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Nanocrystals

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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Excited-State Dynamics Of Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Trapped-Hole Diffusion And Electron-Transfer Kinetics In Cds And Cdse Nanorods, James Keller Utterback Jan 2018

Excited-State Dynamics Of Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Trapped-Hole Diffusion And Electron-Transfer Kinetics In Cds And Cdse Nanorods, James Keller Utterback

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have many remarkable properties—such as exceptionally tunable excited states and surface chemistry—that have led to an enthusiastic interest in using them for optoelectronic applications such as solar-energy conversion. Such technologies require control over the generation, separation, and extraction of photoexcited electrons and holes. However, the interpretation of experimentally measured excited-state decay curves is challenging because they typically exhibit complicated shapes that are elusive to simple kinetic models. To understand the principles that govern electron and hole relaxation dynamics in these complex systems, models rooted in fundamental physical phenomena are needed. This dissertation describes efforts to ...


Using Semiconductor Nanocrystals To Drive Redox Enzymes With Light, Hayden Tyler Hamby Jan 2018

Using Semiconductor Nanocrystals To Drive Redox Enzymes With Light, Hayden Tyler Hamby

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Nanocrystals are an emergent strategy for providing electrons to redox enzymes for catalysis. In this dissertation I present my work on the investigation of how nanocrystals can be used to drive active site chemistry of two different enzymes. In the first project I present for the first time the direct coupling of cadmium sulfide nanorods (CdS NRs) to a CO2 reduction enzyme for the creation of new carbon-carbon bonds using light. Under optimal conditions, the maximum turnover frequency (TOFmax) for CO2 reduction is similar to that obtained in the native system where the native electron donor ferredoxin ...


Photophysics And Electron Transfer Dynamics Of Type-Ii And Quasi Type-Ii Heterostructure Nanocrystals, Amanda Norell Grennell Jan 2017

Photophysics And Electron Transfer Dynamics Of Type-Ii And Quasi Type-Ii Heterostructure Nanocrystals, Amanda Norell Grennell

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Type-II and quasi type-II heterostructure nanocrystals are known to exhibit extended excited-state lifetimes compared to their single material counterparts because of reduced wavefunction overlap between the electron and hole. Thus, type-II heterostructures are promising materials for solar-to-fuel conversion, as extended excited-state lifetimes make transfer of charges to a catalyst more competitive with intrinsic nanocrystal decay processes. However, due to fast and efficient hole trapping and non-uniform morphologies, the photophysics of dot-in-rod heterostructures are more rich and complex than this simple picture. Using transient absorption spectroscopy, we observe that the behavior of electrons in the CdS “rod” or “bulb” regions of ...


Photophysics And Electron Transfer Dynamics Of Type-Ii And Quasi Type-Ii Heterostructure Nanocrystals, Amanda N. Grennell Jan 2017

Photophysics And Electron Transfer Dynamics Of Type-Ii And Quasi Type-Ii Heterostructure Nanocrystals, Amanda N. Grennell

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Type-II and quasi type-II heterostructure nanocrystals are known to exhibit extended excited-state lifetimes compared to their single material counterparts because of reduced wavefunction overlap between the electron and hole. Thus, type-II heterostructures are promising materials for solar-to-fuel conversion, as extended excited-state lifetimes make transfer of charges to a catalyst more competitive with intrinsic nanocrystal decay processes. However, due to fast and efficient hole trapping and non-uniform morphologies, the photophysics of dot-in-rod heterostructures are more rich and complex than this simple picture. Using transient absorption spectroscopy, we observe that the behavior of electrons in the CdS “rod” or “bulb” regions of ...


The Dawn Of New Quantum Dots: Synthesis And Characterization Of Ge1-Xsnx Nanocrystals For Tunable Bandgaps., Richard J. Esteves Jan 2016

The Dawn Of New Quantum Dots: Synthesis And Characterization Of Ge1-Xsnx Nanocrystals For Tunable Bandgaps., Richard J. Esteves

Theses and Dissertations

Ge1-xSnx alloys are among a small class of benign semiconductors with composition tunable bandgaps in the near-infrared spectrum. As the amount of Sn is increased the band energy decreases and a transition from indirect to direct band structure occurs. Hence, they are prime candidates for fabrication of Si-compatible electronic and photonic devices, field effect transistors, and novel charge storage device applications. Success has been achieved with the growth of Ge1-xSnx thin film alloys with Sn compositions up to 34%. However, the synthesis of nanocrystalline alloys has proven difficult due to larger discrepancies (~14%) in ...


Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal Apr 2015

Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal

Krishna C. Mandal

No abstract provided.


Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal Apr 2015

Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal

Krishna C. Mandal

No abstract provided.


The Optoelectronic Properties Of Surface-Modified Semiconductor Nanocrystal Solids, Earl D. Goodwin Jan 2015

The Optoelectronic Properties Of Surface-Modified Semiconductor Nanocrystal Solids, Earl D. Goodwin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have emerged as fascinating new materials and gained interest in the last 30 years because of their size, shape, and compositionally tunable electronic and optical properties as well as their potential to serve as artificial atoms. Challenges and opportunities have arisen when assembling nanocrystals into nanocrystal solids for electronic and optoelectronic applications, largely because of the significant influence of nanocrystal surface chemistry on the electronic, optical, and structural properties of nanocrystal solids. In order to assemble nanocrystal solids for high performance devices, we must understand and be able to control the effects of nanocrystal surface organic capping ...


Probing The Enzymatic Activity Of Alkaline Phosphatase Within Quantum Dot Bioconjugates, Jonathan C. Claussen, Anthony Malanoski, Joyce C. Breger, Eunkeu Oh, Scott A. Walper, Kimihiro Susumu, Ramasis Goswami, Jeffrey R. Deschamps, Igor L. Medintz Dec 2014

Probing The Enzymatic Activity Of Alkaline Phosphatase Within Quantum Dot Bioconjugates, Jonathan C. Claussen, Anthony Malanoski, Joyce C. Breger, Eunkeu Oh, Scott A. Walper, Kimihiro Susumu, Ramasis Goswami, Jeffrey R. Deschamps, Igor L. Medintz

Jonathan C. Claussen

Enzymes provide the critical means by which to catalyze almost all biological reactions in a controlled manner. Methods to harness and exploit their properties are of strong current interest to the growing field of biotechnology. In contrast to depending upon recombinant genetic approaches, a growing body of evidence suggests that apparent enzymatic activity can be enhanced when located at a nanoparticle interface. We use semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) as a well-defined and easily bioconjugated nanoparticle along with Escherichia coli-derived alkaline phosphatase (AP) as a prototypical enzyme to seek evidence for this process in a de novo model system. We began ...


Designing Nanomaterials For Electronic And Optoelectronic Devices Through Charge Carrier Control, Soong Ju Oh Jan 2014

Designing Nanomaterials For Electronic And Optoelectronic Devices Through Charge Carrier Control, Soong Ju Oh

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have been shown to be promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic device applications because of their unique size-dependent properties and low-cost solution processability. However, the integration of these materials into devices has been challenging due to a lack of available methods to: 1) accurately control charge carrier statistics, such as majority carrier type and concentration, and carrier mobilities, and 2) efficiently passivate surface defects inherent in NC materials arising from their high surface-volume ratio.

In this thesis, we study the fundamental physics of charge carriers paramount for device application. Then, we introduce several measurement techniques to ...


Crystalline Cellulose – Atomistic Modeling Toolkit, Mateo Gomez, Pablo Zavattieri Dr. Oct 2013

Crystalline Cellulose – Atomistic Modeling Toolkit, Mateo Gomez, Pablo Zavattieri Dr.

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Nature has created efficient strategies to make materials with hierarchical internal structure that often exhibit exceptional mechanical properties. One such example is found in cellulose, in fact it is eight times stronger than stainless steel and advantage is that cellulose incredibly cheap, because processing is obtained from purified wood pulp (it is environmental friendly). The most prevalent modeling technique to study the fundamental mechanical behavior of the crystalline cellulose has been Molecular Dynamics (MD). As a predictive tool, MD allows us to study the behavior of crystalline cellulose at the atomic level, and as such, it accurately predicts the crystalline ...


Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal Feb 2013

Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Directed Synthesis And Doping Of Wide Bandgap Semiconducting Oxide Nanocrystals, Thomas Ross Gordon Jan 2013

Directed Synthesis And Doping Of Wide Bandgap Semiconducting Oxide Nanocrystals, Thomas Ross Gordon

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Wide bandgap semiconducting oxide nanocrystals are a useful class of materials with high stability and numerous useful properties. In the field of catalysis, high surface area oxides are commonly used as catalytic supports and have been found to be photocatalytically active for the production of renewable fuels. Ultra high vacuum studies of single crystals indicate that the surface structure and faceting of oxides dramatically influence their catalytic properties. For plasmonics applications, degenerately doped oxide nanocrystals may act as low-loss substitutes for metals, but little is known regarding the influence of particle shape or assembly on their optical response. With the ...


