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Nanotechnology

2011

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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Exploring Bacterial Nanowires: From Properties To Functions And Implications, Kar Man Leung Aug 2011

Exploring Bacterial Nanowires: From Properties To Functions And Implications, Kar Man Leung

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The discovery of electrically conductive bacterial nanowires from a broad range of microbes provides completely new insights into microbial physiology. Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, produces extracellular bacterial nanowires up to tens of micrometers long, with a lateral dimension of ~10 nm. The Shewanella bacterial nanowires are efficient electrical conductors as revealed by scanning probe techniques such as CP-AFM and STM.

Direct electrical transport measurements along Shewanella nanowires reveal a measured nanowire resistivity on the order of 1 Ω∙cm. With electron transport rates up to 109/s at 100 mV, bacterial nanowires can serve as ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Cdse-Zns Core-Shell Quantum Dots For Increased Quantum Yield, Joshua James Angell Jul 2011

Synthesis And Characterization Of Cdse-Zns Core-Shell Quantum Dots For Increased Quantum Yield, Joshua James Angell

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that have tunable emission through changes in their size. Producing bright, efficient quantum dots with stable fluorescence is important for using them in applications in lighting, photovoltaics, and biological imaging. This study aimed to optimize the process for coating CdSe quantum dots (which are colloidally suspended in octadecene) with a ZnS shell through the pyrolysis of organometallic precursors to increase their fluorescence and stability. This process was optimized by determining the ZnS shell thickness between 0.53 and 5.47 monolayers and the Zn:S ratio in the precursor solution between 0.23:1 and ...


Low-Voltage And Short-Channel Pentacene Field-Effect Transistors With Top-Contact Geometry Using Parylene-C Shadow Masks, Yoonyoung Chung, Boris Murmann, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Mehmet Dokmeci, Zhenan Bao Jun 2011

Low-Voltage And Short-Channel Pentacene Field-Effect Transistors With Top-Contact Geometry Using Parylene-C Shadow Masks, Yoonyoung Chung, Boris Murmann, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Mehmet Dokmeci, Zhenan Bao

Mehmet R. Dokmeci

We have fabricated high-performance top-contact pentacene field-effect transistors using a nanometer-scale gate dielectric and parylene-C shadow masks. The high-capacitance gate dielectric, deposited by atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide, resulted in a low operating voltage of 2.5 V. The flexible and conformal parylene-C shadow masks allowed fabrication of transistors with channel lengths of L = 5, 10, and 20 μm. The field-effect mobility of the transistors was μ = 1.14 (±0.08) cm²/V s on average, and the IMAX/IMIN ratio was greater than 10⁶.


High-Throughput Assembly Of Nanoelements In Nanoporous Alumina Templates, Evin Gultepe, Dattatri K. Nagesha, Latika Menon, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Srinivas Sridhar Jun 2011

High-Throughput Assembly Of Nanoelements In Nanoporous Alumina Templates, Evin Gultepe, Dattatri K. Nagesha, Latika Menon, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Srinivas Sridhar

Dattatri K. Nagesha

The authors demonstrate a nanofabrication method utilizing nanoporous alumina templates which involves directed three dimensional assembly of nanoparticles inside the pores by means of an electrophoretic technique. In their demonstration, they have assembled polystyrene nanobeads with diameter of 50 nm inside nanopore arrays of height of 250 nm and diameter of 80 nm. Such a technique is particularly useful for large-scale, rapid assembly of nanoelements for potential device applications.


