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Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

Afci Quarterly Input – Unlv October Through December, 2003, Harry Reid Center For Environmental Studies. Nuclear Science And Technology Division Dec 2003

Afci Quarterly Input – Unlv October Through December, 2003, Harry Reid Center For Environmental Studies. Nuclear Science And Technology Division

Transmutation Research Program Reports (TRP)

Quarterly report highlighting research projects and objectives of the Transmutation Research Program at the Nuclear Science & Technology Division, Harry Reid Research Center.

The University of Nevada, Las Vegas supports the AFCI through research and development of technologies for economic and environmentally sound refinement of spent nuclear fuel. The UNLV program has four components: infrastructure, international collaboration, student-based research, and management and program support.


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Fourth Quarterly Report 09/01/2003-11/30/2003, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Nov 2003

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Fourth Quarterly Report 09/01/2003-11/30/2003, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has been determined from previous experimental studies by the Russians and the European scientific community to be a potential material that can be used as a spallation target and coolant for the TRP proposed application. Properly controlling the oxygen content in LBE can drastically reduce the LBE corrosion to structural steels. However, existing knowledge of material corrosion performance was obtained from point-wise testing with only very sparse experimental data. Scientists have noticed that the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the liquid alloy could control the corrosion rate of steels exposed to Pb or Pb-Bi. At high ...


Environment-Induced Degradation And Crack-Growth Studies Of Candidate Target Materials: Quarterly Progress Report (June 1 – August 31, 2003), Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole Oct 2003

Environment-Induced Degradation And Crack-Growth Studies Of Candidate Target Materials: Quarterly Progress Report (June 1 – August 31, 2003), Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

As indicated in the original proposal, the primary objective of this task is to evaluate the effect of hydrogen on environment-assisted cracking of candidate target materials for applications in spallationneutron- target (SNT) systems such as accelerator production of tritium (APT) and accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW). The materials selected for evaluation and characterization are martensitic stainless steels including Alloy HT-9, Alloy EP 823 and Type 422 stainless steel. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of these materials are being evaluated in aqueous environments of interest using tensile specimens under constant load and slow-strain-rate (SSR) conditions ...


Afci Quarterly Input: Unlv July Through September, 2003, Harry Reid Center For Environmental Studies. Nuclear Science And Technology Division Sep 2003

Afci Quarterly Input: Unlv July Through September, 2003, Harry Reid Center For Environmental Studies. Nuclear Science And Technology Division

Transmutation Research Program Reports (TRP)

Quarterly report highlighting research projects and objectives of the Transmutation Research Program at the Nuclear Science & Technology Division, Harry Reid Research Center.

The University of Nevada, Las Vegas supports the AFCI through research and development of technologies for economic and environmentally sound refinement of spent nuclear fuel. The UNLV program has four components: infrastructure, international collaboration, student-based research, and management and program support.


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Annual Report -Phase Ii 09/01/2002-08/30/2003, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Aug 2003

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Annual Report -Phase Ii 09/01/2002-08/30/2003, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has been determined from previous experimental studies by the Russians and the European scientific community to be a potential material that can be used as a spallation target and coolant for the TRP proposed application. Properly controlling the oxygen content in LBE can drastically reduce the LBE corrosion to structural steels. However, existing knowledge of material corrosion performance was obtained from point-wise testing with only very sparse experimental data. Scientists have noticed that the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the liquid alloy could control the corrosion rate of steels exposed to Pb or Pb-Bi. At high ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Fourth Quarterly Report 06/01/2003-08/30/2003, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Aug 2003

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Fourth Quarterly Report 06/01/2003-08/30/2003, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has been determined from previous experimental studies by the Russians and the European scientific community to be a potential material that can be used as a spallation target and coolant for the TRP proposed application. Properly controlling the oxygen content in LBE can drastically reduce the LBE corrosion to structural steels. However, existing knowledge of material corrosion performance was obtained from point-wise testing with only very sparse experimental data. Scientists have noticed that the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the liquid alloy could control the corrosion rate of steels exposed to Pb or Pb-Bi. At high ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 5/16/03- 8/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Aug 2003

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 5/16/03- 8/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed in this Phase I task: the development of a systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model is the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the AAA Program. A second portion of the project is to streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Aug 2003

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The AFCI program is developing technology for the transmutation of nuclear waste to address many of the long-term disposal issues. An integral part of this program is the proposed chemical separations scheme.

