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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Near-Infrared Surface-Enhanced Fluorescence Using Silver Nanoparticles In Solution, Michael D. Furtaw Dec 2013

Near-Infrared Surface-Enhanced Fluorescence Using Silver Nanoparticles In Solution, Michael D. Furtaw

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Fluorescence spectroscopy is a widely used detection technology in many research and clinical assays. Further improvement to assay sensitivity may enable earlier diagnosis of disease, novel biomarker discovery, and ultimately, improved outcomes of clinical care along with reduction in costs. Near-infrared, surface-enhanced fluorescence (NIR-SEF) is a promising approach to improve assay sensitivity via simultaneous increase in signal with a reduction in background. This dissertation describes research conducted with the overall goal to determine the extent to which fluorescence in solution may be enhanced by altering specific variables involved in the formation of plasmonactive nanostructures of dye-labeled protein and silver nanoparticles ...


Ergonomichandle And Articulating Laparoscopictool, M. Susan Hallbeck, Dmitry Oleynikov, Kathryn Done, Tim Judkins, Allison Dimartino, Jonathan Morse, Lawton N. Verner Nov 2013

Ergonomichandle And Articulating Laparoscopictool, M. Susan Hallbeck, Dmitry Oleynikov, Kathryn Done, Tim Judkins, Allison Dimartino, Jonathan Morse, Lawton N. Verner

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The present invention relates to a laparoscopic apparatus. The apparatus includes a handle having a body portion, a top surface, opposite bottom surface, a proximal and distal end. The top surface of the base is contoured to compliment the natural curve of the palm. The apparatus further includes a shaft projecting from the distal end of the handle. The shaft has a proximal and distal end. A control sphere is located on the handle. The control sphere can be moved by one or more of a user's fingers to indicate direction. An end effector is located at the distal ...


Scalar Differential Equation For Slowly-Varying Thickness-Shear Modes In At-Cut Quartz Resonators With Surface Impedance For Acoustic Wave Sensor Application, Huijing He, Jiashi Yang, John A. Kosinski Nov 2013

Scalar Differential Equation For Slowly-Varying Thickness-Shear Modes In At-Cut Quartz Resonators With Surface Impedance For Acoustic Wave Sensor Application, Huijing He, Jiashi Yang, John A. Kosinski

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

For time-harmonic motions, we generalize a 2-D scalar differential equation derived previously by Tiersten for slowly-varying thickness-shear vibrations of AT-cut quartz resonators. The purpose of the generalization is to include the effects of surface acoustic impedance from, e.g., mass layers or fluids for sensor applications. In addition to the variation of fields along the plate thickness, which is considered in the usual 1-D acoustic wave sensor models, the equation obtained also describes in-plane variations of the fields, and therefore can be used to study the vibrations of finite plate sensors with edge effects. The equation is compared with the ...


A New Angle On Microscopic Suspension Feeders Near Boundaries, Rachel E. Pepper, Marcus Roper, Sangjin Ryu, Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Moeto Nagai, Howard A. Stone Oct 2013

A New Angle On Microscopic Suspension Feeders Near Boundaries, Rachel E. Pepper, Marcus Roper, Sangjin Ryu, Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Moeto Nagai, Howard A. Stone

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Microscopic sessile suspension feeders are a critical component in aquatic ecosystems, acting as an intermediate trophic stage between bacteria and higher eukaryotic taxa. Because they live attached to boundaries, it has long been thought that recirculation of the feeding currents produced by sessile suspension feeders inhibits their ability to access fresh fluid. However, previous models for the feeding flows of these organisms assume that they feed by pushing fluid perpendicular to surfaces they live upon, whereas we observe that sessile suspension feeders often feed at an angle to these boundaries. Using experiments and calculations, we show that living suspension feeders ...