Mechanical And Electrical Evaluation Of Parylene-C Encapsulated Carbon Nanotube Networks On A Flexible Substrate, Chia-Ling Chen, Ernesto Lopez, Yung-Joon Jung, Sinan Müftü, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Mehmet Dokmeci Jun 2011

Mechanical And Electrical Evaluation Of Parylene-C Encapsulated Carbon Nanotube Networks On A Flexible Substrate, Chia-Ling Chen, Ernesto Lopez, Yung-Joon Jung, Sinan Müftü, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Mehmet Dokmeci

Sinan Müftü

Carbon nanotube networks are an emerging conductive nanomaterial with applications including thin film transistors, interconnects, and sensors. In this letter, we demonstrate the fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks on a flexible polymer substrate and then provide encapsulation utilizing a thin parylene-C layer. The encapsulated SWNT network was subjected to tensile tests while its electrical resistance was monitored. Tests showed a linear-elastic response up to a strain value of 2.8% and nearly linear change in electrical resistance in the 0%–2% strain range. The networks’ electrical resistance was monitored during load-unload tests of up to 100 cycles and ...


High-Throughput Assembly Of Nanoelements In Nanoporous Alumina Templates, Evin Gultepe, Dattatri K. Nagesha, Latika Menon, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Srinivas Sridhar Jun 2011

High-Throughput Assembly Of Nanoelements In Nanoporous Alumina Templates, Evin Gultepe, Dattatri K. Nagesha, Latika Menon, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Srinivas Sridhar

Latika Menon

The authors demonstrate a nanofabrication method utilizing nanoporous alumina templates which involves directed three dimensional assembly of nanoparticles inside the pores by means of an electrophoretic technique. In their demonstration, they have assembled polystyrene nanobeads with diameter of 50 nm inside nanopore arrays of height of 250 nm and diameter of 80 nm. Such a technique is particularly useful for large-scale, rapid assembly of nanoelements for potential device applications.


Scalable Nanotemplate Assisted Directed Assembly Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes For Nanoscale Devices, Prashanth Makaram, Sivasubramanian Somu, Xugang Xiong, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Yung-Joon Jung, Nicol E. Mcgruer Jun 2011

Scalable Nanotemplate Assisted Directed Assembly Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes For Nanoscale Devices, Prashanth Makaram, Sivasubramanian Somu, Xugang Xiong, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Yung-Joon Jung, Nicol E. Mcgruer

Ahmed A. Busnaina

The authors demonstrate precise alignment and controlled assembly of single wall nanotube (SWNT) bundles at a fast rate over large areas by combining electrophoresis and dip coating processes. SWNTs in solution are assembled on prepatterned features that are 80 nm wide and separated by 200 nm. The results show that the direction of substrate withdrawal significantly affects the orientation and alignment of the assembled SWNT bundles. I-V characterization is carried out to demonstrate electrical continuity of these assembled SWNT bundles.


Directed Assembly Of Gold Nanoparticle Nanowires And Networks For Nanodevices, Xugang Xiong, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Sivasubramanian Somu, Ming Wei, Joey Mead, Chia-Ling Chen, Juan Aceros, Prashanth Makaram, Mehmet R. Dokmeci Jun 2011

Directed Assembly Of Gold Nanoparticle Nanowires And Networks For Nanodevices, Xugang Xiong, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Sivasubramanian Somu, Ming Wei, Joey Mead, Chia-Ling Chen, Juan Aceros, Prashanth Makaram, Mehmet R. Dokmeci

Ahmed A. Busnaina

Alternating electric field is used to assemble gold nanoparticle nanowires from liquid suspensions. The effects of electrode geometry and the dielectrophoresis force on the chaining and branching of nanowire formation are investigated. The nanowire assembly processes are modeled using finite element calculations, and the particle trajectories under the combined influence of dielectrophoresis force and viscous drag are simulated. Nanoparticle nanowires with 10 nm resolution are fabricated. The wires can be further oriented along an externally introduced flow. This work provides an approach towards rapid assembly and organization of ultrasmall nanoparticle networks.