Nearly all issues related to risks to future generations arising from long-term disposal of such spent nuclear fuel is attributable to about 2% of its content. Such 2% is made up primarily of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium (the transuranic elements) and long-lived isotopes of iodine and technetium created as products from the fission process in power reactors. When transuranics are removed from discharged fuel destined for disposal ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics - Phase Three, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Aug 2003

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics - Phase Three, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The proposed work will combine chemical kinetics and hydrodynamics in target and test-loop lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) systems to model system corrosion effects. This approach will result in a predicative tool that can be validated with corrosion test data, used to systematically design tests and interpret the results, and provide guidance for optimization in LBE system designs. The task includes two subtasks. The first subtask is to try to develop the necessary predictive tools to be able to predict the levels of oxygen and corrosion products close to the boundary layer through the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling. The ...


Environment-Induced Degradation And Crack-Growth Studies Of Candidate Target Materials: Annual Progress Report (May 2002 – May 2003), Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole Jun 2003

Environment-Induced Degradation And Crack-Growth Studies Of Candidate Target Materials: Annual Progress Report (May 2002 – May 2003), Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

As indicated in the original proposal, the primary objective of this task is to evaluate the effect of hydrogen on environment-assisted cracking of candidate target materials for applications in spallationneutron- target (SNT) systems such as accelerator production of tritium (APT) and accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW). The materials selected for evaluation and characterization are martensitic stainless steels including Alloy HT-9, Alloy EP 823 and Type 422 stainless steel. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of these materials are being evaluated in aqueous environments of interest using tensile specimens under constant load and slow-strain-rate (SSR) conditions ...


Quarterly Report For The Trp Project, March–June 2003, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen, Kanthi Kiran Daiska, Chao Wu Jun 2003

Quarterly Report For The Trp Project, March–June 2003, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen, Kanthi Kiran Daiska, Chao Wu

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The MTL is assumed to be a 5m long rectangular loop with a circular cross-section. Because of the non-symmetry, and due to the active participation of the secondary flows due to the elbows present in the rectangular loop model, the geometry is considered as a 3D model.

When the regions of maximum corrosion and precipitation are compared, they fall in the same zone for both the analytical and simulated models. The reason for a larger concentration flux in the case of turbulent flow than for the laminar flow can be explained by the concept of higher lateral diffusion in the ...


Afci Quarterly Input: Unlv April Through June, 2003, Harry Reid Center For Environmental Studies. Nuclear Science And Technology Division Jun 2003

Afci Quarterly Input: Unlv April Through June, 2003, Harry Reid Center For Environmental Studies. Nuclear Science And Technology Division

Transmutation Research Program Reports (TRP)

The University of Nevada, Las Vegas supports the AFCI through research and development of technologies for economic and environmentally sound refinement of spent nuclear fuel. The UNLV program has four components: infrastructure, international collaboration, student-based research, and management and program support.


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean May 2003

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed: the development of a systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model will be continuously focusing on the integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the TRP Program. A second portion of the project will streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral to the systems engineering model ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 2/16/03- 5/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper May 2003

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 2/16/03- 5/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed in this Phase I task: the development of a systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model is the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the AAA Program. A second portion of the project is to streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral ...


Stress Corrosion Cracking Of Type 422 Stainless Steel For Applications In Spallation-Neutron-Target Systems, Ramprashad Prabhakaran Mar 2003

Stress Corrosion Cracking Of Type 422 Stainless Steel For Applications In Spallation-Neutron-Target Systems, Ramprashad Prabhakaran

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Introduction

• This research program is aimed at evaluating different types of environment-induced degradation of candidate target materials for applications in transmutation of spent nuclear fuels (SNF).

• Transmutation refers to the elimination of long-lived actinides and fission products from SNF.

Objectives

• Evaluate susceptibility of candidate target materials to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and localized corrosion (pitting and crevice) in neutral and acidic aqueous environments at ambient and elevated temperatures

• Determine the extent and morphology of cracking in tested materials as functions of experimental and environmental variables including pH, temperature, loading conditions and specimen geometry

• Develop mechanistic understanding of degradations based on ...