Pan Nanofibers And Nanofiber Reinforced Composites, Cheng Ren Aug 2013

Pan Nanofibers And Nanofiber Reinforced Composites, Cheng Ren

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Nanomaterials play an important role in the development of nanotechnology. They possess unique mechanical, physical, and chemical properties coupled with small size and ultrahigh surface area that can provide critical advantages for applications. Continuous nanofibers attract special interest due to their dual nano-macro nature and ability to bridge scales. Nanofibers are being considered for a broad range of applications spanning advanced filters, separation membranes, ultrasensitive sensors, micro/nano actuators, nanoprobes, tissue engineering scaffolds, protective and smart closing, and multifunctional composites. Most of these applications require certain mechanical properties and robustness. However, the literature on the mechanical behavior of nanofibers and ...


Thickness-Shear And Thickness-Twist Vibrations Of Circular At-Cut Quartz Resonators, Huijing He, Jiashi Yang, Qing Jiang Jun 2013

Thickness-Shear And Thickness-Twist Vibrations Of Circular At-Cut Quartz Resonators, Huijing He, Jiashi Yang, Qing Jiang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Exact solutions for free vibration frequencies and modes are obtained for thickness-shear and thickness-twist vibrations of unelectroded circular AT-cut quartz plates governed by the two-dimensional scalar differential equation derived by Tiersten and Smythe. Comparisons are made with experimental results and the widely-used perturbation solution by Tiersten and Smythe under the assumption of weak in-plane anisotropy. Our solution is found to be much closer to the experimental results than the perturbation solution . For the frequency of the fundamental thickness- shear mode, the error of the perturbation method is 0.4549%, significant in resonator applications.


High-Resolution Correlation Spectroscopy Of 13c Spins Near A Nitrogen-Vacancy Centre In Diamond, Abdelghani Laraoui, Florian Dolde, Christian Burk, Friedemann Reinhard, Jorg Wrachtrup, Carlos A. Meriles Apr 2013

High-Resolution Correlation Spectroscopy Of 13c Spins Near A Nitrogen-Vacancy Centre In Diamond, Abdelghani Laraoui, Florian Dolde, Christian Burk, Friedemann Reinhard, Jorg Wrachtrup, Carlos A. Meriles

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Spin complexes comprising the nitrogen-vacancy centre and neighbouring spins are being considered as a building block for a new generation of spintronic and quantum information processing devices. As assembling identical spin clusters is difficult, new strategies are being developed to determine individual node structures with the highest precision. Here we use a pulse protocol to monitor the time evolution of the 13C ensemble in the vicinity of a nitrogenvacancy centre. We observe long-lived time correlations in the nuclear spin dynamics, limited by nitrogen-vacancy spin–lattice relaxation. We use the host 14N spin as a quantum register and demonstrate that hyperfine-shifted ...


Thickness-Shear Vibration Of A Rectangular Quartz Plate With Partial Electrodes, Huijing He, Jiashi Yang, John A. Kosinski, Ji Wang Apr 2013

Thickness-Shear Vibration Of A Rectangular Quartz Plate With Partial Electrodes, Huijing He, Jiashi Yang, John A. Kosinski, Ji Wang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

We study free vibration of a thickness-shear mode crystal resonator of AT-cut quartz. The resonator is a rectangular plate partially and symmetrically electroded at the center with rectangular electrodes. A single-mode, three-dimensional equation governing the thickness-shear displacement is used. A Fourier series solution is obtained. Numerical results calculated from the series show that there exist trapped thickness-shear modes whose vibration is mainly under the electrodes and decays rapidly outside the electrodes. The effects of the electrode size and thickness on the trapped modes are examined.


