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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Plasmonic Properties Of Nanoparticle And Two Dimensional Material Integrated Structure, Desalegn Tadesse Debu May 2019

Plasmonic Properties Of Nanoparticle And Two Dimensional Material Integrated Structure, Desalegn Tadesse Debu

Theses and Dissertations

Recently, various groups have demonstrated nano-scale engineering of nanostructures for optical to infrared wavelength plasmonic applications. Most fabrication technique processes, especially those using noble metals, requires an adhesion layer. Previously proposed theoretical work to support experimental measurement often neglect the effect of the adhesion layers. The first finding of this work focuses on the impact of the adhesion layer on nanoparticle plasmonic properties. Gold nanodisks with a titanium adhesion layer are investigated by calculating the scattering, absorption, and extinction cross-section with numerical simulations using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. I demonstrate that a gold nanodisk with an adhesive ...


Optimizing The Plasmonic Enhancement Of Light In Metallic Nanogap Structures For Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Stephen Joseph Bauman Dec 2018

Optimizing The Plasmonic Enhancement Of Light In Metallic Nanogap Structures For Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Stephen Joseph Bauman

Theses and Dissertations

Technology based on the interaction between light and matter has entered something of a renaissance over the past few decades due to improved control over the creation of nanoscale patterns. Tunable nanofabrication has benefitted optical sensing, by which light is used to detect the presence or quantity of various substances. Through methods such as Raman spectroscopy, the optical spectra of solid, liquid, or gaseous samples act as fingerprints which help identify a single type of molecule amongst a background of potentially many other chemicals. This technique therefore offers great benefit to applications such as biomedical sensors, airport security, industrial waste ...


Opto-Thermal Characterization Of Plasmon And Coupled Lattice Resonances In 2-D Metamaterial Arrays, Vinith Bejugam Aug 2018

Opto-Thermal Characterization Of Plasmon And Coupled Lattice Resonances In 2-D Metamaterial Arrays, Vinith Bejugam

Theses and Dissertations

Growing population and climate change inevitably requires longstanding dependency on sustainable sources of energy that are conducive to ecological balance, economies of scale and reduction of waste heat. Plasmonic-photonic systems are at the forefront of offering a promising path towards efficient light harvesting for enhanced optoelectronics, sensing, and chemical separations. Two-dimensional (2-D) metamaterial arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles arranged in polymer lattices developed herein support thermoplasmonic heating at off-resonances (near infrared, NIR) in addition to regular plasmonic resonances (visible), which extends their applicability compared to random dispersions. Especially, thermal responses of 2-D arrays at coupled lattice resonance (CLR) wavelengths were comparable ...


Nanowire-Based Light-Emitting Diodes: A New Path Towards High-Speed Visible Light Communication, Mohsen Nami Sep 2017

Nanowire-Based Light-Emitting Diodes: A New Path Towards High-Speed Visible Light Communication, Mohsen Nami

Physics & Astronomy ETDs

Nano-scale optoelectronic devices have gained significant attention in recent years. Among these devices are semiconductor nanowires, whose dimeters range from 100 to 200 nm. Semiconductor nanowires can be utilized in many different applications including light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. Higher surface to volume ratio makes nanowire-based structures potential candidates for the next generation of photodetectors, sensors, and solar cells. Core-shell light-emitting diodes based on selective-area growth of gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires provide a wide range of advantages. Among these advantages are access to non-polar m-plane sidewalls, higher active region area compared to conventional planar structures, and reduction of threading ...


Characterization Of Coupled Gold Nanoparticles In A Sparsely Populated Square Lattice, Roy Truett French Iii May 2017

Characterization Of Coupled Gold Nanoparticles In A Sparsely Populated Square Lattice, Roy Truett French Iii

Theses and Dissertations

Metal nanoparticles deposited in regular arrays spaced at optical wavelengths support a resonance due to a coherent coupling between localized surface plasmon mode and lattice diffraction allowing for engineering of tunable devices for use in biological sensors, nanoantennae, and enhanced spectroscopy. Techniques such as electron beam lithography, focused ion beam lithography, nanosphere lithography, and nanoimprint lithography are used for fabrication but are limited by cost, device throughput, and small deposition. Polymer soft lithography and continuous dewetting of particles is a potentially viable alternative showing promise in all of those areas. This thesis developed the fabrication of a refined hydrophilic nanoimprinted ...


Periodically Patterned Structures For Nanoplasmonic And Biomedical Applications, Akshit Peer Jan 2017

Periodically Patterned Structures For Nanoplasmonic And Biomedical Applications, Akshit Peer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Periodically patterned nanostructures have imparted profound impact on diverse scientific disciplines. In physics, chemistry, and materials science, artificially engineered photonic crystals have demonstrated an unprecedented ability to control the propagation of photons through light concentration and diffraction. The field of photonic crystals has led to many technical advances in fabricating periodically patterned nanostructures in dielectric/metallic materials and controlling the light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. In the field of biomaterials, it is of great interest to apply our knowledge base of photonic materials and explore how such periodically patterned structures control diverse biological functions by varying the available surface area ...