Semiconductor Nanocrystals: From Quantum Dots To Quantum Disks, Zheng Li Aug 2012

Semiconductor Nanocrystals: From Quantum Dots To Quantum Disks, Zheng Li

Theses and Dissertations

The bottom-up colloidal synthesis opened up the possibility of finely tuning and tailoring the semiconductor nanocrystals. Numerous recipes were developed for the preparation of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, especially the traditional quantum dots. However, due to the lack of thorough understanding to those systems, the synthesis chemistry is still on the empirical level. CdS quantum dots synthesis in non-coordinating solvent were taken as a model system to investigate its molecular mechanism and formation process, ODE was identified as the reducing agent for the preparation of CdS nanocrystals, non-injection and low-temperature synthesis methods developed. In this model system, we not only proved ...


Nanocrystals Of Chemotherapeutic Agents For Cancer Theranostics: Development And In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation, Christin P. Hollis Jan 2012

Nanocrystals Of Chemotherapeutic Agents For Cancer Theranostics: Development And In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation, Christin P. Hollis

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

The majority of pharmacologically active chemotherapeutics are poorly water soluble. Solubilization enhancement by the utilization of organic solvents often leads to adverse side effects. Nanoparticle-based cancer therapy, which is passively targeted to the tumor tissue via the enhanced permeation and retention effect, has been vastly developed in recent years. Nanocrystals, which exist as crystalline and carry nearly 100% drug loading, has been explored for delivering antineoplastic agents. Additionally, the hybrid nanocrystal concept offers a novel and simple way to integrate imaging agents into the drug crystals, enabling the achievement of theranostics. The overall objective of this dissertation is to formulate ...


Understanding Molecular Chemistry Of Nanocrystals And Nanostructures: Precursor, Ligand, And Surface Chemistry, Weon-Kyu Koh Aug 2011

Understanding Molecular Chemistry Of Nanocrystals And Nanostructures: Precursor, Ligand, And Surface Chemistry, Weon-Kyu Koh

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The aim of this dissertation is to understand the molecular chemistry of nanomaterials and to correlate their structures to their functions. The first part of this dissertation explores how we can use precursor chemistry to develop a synthetic approach to novel structures of nanomaterials. There will be a demonstration of morphology control in lead chalcogenide nanocrystals following an investigation of the precursor chemistry which gives valuable information on precursor decomposition during the crystal growth. At the same time, there will be a discussion about how we can understand structure-dependent properties of nanomaterials using advanced spectroscopic techniques. Well-established synthetic approaches discussed ...


Nanosized Molecular Sieves Utilized As An Environmentally Friendly Alternative To Antioxidants For Lubricant Oils, Eng-Poh Ng Dr. Jan 2011

Nanosized Molecular Sieves Utilized As An Environmentally Friendly Alternative To Antioxidants For Lubricant Oils, Eng-Poh Ng Dr.

Eng-Poh Ng

Lubricants play a significant part in current environmental considerations since they are an integral and indispensable component of modern technology. The production, application and disposal of the lubricants have to follow increasingly strict requirements for protecting the environment and living organisms. In this respect, molecular sieve (LTL type zeolite) is investigated as a potential environmentally friendly alternative to traditional antioxidant additives for lubricant oils. Accelerated oxidation experiments using pure base oil and additivated base oil in the presence of the LTL molecular sieve are carried out in parallel, and the oxidation processes are monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, chromatography, total ...


Crystallite Phase And Orientation Determinations Of (Mn, Ga) As/Gaas-Crystallites Using Analyzed (Precession) Electron Diffraction Patterns, Ines Häusler, Stavros Nicolopoulos, Edgar F. Rauch, K. Volz, Peter Moeck Jan 2011

Crystallite Phase And Orientation Determinations Of (Mn, Ga) As/Gaas-Crystallites Using Analyzed (Precession) Electron Diffraction Patterns, Ines Häusler, Stavros Nicolopoulos, Edgar F. Rauch, K. Volz, Peter Moeck

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Outline of the presentation:

1. Material system: (Mn,Ga)As/GaAs-crystallites

2. Structure analysis using Nano-beam Diffraction (NBD) Precession Electron Diffraction Technique (PED) --> Structure type I + II

