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Nanotechnology

2016

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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Optical Sub-Diffraction Limited Focusing For Confined Heating And Lithography, Luis M. Traverso Dec 2016

Optical Sub-Diffraction Limited Focusing For Confined Heating And Lithography, Luis M. Traverso

Open Access Dissertations

Electronics and nanotechnology is constantly demanding a decrease in size of fabricated nanoscale features. This decrease in size has become much more difficult recently due to the limited resolution of optical systems that are fundamental to many nanofabrication methods. A lot of effort has been made to fabricate devices smaller than the diffraction limit of light. Creating devices that are capable of confining fields by means of interference patterns of propagating wave modes and surface plasmon, has proven successful to confine light into smaller spot sizes.

Zone plate diffraction lenses generate spots with dimensions very close to the diffraction limit ...


Exploring Public Values Implications Of The I-Corps Program, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira Oct 2016

Exploring Public Values Implications Of The I-Corps Program, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

This paper examines how the concept of public values can be operationalized in an ongoing public initiative to stimulate innovation in an emerging technology. Our study focuses on Innovation Corps (I-Corps)—a program initiated in 2011 by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to accelerate the process of commercializing science-driven discoveries. The I-Corps method has since spread rapidly across multiple US agencies. Separately, there has also been heightened attention to the early anticipation and mitigation of the implications of emerging science and technology. Drawing on the case of nanotechnology, the paper considers how public values related to nanotechnology commercialization can be ...


Potential Applications For Halloysite Nanotubes Based Drug Delivery Systems, Lin Sun Oct 2016

Potential Applications For Halloysite Nanotubes Based Drug Delivery Systems, Lin Sun

Doctoral Dissertations

Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a drug in the body. The purpose is to enhance the drug efficacy and to reduce side reactions, which can significantly improve treatment outcomes. Halloysite is a naturally occurred alumino-silicate clay with a tubular structure. It is a biocompatible material with a big surface area which can be used for attachment of targeted molecules. Besides, loaded molecules can present a sustained release manner in solution. These properties make halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) a good option for drug delivery.

In this study, a drug delivery system was built based on halloysite ...


Performance Of Tf-Vls Grown Inp Photovoltaic Cells, Junyan Shi, Yubo Sun, Peter Bermel Aug 2016

Performance Of Tf-Vls Grown Inp Photovoltaic Cells, Junyan Shi, Yubo Sun, Peter Bermel

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

A grand challenge of photovoltaics (PV) is to find materials offering a promising combination of low costs and high efficiencies. While III-V material-based PV cells have set many world records, often their cost is much greater than other commercial cells. To help address this gap, thin-film vapor-liquid-solid (TF-VLS) grown Indium Phosphide (InP) PV cells have recently been developed, which both eliminate a key source of high costs and offer a direct bandgap of 1.34eV with potential to approach maximum theoretical efficiencies. However, the unanticipated phenomenon of open circuit voltage (Voc) degradation has prevented TF-VLS grown InP PV cells ...


Study Of Plasmonic Properties Of The Gold Nanorods In The Visible To Near Infrared Light Regime, Pijush Kanti Ghosh Aug 2016

Study Of Plasmonic Properties Of The Gold Nanorods In The Visible To Near Infrared Light Regime, Pijush Kanti Ghosh

Theses and Dissertations

Nanostructures of noble metals show unique plasmonic behavior in the visible to near-infrared light range. Gold nanostructures exhibit a particularly strong plasmonic response for these wavelengths of light. In this study we have investigated optical enhancement and absorption of gold nanorods with different thickness using finite element method simulations. This study reports on the resonance wavelength of the sharp-corner and round-corner rectangles of constant length 100 nm and width 60 nm. The result shows that resonance wavelength depends on the polarization of the incident light; there also exists a strong dependence of the optical enhancement and absorption on the thickness ...


Investigation Of Carbon Nanomaterials Embedded In A Cementitious Matrix, Clarissa A. Roe Jul 2016

Investigation Of Carbon Nanomaterials Embedded In A Cementitious Matrix, Clarissa A. Roe

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The objective of this thesis was to investigate whether the addition of carbon nanofibers had an effect on the splitting tensile strength of Hydro-Stone gypsum concrete. The carbon nanofibers used were single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), buckminsterfullerene (C60), and graphene oxide (GO). Evidence of the nanofibers interacting with gypsum crystals in a connective manner was identified in both 1 mm thick concrete discs and concrete columns possessing a height of 2 in and a diameter of 1 in. Before imaging, the columns were subjected to a splitting tensile strength test. The results illustrate that while there is a general decrease in ...


Nanomanufacturing Outside The Lab: A Case Study In Academic-Industry Partnerships, Ann Delaney, Eric Lindquist Jun 2016

Nanomanufacturing Outside The Lab: A Case Study In Academic-Industry Partnerships, Ann Delaney, Eric Lindquist

Ann E. Delaney

One of the National Nanotechnology Initiative’s Signature Initiatives is Sustainable Manufacturing.  With over $20 billion invested in nanotechnology research and development by the US government since 2000, there is now an emphasis on transitioning from primarily fundamental research to work aimed at overcoming the barriers preventing these technologies from being successfully produced and integrated into devices manufactured at an industrial scale.
To date, much focus has been placed on the technical barriers to commercialization.  However, other barriers outside of the lab must also be addressed in order to achieve broad commercialization of nanotechnology. The Public Policy Research Center (PPRC ...


Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu Jun 2016

Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Socially responsible technologies are designed while taking into consideration the socioeconomic, geopolitical and environmental limitations of regions in which they will be implemented. In the medical context, this involves making therapeutic platforms more accessible and affordable to patients in poor regions of the world wherein a given disease is endemic. This often necessitates going against the reigning trend of making therapeutic nanoparticles ever more structurally complex and expensive. However, studies aimed at simplifying materials and formulations while maintaining the functionality and therapeutic response of their more complex counterparts seldom provoke a significant interest in the scientific community. In this review ...


Al/Ti Nanostructured Multilayers: From Mechanical, Tribological, To Corrosion Properties, Sina Izadi Apr 2016

Al/Ti Nanostructured Multilayers: From Mechanical, Tribological, To Corrosion Properties, Sina Izadi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nanostructured metallic multilayers (NMMs) are well-known for their high strength in smaller bilayer thicknesses. Six Al/Ti (NMM) with different individual layer thickness were tested for their mechanical hardness using a nanoindentation tool. Individual layer thicknesses were chosen carefully to cover the whole confined layer slip (CLS) model. Nano-hardness had a reverse relation with the square root of individual layer thickness and reached a steady state at ~ 5 nm bilayer thickness. Decreasing the layer bilayer thickness from ~ 104 nm to ~ 5 nm, improved the mechanical hardness up to ~ 101%. Residual stresses were measured using grazing incident X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). Effect ...


Clay Nanotube Composites For Antibacterial Nanostructured Coatings, Christen J. Boyer Apr 2016

Clay Nanotube Composites For Antibacterial Nanostructured Coatings, Christen J. Boyer

Doctoral Dissertations

A surging demand for the development of new antimicrobial nanomaterials exists due to the frequency of medical device-associated infections and the transfer of pathogens from highly touched objects. Naturally occurring halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) have shown to be ideal particles for polymer reinforcement, time-release drug delivery, nano-reactor synthesis, and as substrate material for nanostructured coatings.

This research demonstrates the feasibility of a novel method for coating HNTs with metals for antibacterial applications. The first ever ability to coat HNTs through electrolysis was developed for customizable and multi-functional antibacterial nanoparticle platforms. HNTs were investigated as substrate for the deposition of copper ...


Implementation Of New System For Oxygen Generation And Carbon Dioxide Removal, Angelo Peter Karavolos Jan 2016

Implementation Of New System For Oxygen Generation And Carbon Dioxide Removal, Angelo Peter Karavolos

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This research effort develops an integrated system for CO2 removal and O2 production. A unique material, dodeca-tungsto-phosphoric acid (H3PO4W12O3; henceforth referred to as DTPA) is mixed with tetra-ethyl-ortho-silicate Si(OC2H5)4 or TEOS. This mixture exhibits unique properties of heat absorption and high electrical conductivity. In the system described herein, the DTPA resides within a cross linked arrangement of TEOS. The DTPA furnishes a source of O2, while the TEOS furnishes structural support for the large DTPA crystals. In addition, the large amount of H2O within the crystal also adsorbs CO2. It can also be cross-linked with other polymers such ...


Dynamic Self-Assembling Dna Nanosystems: Design And Engineering, Divita Mathur Jan 2016

Dynamic Self-Assembling Dna Nanosystems: Design And Engineering, Divita Mathur

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the last thirty years, DNA has proven to be a great candidate for engineering nanoscale architectures. These DNA nanostructures have been applied in areas such as single-molecular analyses, nanopatterning, diagnostics and therapeutics. One of the most commonly-used techniques to engineer DNA-based two- and three-dimensional functional nanostructures is DNA origami, wherein a long single-stranded DNA (called scaffold) is folded into a predetermined shape with the help of a set of shorter oligonucleotides (called staples). This thesis discusses a brief overview of DNA nanotechnology (design, assembly and applications) and three primary projects undertaken in the area of dynamic self-assembling DNA nanosystems ...


Development Of A Physical And Electronic Model For Ruo2 Nanorod Rectenna Devices, Justin Dao Jan 2016

Development Of A Physical And Electronic Model For Ruo2 Nanorod Rectenna Devices, Justin Dao

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Ruthenium oxide (RuO2) nanorods are an emergent technology in nanostructure devices. As the physical size of electronics approaches a critical lower limit, alternative solutions to further device miniaturization are currently under investigation. Thin-film nanorod growth is an interesting technology, being investigated for use in wireless communications, sensor systems, and alternative energy applications.

In this investigation, self-assembled RuO2 nanorods are grown on a variety of substrates via a high density plasma, reactive sputtering process. Nanorods have been found to grow on substrates that form native oxide layers when exposed to air, namely silicon, aluminum, and titanium. Samples were analyzed with Scanning ...


Refractive Index Engineering And Optical Properties Enhancement By Polymer Nanocomposites, Cheng Li Jan 2016

Refractive Index Engineering And Optical Properties Enhancement By Polymer Nanocomposites, Cheng Li

Doctoral Dissertations

The major part of this dissertation discusses the engineering of the refractive index of materials using solution-processable polymer nanocomposites and their applications in building optical components and devices. Three particular polymer nanocomposites have been introduced to achieve materials with tunable refractive indices and enhanced optical properties, which can be used to manipulate the behavior of light or electromagnetic radiations. In the first system, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polymer nanocomposites are developed. Thin films with tunable, low refractive indicies were fabricated from the composites. The mechanical strength of these films was characterized, and their application in antireflective coatings is discussed. In ...