High-Throughput Assembly Of Nanoelements In Nanoporous Alumina Templates, Evin Gultepe, Dattatri K. Nagesha, Latika Menon, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Srinivas Sridhar Jun 2011

High-Throughput Assembly Of Nanoelements In Nanoporous Alumina Templates, Evin Gultepe, Dattatri K. Nagesha, Latika Menon, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Srinivas Sridhar

Ahmed A. Busnaina

The authors demonstrate a nanofabrication method utilizing nanoporous alumina templates which involves directed three dimensional assembly of nanoparticles inside the pores by means of an electrophoretic technique. In their demonstration, they have assembled polystyrene nanobeads with diameter of 50 nm inside nanopore arrays of height of 250 nm and diameter of 80 nm. Such a technique is particularly useful for large-scale, rapid assembly of nanoelements for potential device applications.


Scalable Nanotemplate Assisted Directed Assembly Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes For Nanoscale Devices, Prashanth Makaram, Sivasubramanian Somu, Xugang Xiong, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Yung-Joon Jung, Nicol E. Mcgruer May 2011

Scalable Nanotemplate Assisted Directed Assembly Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes For Nanoscale Devices, Prashanth Makaram, Sivasubramanian Somu, Xugang Xiong, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Yung-Joon Jung, Nicol E. Mcgruer

Nicol E. McGruer

The authors demonstrate precise alignment and controlled assembly of single wall nanotube (SWNT) bundles at a fast rate over large areas by combining electrophoresis and dip coating processes. SWNTs in solution are assembled on prepatterned features that are 80 nm wide and separated by 200 nm. The results show that the direction of substrate withdrawal significantly affects the orientation and alignment of the assembled SWNT bundles. I-V characterization is carried out to demonstrate electrical continuity of these assembled SWNT bundles.


Mechanical And Electrical Evaluation Of Parylene-C Encapsulated Carbon Nanotube Networks On A Flexible Substrate, Chia-Ling Chen, Ernesto Lopez, Yung-Joon Jung, Sinan Müftü, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Mehmet R. Dokmeci May 2011

Mechanical And Electrical Evaluation Of Parylene-C Encapsulated Carbon Nanotube Networks On A Flexible Substrate, Chia-Ling Chen, Ernesto Lopez, Yung-Joon Jung, Sinan Müftü, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Mehmet R. Dokmeci

Yung Joon Jung

Carbon nanotube networks are an emerging conductive nanomaterial with applications including thin film transistors, interconnects, and sensors. In this letter, we demonstrate the fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks on a flexible polymer substrate and then provide encapsulation utilizing a thin parylene-C layer. The encapsulated SWNT network was subjected to tensile tests while its electrical resistance was monitored. Tests showed a linear-elastic response up to a strain value of 2.8% and nearly linear change in electrical resistance in the 0%–2% strain range. The networks’ electrical resistance was monitored during load-unload tests of up to 100 cycles and ...


Parallel Arrays Of Individually Addressable Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors, Sarah Lastella, Govind Mallick, Raymond Woo, Shashi Karna, David Rider, Ian Manners, Yung-Joon Jung, Chang Ryu, Pulickel Ajayan May 2011

Parallel Arrays Of Individually Addressable Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors, Sarah Lastella, Govind Mallick, Raymond Woo, Shashi Karna, David Rider, Ian Manners, Yung-Joon Jung, Chang Ryu, Pulickel Ajayan

Yung Joon Jung

High-throughput field-effect transistors (FETs) containing over 300 disentangled, high-purity chemical-vapor-deposition-grown single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) channels have been fabricated in a three-step process that creates more than 160 individually addressable devices on a single silicon chip. This scheme gives a 96% device yield with output currents averaging 5.4 mA and reaching up to 17 mA at a 300 mV bias. Entirely semiconducting FETs are easily realized by a high current selective destruction of metallic tubes. The excellent dispersity and nearly-defect-free quality of the SWNT channels make these devices also useful for nanoscale chemical and biological sensor applications.