Study Of The Growth And Switching Kinetics On Ferroelectric Nanocrystals Of Copolymer Vinylidene Fluoride And Trifluoroethylene On An Atomic Force Microscope, R. V. Gaynutdinov, O. A. Lysova, A. L. Tolstikhina, V. M. Fridkin, S. G. Yudin, Stephen Ducharme Mar 2013

Study Of The Growth And Switching Kinetics On Ferroelectric Nanocrystals Of Copolymer Vinylidene Fluoride And Trifluoroethylene On An Atomic Force Microscope, R. V. Gaynutdinov, O. A. Lysova, A. L. Tolstikhina, V. M. Fridkin, S. G. Yudin, Stephen Ducharme

Stephen Ducharme Publications

The growth of nanocrystals obtained from Langmuir-Blodgett films of ferroelectric copolymer consisting of 70% vinylidene fluoride and 30% trifluoroethylene has been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The radius and concentration of nanocrystals are found to depend on the annealing time of the film. A model for nanocrystal growth is proposed which yields adequate time dependences for nanocrystal size parameters. The switching kinetics of individual ferroelectric nanocrystals with an average diameter of 100–200 nm and a height of 15–20 nm has been investigated in the piezoelectric response mode. It is shown that the switching of nanocrystals has an ...


Room-Temperature Organic Ferromagnetism In The Crystalline Poly(3-Hexylthiophene): Phenyl-C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Blend Film, Bin Yang, Zhengguo Xiao, Yongbo Yuan, Tanjore V. Jayaraman, Jeffrey E. Shield, Ralph Skomski, Jinsong Huang Jan 2013

Room-Temperature Organic Ferromagnetism In The Crystalline Poly(3-Hexylthiophene): Phenyl-C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Blend Film, Bin Yang, Zhengguo Xiao, Yongbo Yuan, Tanjore V. Jayaraman, Jeffrey E. Shield, Ralph Skomski, Jinsong Huang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Pronounced ferromagnetism was observed in a crystalline blend film of conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) by using magnetic force microscopy measurements. A substantial room-temperature saturation magnetization of about 0.65 emu g−1 was measured by an alternating gradient field magnetometer. Multiple experimental evidences demonstrate the charge transfer from the P3HT to the PCBM and the formation of P3HT crystal domain are expected to be two critical factors for the originals of room-temperature organic ferromagnetism.


Scaling Of The Coercive Field In Ferroelectrics At The Nanoscale, R. V. Gaynutdinov, M. Minnekaev, S. Mitko, A. L. Tolstikhina, A. Zenkevich, Stephen Ducharme, Vladimir M. Fridkin Jan 2013

Scaling Of The Coercive Field In Ferroelectrics At The Nanoscale, R. V. Gaynutdinov, M. Minnekaev, S. Mitko, A. L. Tolstikhina, A. Zenkevich, Stephen Ducharme, Vladimir M. Fridkin

Stephen Ducharme Publications

The scaling of the coercive field in ferroelectric films at the nanoscale is investigated experimentally. The scaling in the films of copolymer vinylidene fluoride and BaTiO3 with thickness equal by the order of value to the critical domain nucleus size 1–10 nm reveals deviation from the well-known Kay–Dunn law. At this thickness region coercive field does not depend on thickness and coincides with Landau–Ginzburg–Devonshire value.


Review Of Electrochemical And Electrodischarge Machining, Kamlakar P. Rajurkar, M. M. Sundaram, A. P. Malshe Jan 2013

Review Of Electrochemical And Electrodischarge Machining, Kamlakar P. Rajurkar, M. M. Sundaram, A. P. Malshe

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Electrochemical and electro-discharge machining processes are the two major electro-machining processes with unique capabilities. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) and Electrochemical Machining (ECM) offer a better alternative or sometimes the only alternative in generating accurate 3-D complex shaped macro, micro and nano features and components of difficult–to-machine materials. Technological advances reported in electrochemical and electro discharge machining processes, which reflect the state of the art in academic and industrial research and applications, are briefly reviewed in this paper.