Environment-Induced Degradation And Crack-Growth Studies Of Candidate Target Materials, Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole Feb 2003

Environment-Induced Degradation And Crack-Growth Studies Of Candidate Target Materials, Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

During the past two years (2001-2002) of this project, the primary effort was focused on evaluating the effect of hydrogen on the cracking behavior of candidate target materials namely, Alloys EP-823, HT-9 and 422 in aqueous environments of different pH values at ambient and elevated temperatures. More recently, emphasis is being placed to evaluate the cracking behavior of these materials in molten lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) environment at much higher testing temperatures so as to compare the cracking susceptibility in environments containing molten metals and aqueous solutions, respectively. The most recent tests to evaluate the cracking susceptibility were primarily based on ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics: Quarterly Progress Report 12/1/02- 2/28/03, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Feb 2003

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics: Quarterly Progress Report 12/1/02- 2/28/03, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has been determined from previous experimental studies by the Russians and the European scientific community to be a potential material that can be used as a spallation target and coolant for the AAA proposed application.

Properly controlling the oxygen content in LBE can drastically reduce the LBE corrosion to structural steels. However, existing knowledge of material corrosion performance was obtained from point-wise testing with very limited density. The transport of oxygen and corrosion products, their interaction and variation of corrosion/precipitation along the flow are not well understood.

The first subtask of this project involves using ...


Experimental Investigation Of Steel Corrosion In Lead Bismuth Eutectic (Lbe): Characterization, Species Identification, And Chemical Reactions, John Farley, Dale L. Perry, Allen L. Johnson Feb 2003

Experimental Investigation Of Steel Corrosion In Lead Bismuth Eutectic (Lbe): Characterization, Species Identification, And Chemical Reactions, John Farley, Dale L. Perry, Allen L. Johnson

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal of the present research is to achieve a basic understanding of corrosion of steels by Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE). Liquid LBE is under consideration in the transmuter as both a spallation target and as a blanket coolant. There have been previous studies of LBE, especially by the Russians, who have over 80 reactor-years experience with LBE coolant in their Alpha-class submarine reactors. The Russians found that the presence of small amounts (ppm) of oxygen in the LBE significantly reduced corrosion. However, a fundamental understanding and verification of its role in the corrosion of steels is still very incomplete ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 11/16/02- 2/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Feb 2003

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 11/16/02- 2/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed in this Phase I task: the development of a systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model is the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the TRP Program. A second portion of the project is to streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral ...


Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Quarterly Report November- December 2002 January 2003, John Farley Feb 2003

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Quarterly Report November- December 2002 January 2003, John Farley

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

We continue to get valuable data from sputter depth profiling of steel samples. We meet weekly to discuss progress. We took depth-profiling data on D9 steel that had been exposed to LBE. This the first time we have examined this type of steel. This is important because it will enable us to separate out two effects and determine their effect on corrosion: composition of the steel vs surface preparation.

We started to plan a small experiments using a crucible of heated LBE, with the research program to be conducted at UNLV, on basic aspects of corrosion in this system. The ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Lijian Sun, Haritha Royyuru, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper, George Vandegrift, James Laidler Jan 2003

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Lijian Sun, Haritha Royyuru, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper, George Vandegrift, James Laidler

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Project Overview:

• Two Components

– Refine AMUSE Code

– Develop Systems Engineering Model

• Research Objectives

– Develop a framework and environment for a systems engineering analysis of the chemical separations system for the AAA program.

– Establish a baseline systems engineering model from which modifications and improvements can be made.

– Refine the existing AMUSE program that gives a detailed examination of the UREX process, a critical component of the overall separation scheme.


Calibration Of Ysz Sensors For The Measurement Of Oxygen Concentration In Liquid Pb-Bi Eutectic, Xiaolong Wu, Ramkumar Sivaraman, Ning Li, Wei Hang, T. W. Darling, Yingtao Jiang, Woosoon Yim, Bingmei Fu Jan 2003

Calibration Of Ysz Sensors For The Measurement Of Oxygen Concentration In Liquid Pb-Bi Eutectic, Xiaolong Wu, Ramkumar Sivaraman, Ning Li, Wei Hang, T. W. Darling, Yingtao Jiang, Woosoon Yim, Bingmei Fu

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Although liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) is a good candidate for coolant in the subcritical transmutation blanket, it is known to be corrosive to stainless steel, the material of the carrying tubes and containers. Such longterm corrosion problem can be prevented by producing and maintaining a protective oxide layer on the exposed surface of stainless steel. For this purpose, it is required to accurately control the concentration of oxygen dissolved in LBE. Currently, YSZ (Yttria Stabilized Zirconia) oxygen sensors, based on an existing automotive oxygen sensor, with molten bismuth saturated with oxygen as the reference, have been selected for oxygen-concentration measurement ...


