containing ZrO2 and MgO as the inert matrix. Ceramics with this inert matrix, Ce, U and eventually Pu will be synthesized and examined. While the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative focus is on inert fuels with Pu as the fissile component, this task will perform initial laboratory experiments with Ce and U. The initial work with Ce will be performed early in the project with results used as a basis for U studies. Reactor physics calculations will be used to examine suitable quantities of burnable poisons from the candidate elements Gd, Er, or Hf ...


Impact Of The Synthesis Process On Structure Properties For Afci Fuel Candidates, Kenneth Czerwinski Jan 2008

Impact Of The Synthesis Process On Structure Properties For Afci Fuel Candidates, Kenneth Czerwinski

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The research objectives are:

• To explore a low-temperature fluoride route to synthesize actinide nitrides. • To characterize actinide nitrides structurally and thermally.

• To use high resolution TEM techniques to explore the microstructure of the radioactive samples.


Solution-Based Synthesis Of Nitride Fuels, Kenneth Czerwinski, Tyler A. Sullens Jan 2008

Solution-Based Synthesis Of Nitride Fuels, Kenneth Czerwinski, Tyler A. Sullens

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

One of the original synthetic routes devised for the synthesis of U (III)N involved the entire reaction taking place in liquid ammonia. Several experimental reactions were conducted in an attempt to synthesize the UI3(NH3)x and U(NH2)3(NH3)x precursors of U(III) N. Each attempt involved cleaning of the uranium metal to remove the oxide coating of the metal reagent with 3 washes of concentrated nitric acid, each followed by a rinse with liquid ammonia. Success of this cleaning procedure was varied, with a majority of cleaned metal oxidizing rapidly once ...


Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry Morphology, And Surface Preparation, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson Jan 2008

Fundamental And Applied Experimental Investigations Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lbe Under Controlled Conditions: Kinetics, Chemistry Morphology, And Surface Preparation, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced nuclear processes and facilities (e.g., transmutation of nuclear waste, fast reactors, and spallation neutron sources) impose special demands on materials, which must withstand high temperatures, high radiation fields, and chemical corrosion. Proposed schemes for transmuting nuclear waste require a nonmoderating coolant such as lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) or liquid sodium. While LBE corrodes most steels, small amounts of oxygen in the LBE greatly reduces the corrosion rate, and could ideally re-grow a damaged oxide layer in situ. The protective oxide layer would thus be self-healing. However, a fundamental understanding of the role of oxygen and passivating oxide layers is ...


Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy Jan 2008

Effect Of Silicon Content On The Corrosion Resistance And Radiation-Induced Embrittlement Of Materials For Advanced Heavy Liquid Metal Nuclear Systems, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The beneficial effects of Si on both the metallurgical and corrosion properties of Cr-Mo steels have previously been demonstrated at UNLV. Therefore, additions of Si ranging from 0.5-2.0 weight percent (wt%) was attempted in this investigation to explore Si effect on both the high temperature tensile properties and corrosion behavior of T91 grade steel. Corrosion studies in the presence of molten LBE could not be performed due to a lack of proper experimental facilities at UNLV. Therefore, detailed corrosion studies involving Si-containing T91 grade steels were performed in an aggressive aqueous solution of acidic pH. Further, significant efforts ...


Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead Alloy Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Taide Tan, Jinsuo Zhang, Jichun Li Jan 2008

Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead Alloy Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen, Taide Tan, Jinsuo Zhang, Jichun Li

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

In advanced nuclear energy systems, lead alloys emerge as strong candidates for transmutation and advanced reactor systems as nuclear coolants and spallation neutron targets. However, it is widely recognized that corrosion of materials caused by lead alloys presents a critical barrier to their industrial use. A few experimental research and development projects have been set up by different groups such as at Los Alamos National Laboratory to study the corrosion phenomena in their test facilities and to develop mitigation techniques and materials. One of the central or main techniques under development is to use active control of oxygen thermodynamic activity ...


Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das Jan 2008

Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced transmutation systems require structural materials that are able to withstand high neutron fluxes, high thermal cycling, and high resistance to chemical corrosion. The current candidate materials for such structures are ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels due to their strong resistance to swelling, good microstructural stability under irradiation, and the retention of adequate ductility at typical reactor operating temperatures.

In parallel, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) has emerged as a potential spallation target material for efficient production of neutrons, as well as a coolant in the accelerator system. While LBE has excellent properties as a nuclear coolant, it is also highly corrosive to ...