3. Phase and orientation mapping using ASTAR

4. Conclusion


Automated Nanocrystal Orientation And Phase Mapping In The Transmission Electron Microscope On The Basis Of Precession Electron Diffraction, Edgar F. Rauch, Joaquin Portillo, Stavros Nicolopoulos, Daniel Bultreys, Sergei Rouvimov, Peter Moeck Mar 2010

Automated Nanocrystal Orientation And Phase Mapping In The Transmission Electron Microscope On The Basis Of Precession Electron Diffraction, Edgar F. Rauch, Joaquin Portillo, Stavros Nicolopoulos, Daniel Bultreys, Sergei Rouvimov, Peter Moeck

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

An automated technique for the mapping of nanocrystal phases and orientations in a transmission electron microscope is described. It is primarily based on the projected reciprocal lattice geometry that is extracted from electron diffraction spot patterns. Precession electron diffraction patterns are especially useful for this purpose. The required hardware allows for a scanning-precession movement of the primary electron beam on the crystalline sample and can be interfaced to any older or newer mid-voltage transmission electron microscope (TEM). Experimentally obtained crystal phase and orientation maps are shown for a variety of samples. Comprehensive commercial and open-access crystallographic databases may be used ...


Optical Properties Of Photopolymer Layers Doped With Aluminophosphate Nanocrystals, Eng-Poh Ng Dr. Jan 2010

Optical Properties Of Photopolymer Layers Doped With Aluminophosphate Nanocrystals, Eng-Poh Ng Dr.

Eng-Poh Ng

The optical properties of photopolymer layers consisting of an acrylamide-based matrix and microporous aluminophosphate nanocrystals of AEI type are investigated. The compatibility of the photopolymer doped with the nanoparticles is studied. The surface and volume properties of the layers with different levels of doping with microporous nanocrystals are characterized. The effective refractive indices and absorption coefficients of the doped photopolymer layers are determined and used to calculate the refractive index and porosity of pure AEI nanoparticles used as dopants. Volume transmission gratings were recorded in the doped photopolymer layers at different spatial frequencies. By spatial monitoring of the characteristic Raman ...


Automated Crystal Phase And Orientation Mapping Of Nanocrystals In A Transmission Electron Microscope, Peter Moeck, Sergei Rouvimov, Edgar F. Rauch, Stavros Nicolopoulos May 2009

Automated Crystal Phase And Orientation Mapping Of Nanocrystals In A Transmission Electron Microscope, Peter Moeck, Sergei Rouvimov, Edgar F. Rauch, Stavros Nicolopoulos

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

An automated technique for the mapping of nanocrystal phases and orientations in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. It is based on the projected reciprocal lattice geometry that is extracted from electron diffraction spot patterns. The required hardware allows for a scanning‐precession movement of the primary electron beam on the crystalline sample and can be interfaced to any newer or older TEM. The software that goes with this hardware is flexible in its intake of raw data so that it can also create orientation and phase maps of nanocrystal from high resolution TEM (HRTEM) images. When the nanocrystals ...


Precession Electron Diffraction And Its Advantages For Structural Fingerprinting In The Transmission Electron Microscope, Peter Moeck, Sergei Rouvimov Jan 2009

Precession Electron Diffraction And Its Advantages For Structural Fingerprinting In The Transmission Electron Microscope, Peter Moeck, Sergei Rouvimov

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The foundations of precession electron diffraction in a transmission electron microscope are outlined. A brief illustration of the fact that laboratory-based powder X-ray diffraction fingerprinting is not feasible for nanocrystals is given. A procedure for structural fingerprinting of nanocrystals on the basis of structural data that can be extracted from precession electron diffraction spot patterns is proposed.


What More In Nanosized Molecular Sieves, Eng-Poh Ng, Gerardo Majano, Louwanda Lakiss, Svetlana Mintova Jan 2007

What More In Nanosized Molecular Sieves, Eng-Poh Ng, Gerardo Majano, Louwanda Lakiss, Svetlana Mintova

Eng-Poh Ng

No abstract provided.


Lattice Fringe Fingerprinting In Two Dimensions With Database Support, Peter Moeck, B. Seipel, R. Bjorge, P. Fraundorf Jan 2006

Lattice Fringe Fingerprinting In Two Dimensions With Database Support, Peter Moeck, B. Seipel, R. Bjorge, P. Fraundorf

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

A brief introduction to lattice fringe fingerprinting in two dimensions (2D) with database support is given. The method is employed for the identification of the crystal phase of a small ensemble of nanocrystals. The enhanced viability of this method in aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning TEMs (STEMs) is also illustrated.