Nuclear Criticality, Shielding, And Thermal Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle, William Culbreth, Denis Beller Jan 2003

Nuclear Criticality, Shielding, And Thermal Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle, William Culbreth, Denis Beller

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The first step in any transmutation strategy is the separation of radionuclides in used nuclear fuel. The current separation strategy supporting the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program is based on the use of a solvent extraction separation process to separate the actinides, fission products, and uranium from used commercial nuclear fuel, and on the use of pyrochemical separation technologies to process used transmuter fuels. To separate the fission products and transuranic elements from the uranium in used fuel, the national program is developing a new solvent extraction process, the Uranium Extraction Plus, or UREX+, process, based on the traditional ...


Modeling Of Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lead Bismuth Eutectic Systems With The Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen, Kanthi Kiran Dasika, Chao Wu Jan 2003

Modeling Of Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lead Bismuth Eutectic Systems With The Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen, Kanthi Kiran Dasika, Chao Wu

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Objectives:

  • To simulate a 2-D model of the Materials Test Loop by approximating it to be a toroid with a pie cross section for the purpose of comparing the simulated results with the analytical results.
  • The temperature and concentration profiles on the wall boundaries imposed are similar to the actual test model.
  • Geometry effects have great influence on local corrosion rate.
  • A 2-D benchmark problem and a sudden expansion case are studied which show good consistency to analytical solution.
  • Results from 2-D sudden expansion problem are similar to experimental data obtained by other researchers.


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Jan 2003

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The corrosion of structural materials is a major concern for the use of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) systems for nuclear applications such as in transmuter targets or fast reactors. Corrosion in liquid metal systems can occur through various processes, including, for example, dissolution, formation of inter-metallic compounds at the interface, and penetration of liquid metal along grain boundaries. Predicting the rate of these processes depends on numerous system operational factors: temperature, system geometry, thermal gradients, solid and liquid compositions, and velocity of the liquid metal, to name a few. Corrosion, along with mechanical and/or hydraulic factors, often contributes to component ...


Environment-Induced Degradation And Crack-Growth Studies Of Candidate Target Materials, Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole, Zhiyong Wang, David W. Hatchett Jan 2003

Environment-Induced Degradation And Crack-Growth Studies Of Candidate Target Materials, Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole, Zhiyong Wang, David W. Hatchett

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The primary objective of this task is to evaluate the potential for the environmentally-assisted cracking of candidate target materials for applications in spallation-neutron-target systems, such as accelerator-driven system for the transmutation of waste. The materials selected for evaluation and characterization are martensitic stainless steels (SS) including Alloys HT- 9, EP 823 and Type 422 stainless steel.

More recently, this experimental program has been expanded to evaluate the effect of molten lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) on the corrosion behavior of target materials in the presence of oxygen. Since the materials performance laboratory (MPL) at UNLV currently cannot accommodate this type of testing ...


Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry Jan 2003

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Materials for transmuter systems must be able to tolerate high neutron fluxes, great temperatures, and chemical corrosion. For lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) systems, there is an additional challenge in that the corrosive behaviors of materials in LBE are not well understood. Most of the available information on LBE systems has come from the Russians, who have over 80 reactor-years experience with LBE coolant in their Alpha-class submarine reactors. The Russians found that the presence of small amounts of oxygen (on the order of parts per million) in the LBE significantly reduced corrosion. However, a fundamental understanding and verification of its ...


Surface Studies Of Corrosion Of Stainless Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, Daniel Koury, Brian D. Hosterman, John Farley, Dale L. Perry, D. Parsons, J. Manzerova, Allen L. Johnson Jan 2003

Surface Studies Of Corrosion Of Stainless Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, Daniel Koury, Brian D. Hosterman, John Farley, Dale L. Perry, D. Parsons, J. Manzerova, Allen L. Johnson

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Why is Lead Bismuth Eutectic Important?

• Changing national security stances have led to reexamination of nuclear waste reprocessing

• Dangerous actinides can be separated and

• Transmuted into safer products, creating a waste form dangerous for only hundreds of years, in addition to the production (up to 1/3 of the original fission energy) of useful energy

• Non-moderating coolants or spallation targets for production of fast neutrons is required for transmutation

• Russian experience with LBE coolants in their nuclear submarine fleet makes LBE an attractive possible transmutation coolant technology

• Corrosion of steel by LBE is an important sticking point in the utilization ...