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2013

Series

Applied Mechanics

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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Bubble And Pattern Formation In Liquid Induced By An Electron Beam, Joseph M. Grogan, Nicholas M. Schneider, Frances M. Ross, Haim H. Bau Dec 2013

Bubble And Pattern Formation In Liquid Induced By An Electron Beam, Joseph M. Grogan, Nicholas M. Schneider, Frances M. Ross, Haim H. Bau

Departmental Papers (MEAM)

Liquid cell electron microscopy has emerged as a powerful technique for in situ studies of nanoscale processes in liquids. An accurate understanding of the interactions between the electron beam and the liquid medium is essential to account for, suppress, and exploit beam effects. We quantify the interactions of high energy electrons with water, finding that radiolysis plays an important role, while heating is typically insignificant. For typical imaging conditions, we find that radiolysis products such as hydrogen and hydrated electrons achieve equilibrium concentrations within seconds. At sufficiently high dose-rate, the gaseous products form bubbles. We image bubble nucleation, growth, and ...