Scalable Nanotemplate Assisted Directed Assembly Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes For Nanoscale Devices, Prashanth Makaram, Sivasubramanian Somu, Xugang Xiong, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Yung-Joon Jung, Nicol E. Mcgruer May 2011

Scalable Nanotemplate Assisted Directed Assembly Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes For Nanoscale Devices, Prashanth Makaram, Sivasubramanian Somu, Xugang Xiong, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Yung-Joon Jung, Nicol E. Mcgruer

Yung Joon Jung

The authors demonstrate precise alignment and controlled assembly of single wall nanotube (SWNT) bundles at a fast rate over large areas by combining electrophoresis and dip coating processes. SWNTs in solution are assembled on prepatterned features that are 80 nm wide and separated by 200 nm. The results show that the direction of substrate withdrawal significantly affects the orientation and alignment of the assembled SWNT bundles. I-V characterization is carried out to demonstrate electrical continuity of these assembled SWNT bundles.


Mechanical And Electrical Evaluation Of Parylene-C Encapsulated Carbon Nanotube Networks On A Flexible Substrate, Chia-Ling Chen, Ernesto Lopez, Yung-Joon Jung, Sinan Müftü, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Mehmet R. Dokmeci May 2011

Mechanical And Electrical Evaluation Of Parylene-C Encapsulated Carbon Nanotube Networks On A Flexible Substrate, Chia-Ling Chen, Ernesto Lopez, Yung-Joon Jung, Sinan Müftü, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Mehmet R. Dokmeci

Mehmet R. Dokmeci

Carbon nanotube networks are an emerging conductive nanomaterial with applications including thin film transistors, interconnects, and sensors. In this letter, we demonstrate the fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks on a flexible polymer substrate and then provide encapsulation utilizing a thin parylene-C layer. The encapsulated SWNT network was subjected to tensile tests while its electrical resistance was monitored. Tests showed a linear-elastic response up to a strain value of 2.8% and nearly linear change in electrical resistance in the 0%–2% strain range. The networks’ electrical resistance was monitored during load-unload tests of up to 100 cycles and ...


Directed Assembly Of Gold Nanoparticle Nanowires And Networks For Nanodevices, Xugang Xiong, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Sivasubramanian Somu, Ming Wei, Joey Mead, Chia-Ling Chen, Juan Aceros, Prashanth Makaram, Mehmet R. Dokmeci May 2011

Directed Assembly Of Gold Nanoparticle Nanowires And Networks For Nanodevices, Xugang Xiong, Ahmed A. Busnaina, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Sivasubramanian Somu, Ming Wei, Joey Mead, Chia-Ling Chen, Juan Aceros, Prashanth Makaram, Mehmet R. Dokmeci

Mehmet R. Dokmeci

Alternating electric field is used to assemble gold nanoparticle nanowires from liquid suspensions. The effects of electrode geometry and the dielectrophoresis force on the chaining and branching of nanowire formation are investigated. The nanowire assembly processes are modeled using finite element calculations, and the particle trajectories under the combined influence of dielectrophoresis force and viscous drag are simulated. Nanoparticle nanowires with 10 nm resolution are fabricated. The wires can be further oriented along an externally introduced flow. This work provides an approach towards rapid assembly and organization of ultrasmall nanoparticle networks.


Nanoengineering Of A Negative-Index Binary-Staircase Lens For The Optics Regime, Bernard Didier F. Casse, Ravinder K. Banyal, W. T. Lu, Y. J. Huang, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Mehmet R. Dokmeci, Srinivas Sridhar May 2011

Nanoengineering Of A Negative-Index Binary-Staircase Lens For The Optics Regime, Bernard Didier F. Casse, Ravinder K. Banyal, W. T. Lu, Y. J. Huang, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Mehmet R. Dokmeci, Srinivas Sridhar

Mehmet R. Dokmeci

We show that a binary-staircase optical element can be engineered to exhibit an effective negative index of refraction, thereby expanding the range of optical properties theoretically available for future optoelectronic devices. The mechanism for achieving a negative-index lens is based on exploiting the periodicity of the surface corrugation. By designing and nanofabricating a planoconcave binary-staircase lens in the InP/InGaAsP platform, we have experimentally demonstrated at 1.55 μm that such negative-index concave lenses can focus plane waves. The beam propagation in the lens was studied experimentally and was in excellent agreement with the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain numerical simulations.