Mems Tunable Infrared Metamaterial And Mechanical Sensors, Qiugu Wang Jan 2017

Mems Tunable Infrared Metamaterial And Mechanical Sensors, Qiugu Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sub-wavelength resonant structures open the path for fine controlling the near-field at the nanoscale dimension. They constitute into macroscopic “metamaterials” with macroscale properties such as transmission, reflection, and absorption being tailored to exhibit a particular electromagnetic response. The properties of the resonators are often fixed at the time of fabrication wherein the tunability is demanding to overcome fabrication tolerances and afford fast signal processing. Hybridizing dynamic components such as optically active medium into the device makes tunable devices. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) compatible integrated circuit fabrication process is a promising platform that can be merged with photonics or novel 2D materials ...


Nanosphere Lithography And Its Application In Rapid And Economic Fabrication Of Plasmonic Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Devices, Chenlong Zhang Jan 2016

Nanosphere Lithography And Its Application In Rapid And Economic Fabrication Of Plasmonic Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Devices, Chenlong Zhang

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Solar photovoltaic (PV) devices harvest energy from solar radiation and convert it to electricity. PV technologies, as an alternative to traditional fossil fuels, use clean and renewable energy while minimizing pollution. For decades researchers have been developing thin film solar cells as an important alternatives to the relatively expensive bulk crystal solar cell technology. Among those, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells prevails for good efficiency, non-toxic and materially abundant nature. However, a-Si:H thickness must be minimized to prevent light induced degradation, so optical enhancement is necessary. Light manipulation has to be applied and carefully engineered to trap ...


Local Heating With Lithographically Fabricated Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles, Urcan Guler, Justus Ndukaife, Gururaj Naik, Agbai Nnanna, Alexander Kildishev, V. Shalaev, Alexandra Boltasseva Jul 2015

Local Heating With Lithographically Fabricated Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles, Urcan Guler, Justus Ndukaife, Gururaj Naik, Agbai Nnanna, Alexander Kildishev, V. Shalaev, Alexandra Boltasseva

U. Guler

Titanium nitride is considered a promising alternative plasmonic material and is known to exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances within the near-infrared biological transparency window. Here, local heating efficiencies of disk-shaped nanoparticles made of titanium nitride and gold are compared in the visible and near-infrared regions numerically and experimentally with samples fabricated using e-beam lithography. Results show that plasmonic titanium nitride nanodisks are efficient local heat sources and outperform gold nanodisks in the biological transparency window, dispensing the need for complex particle geometries.


Fabrication Of Sub-10 Nm Metallic Structures Via Nanomasking Technique For Plasmonic Enhancement Applications, Stephen Joseph Bauman Jul 2015

Fabrication Of Sub-10 Nm Metallic Structures Via Nanomasking Technique For Plasmonic Enhancement Applications, Stephen Joseph Bauman

Theses and Dissertations

One area of nanoscience that has become popular in recent years is the study of optics at the nanoscale. Due to enhanced fabrication techniques, new geometries and improved dimensional resolutions have been allowing the creation of nanostructures for use in this area. Nanoscale geometries cause unique optical effects such as enhancement of the signal’s electric field strength at the surface of a substrate. Specifically, structures separated by nanogaps (10 nm and smaller) have been shown to exhibit strong field enhancement within the gaps. This has opened up the potential for surface enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced absorption for photovoltaics, and improved ...


Nanoparticle Plasmonics: Going Practical With Transition Metal Nitrides, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva Apr 2015

Nanoparticle Plasmonics: Going Practical With Transition Metal Nitrides, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva

U. Guler

Promising designs and experimental realizations of devices with unusual properties in the field of plasmonics have attracted a great deal of attention over the past few decades. However, the high expectations for realized technology products have not been met so far. The main complication is the absence of robust, high performance, low cost plasmonic materials that can be easily integrated into already established technologies such as microelectronics. This review provides a brief discussion on alternative plasmonic materials for localized surface plasmon applications and focuses on transition metal nitrides, in particular, titanium nitride, which has recently been shown to be a ...


Plasmonics On The Slope Of Enlightenment: The Role Of Transition Metal Nitrides, U. Guler, A. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, V. Shalaev Jan 2015

Plasmonics On The Slope Of Enlightenment: The Role Of Transition Metal Nitrides, U. Guler, A. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, V. Shalaev

U. Guler

The key problem currently faced by plasmonics is related to material limitations. After almost two decades of extreme excitement and research largely based on the use of noble metals, scientists have come to a consensus on the importance of exploring alternative plasmonic materials to address application-specific challenges to enable the development of new functional devices. Such a change in motivation will undoubtedly lead to significant advancements in plasmonics technology transfer and could have a revolutionary impact on nanophotonic technologies in general. Here, we report on one of the approaches that, together with other new material platforms, mark an insightful technology-driven ...