Nanoinformatics 2010: Community-Wide Collaboration For The Collection, Curation, Analysis, And Dissemination Of Nanotechnology Data, Rebecca C. Reznik-Zellen, Mark Tuominen, Jeff Morse, Robert Stevens May 2011

Nanoinformatics 2010: Community-Wide Collaboration For The Collection, Curation, Analysis, And Dissemination Of Nanotechnology Data, Rebecca C. Reznik-Zellen, Mark Tuominen, Jeff Morse, Robert Stevens

Rebecca C. Reznik-Zellen

Objective: To describe the emerging disciplinary community of Nanoinformatics, of which the University of Massachusetts Amherst is a part, and Nanoinformatics 2010, a collaborative roadmapping workshop organized by this community to coordinate the existing but diverse efforts to collect, curate, analyze, and disseminate nanotechnology data.

Participants: InterNano1 and the National Nanomanufacturing Network2—funded by the National Science Foundation Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing3 and administered by the University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries4—were the primary organizing entities for Nanoinformatics 2010.

Description: Nanoinformatics is the science and practice of determining which information is relevant to the nanoscale science ...


Nanoengineering Of A Negative-Index Binary-Staircase Lens For The Optics Regime, Bernard Didier Casse, Ravinder Banyal, W. Lu, Y. Huang, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Mehmet Dokmeci, Srinivas Sridhar May 2011

Nanoengineering Of A Negative-Index Binary-Staircase Lens For The Optics Regime, Bernard Didier Casse, Ravinder Banyal, W. Lu, Y. Huang, Selvapraba Selvarasah, Mehmet Dokmeci, Srinivas Sridhar

Srinivas Sridhar

We show that a binary-staircase optical element can be engineered to exhibit an effective negative index of refraction, thereby expanding the range of optical properties theoretically available for future optoelectronic devices. The mechanism for achieving a negative-index lens is based on exploiting the periodicity of the surface corrugation. By designing and nanofabricating a planoconcave binary-staircase lens in the InP/InGaAsP platform, we have experimentally demonstrated at 1.55 μm that such negative-index concave lenses can focus plane waves. The beam propagation in the lens was studied experimentally and was in excellent agreement with the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain numerical simulations.


Nanoinformatics 2010: Community-Wide Collaboration For The Collection, Curation, Analysis, And Dissemination Of Nanotechnology Data, Rebecca C. Reznik-Zellen, Mark Tuominen, Jeff Morse, Robert Stevens Apr 2011

Nanoinformatics 2010: Community-Wide Collaboration For The Collection, Curation, Analysis, And Dissemination Of Nanotechnology Data, Rebecca C. Reznik-Zellen, Mark Tuominen, Jeff Morse, Robert Stevens

University of Massachusetts and New England Area Librarian e-Science Symposium

Objective: To describe the emerging disciplinary community of Nanoinformatics, of which the University of Massachusetts Amherst is a part, and Nanoinformatics 2010, a collaborative roadmapping workshop organized by this community to coordinate the existing but diverse efforts to collect, curate, analyze, and disseminate nanotechnology data.

Participants: InterNano1 and the National Nanomanufacturing Network2—funded by the National Science Foundation Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing3 and administered by the University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries4—were the primary organizing entities for Nanoinformatics 2010.

Description: Nanoinformatics is the science and practice of determining which information is relevant to the nanoscale science ...


Diodes For Optical Rectennas, Sachit Grover Jan 2011

Diodes For Optical Rectennas, Sachit Grover

Electrical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Two types of ultra-fast diode are fabricated, characterized, and simulated for use in optical rectennas. A rectenna consists of an antenna connected to a diode in which the electromagnetic radiation received by the antenna is rectified in the diode. I have investigated metal/insulator/metal (MIM) tunnel diodes and a new, geometric diode for use in rectenna-based infrared detectors and solar cells. Factors influencing the performance of a rectenna are analyzed. These include DC and optical-frequency diode-characteristics, circuit parameters, signal amplitude, and coherence of incoming radiation.

To understand and increase the rectification response of MIM-based rectennas, I carry out an ...


Nanotechnology Education—First Step In Implementing A Spiral Curriculum, Ganesh Balasubramanian, Vinod K. Lohani, Ishwar K. Puri, Scott W. Case, Roop L. Mahajan Jan 2011

Nanotechnology Education—First Step In Implementing A Spiral Curriculum, Ganesh Balasubramanian, Vinod K. Lohani, Ishwar K. Puri, Scott W. Case, Roop L. Mahajan

Ganesh Balasubramanian

A nanotechnology learning module was implemented into a freshman engineering course at Virginia Tech. The novelty of our approach is that an established spiral curriculum model has been employed, for the first time to the best of authors’ knowledge, to design the nanotechnology option. The module was piloted in a freshman class (180 students) during spring ‘08. The key components included (1) a prior knowledge survey, (2) a 40-minute in-class presentation on basic nanotechnology concepts, (3) an activity that involves nanoscale image analysis and the plotting of molecular forces usingLabVIEWsoftware,and(4)apost-modulesurvey.Lessonslearnedfromthepilotimplementationwereincorporated appropriately to expose roughly 1450 freshmen ...


Artificial And Natural Nucleic Acid Self Assembling Systems, Marcus Wood Jan 2011

Artificial And Natural Nucleic Acid Self Assembling Systems, Marcus Wood

Wayne State University Dissertations

Nucleic acids are good candidates for nanomachine construction. They participate in all the processes of life, and so can function as structural building blocks and dynamic catalysts. However, to use nucleic acids as nanomachines, a better understanding of their material properties, how to design structures using them, and their dynamics is needed. We have tried to address these issues, in a small way, with nucleic acid force field development, an attempt at nanostructural design and synthesis using DNA, and a study of the RNA/protein regulatory dynamics of the tryptophan regulatory attenuation protein.


The Use Of Environmental, Health And Safety Research In Nanotechnology Research, Jan Youtie, Alan Porter, Philip Shapira, Li Tang, Troy Benn Dec 2010

The Use Of Environmental, Health And Safety Research In Nanotechnology Research, Jan Youtie, Alan Porter, Philip Shapira, Li Tang, Troy Benn

Li Tang

Environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns are receiving considerable attention in nanoscience and nanotechnology (nano) research and development (R&D). Policymakers and others have urged that research on nano's EHS implications be developed alongside scientific research in the nano domain rather than subsequent to applications. This concurrent perspective suggests the importance of early understanding and measurement of the diffusion of nano EHS research. The paper examines the diffusion of nano EHS publications, defined through a set of search terms, into the broader nano domain using a global nanotechnology R&D database developed at Georgia Tech. The results indicate that ...


Effects Of Carbon Nanotube-Tethered Nanosphere Density On Amperometric Biosensing: Simulation And Experiment, Jonathan C. Claussen, James B. Hengenius, Monique M. Wickner, Timothy S. Fisher, David M. Umulis, D. Marshall Porterfield Dec 2010

Effects Of Carbon Nanotube-Tethered Nanosphere Density On Amperometric Biosensing: Simulation And Experiment, Jonathan C. Claussen, James B. Hengenius, Monique M. Wickner, Timothy S. Fisher, David M. Umulis, D. Marshall Porterfield

Jonathan C. Claussen

Nascent nanofabrication approaches are being applied to reduce electrode feature dimensions from the microscale to the nanoscale, creating biosensors that are capable of working more efficiently at the biomolecular level. The development of nanoscale biosensors has been driven largely by experimental empiricism to date. Consequently, the precise positioning of nanoscale electrode elements is typically neglected, and its impact on biosensor performance is subsequently overlooked. Herein, we present a bottom-up nanoelectrode array fabrication approach that utilizes low-density and horizontally oriented single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a template for the growth and precise positioning of Pt nanospheres. We further develop a computational ...