Refractory Plasmonics With Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber, W Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V Shalaev, A. Kildishev Oct 2014

Refractory Plasmonics With Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber, W Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V Shalaev, A. Kildishev

U. Guler

A high-temperature stable broadband plasmonic absorber is designed, fabricated, and optically characterized. A broadband absorber with an average high absorption of 95% and a total thickness of 240 nm is fabricated, using a refractory plasmonic material, titanium nitride. This absorber integrates both the plasmonic resonances and the dielectric-like loss. It opens a path for the interesting applications such as solar thermophotovoltaics and optical circuits.


Refractory Plasmonics, Urcan Guler, Alexandra Boltasseva, Vladimir M. Shalaev Apr 2014

Refractory Plasmonics, Urcan Guler, Alexandra Boltasseva, Vladimir M. Shalaev

U. Guler

Refractory materials are defined as those with a high melting point and chemical stability at temperatures above 2000°C. Applications based on refractory materials, usually nonmetallic, span a wide range of areas including industrial furnaces, space shuttle shields, and semiconductor technology. Metals have also been studied as refractories; however, the optical properties of those metals that have been tried for high-temperature applications were not good enough to be used in plasmonic applications (these are almost entirely based on noble metals, which are not good refractories). Refractory materials that exhibit reasonably good plasmonic behavior would undoubtedly enable new devices and boost ...


Reference Compensation For Localized Surface-Plasmon Resonance Sensors, Neha Nehru Jan 2014

Reference Compensation For Localized Surface-Plasmon Resonance Sensors, Neha Nehru

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Noble metal nanoparticles supporting localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) have been extensively investigated for label free detection of various biological and chemical interactions. When compared to other optical sensing techniques, LSPR sensors offer label-free detection of biomolecular interactions in localized sensing volume solutions. However, these sensors also suffer from a major disadvantage – LSPR sensors remain highly susceptible to interference because they respond to both solution refractive index change and non-specific binding as well as specific binding of the target analyte. These interactions can severely compromise the measurement of the target analyte in a complex unknown media and hence limit the ...


Plasmonic Nanostructures For The Absorption Enhancement Of Silicon Solar Cells, Nathan Matthias Burford May 2013

Plasmonic Nanostructures For The Absorption Enhancement Of Silicon Solar Cells, Nathan Matthias Burford

Theses and Dissertations

In this work, computational investigation of plasmonic nanostructures was conducted using the commercial finite element electromagnetics solver Ansys® HFSS. Arrays of silver toroid nanoparticles located on the surface of an amorphous silicon thin-film absorbing layer were studied for particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm in outer diameter. Parametric optimization by calculating an approximation of the photocurrent enhancement due to the nanoparticles was performed to determine optimal surface coverage of the nanoparticles. A comparison was made between these optimized nanotoroid arrays and optimized nanosphere arrays based on spectral absorption enhancement and potential photocurrent enhancement in an amorphous silicon ...


Performance Analysis Of Nitride Alternative Plasmonic Materials For Localized Surface Plasmon Applications, U. Guler, Gururaj V. Naik, Alexandra Boltasseva, Vladimir M. Shalaev, Alexander V. Kildishev Apr 2012

Performance Analysis Of Nitride Alternative Plasmonic Materials For Localized Surface Plasmon Applications, U. Guler, Gururaj V. Naik, Alexandra Boltasseva, Vladimir M. Shalaev, Alexander V. Kildishev

U. Guler

We consider methods to define the performance metrics for different plasmonic materials to be used in localized surface plasmon applications. Optical efficiencies are shown to be better indicators of performance as compared to approximations in the quasistatic regime. The near-field intensity efficiency, which is a generalized form of the well-known scattering efficiency, is a more flexible and useful metric for local-field enhancement applications. We also examine the evolution of the field enhancement from a particle surface to the far-field regime for spherical nanoparticles with varying radii. Titanium nitride and zirconium nitride, which were recently suggested as alternative plasmonic materials in ...


Effect Of Particle Properties And Light Polarization On The Plasmonic Resonances In Metallic Nanoparticles, U. Guler, R. Turan Jul 2010

Effect Of Particle Properties And Light Polarization On The Plasmonic Resonances In Metallic Nanoparticles, U. Guler, R. Turan

U. Guler

The resonance behavior of localized surface plasmons in silver and gold nanoparticles was studied in the visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Arrays of nano-sized gold (Au) and silver (Ag) particles with different properties were produced with electron-beam lithography technique over glass substrates. The effect of the particle size, shape variations, period, thickness, metal type, substrate type and sulfidation were studied via transmission and reflectance measurements. The results are compared with the theoretical calculations based on the DDA simulations performed by software developed in this study. We propose a new intensity modulation technique based on localized surface plasmons ...