Solution-Processed Nanoparticle Super-Float-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor As Un-Cooled Ultraviolet And Infrared Photon Counter, Yongbo Yuan, Qingfeng Dong, Bin Yang, Fawen Guo, Qi Zhang, Ming Han, Jinsong Huang Jan 2013

Solution-Processed Nanoparticle Super-Float-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor As Un-Cooled Ultraviolet And Infrared Photon Counter, Yongbo Yuan, Qingfeng Dong, Bin Yang, Fawen Guo, Qi Zhang, Ming Han, Jinsong Huang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

High sensitivity photodetectors in ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) range have broad civilian and military applications. Here we report on an un-cooled solution-processed UV-IR photon counter based on modified organic field-effect transistors. This type of UV detectors have light absorbing zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) sandwiched between two gate dielectric layers as a floating gate. The photon-generated charges on the floating gate cause high resistance regions in the transistor channel and tune the source-drain output current. This ‘‘super-float-gating’’ mechanism enables very high sensitivity photodetectors with a minimum detectable ultraviolet light intensity of 2.6 photons/µm2s at room temperature ...


Analysis Of Electrically-Forced Vibrations Of Piezoelectric Mesa Resonators, Huijing He, Guo-Quan Nie, Jin-Xi Liu, Jiashi Yang Jan 2013

Analysis Of Electrically-Forced Vibrations Of Piezoelectric Mesa Resonators, Huijing He, Guo-Quan Nie, Jin-Xi Liu, Jiashi Yang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

We study the electrically forced thickness-shear and thickness-twist vibrations of stepped thickness piezoelectric plate mesa resonators made of polarized ceramics or 6-mm class crystals. A theoretical analysis based on the theory of piezoelectricity is performed, and an analytical solution is obtained using the trigonometric series. The electrical admittance, resonant frequencies, and mode shapes are calculated, and strong energy trapping of the modes is observed. Their dependence on the geometric parameters of the resonator is also examined.


Effects Of Mode Coupling On The Admittance Of An At-Cut Quartz Thickness-Shear Resonator, Huijing He, Jiashi Yang, Wei-Ping Zhang, Ji Wang Jan 2013

Effects Of Mode Coupling On The Admittance Of An At-Cut Quartz Thickness-Shear Resonator, Huijing He, Jiashi Yang, Wei-Ping Zhang, Ji Wang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

We study the effects of couplings to flexure and face-shear modes on the admittance of an AT-cut quartz plate thickness-shear mode resonator. Mindlin’s two-dimensional equations for piezoelectric plates are employed. Electrically forced vibration solutions are obtained for three cases: pure thickness-shear mode alone; two coupled modes of thickness shear and flexure; and three coupled modes of thickness shear, flexure, and face shear. Admittance is calculated and its dependence on the driving frequency and the length/thickness ratio of the resonator is examined. Results show that near the thickness-shear resonance, admittance assumes maxima, and that for certain values of the ...


A Mathematical Evaluation Of Hemodynamic Parameters After Carotid Eversion And Conventional Patch Angioplasty, Alexey Kamenskiy, Iraklis I. Pipinos, Yuris A. Dzenis, Prateek K. Gupta, Syed A. Jaffar Kazmi, Jason N. Mactaggart Jan 2013

A Mathematical Evaluation Of Hemodynamic Parameters After Carotid Eversion And Conventional Patch Angioplasty, Alexey Kamenskiy, Iraklis I. Pipinos, Yuris A. Dzenis, Prateek K. Gupta, Syed A. Jaffar Kazmi, Jason N. Mactaggart

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Carotid endarterectomy has a long history in stroke prevention, yet controversy remains concerning optimal techniques. Two methods frequently used are endarterectomy with patch angioplasty (CEAP) and eversion endarterectomy (CEE). The objective of this study was to compare hemodynamics-related stress and strain distributions between arteries repaired using CEAP and CEE. Mathematical models were based on in vivo three-dimensional arterial geometry, pulsatile velocity profiles, and intraluminal pressure inputs obtained from 16 patients with carotid artery disease. These data were combined with experimentally derived nonlinear, anisotropic carotid artery mechanical properties to create fluid-structure interaction models of CEAP and CEE. These models were then ...


A Comparative Study Of The Dry And Wet Nano-Scale Electro-Machining, M. P. Jahan, K. R. Virwani, Kamlakar P. Rajurkar, A. P. Malshe Jan 2013

A Comparative Study Of The Dry And Wet Nano-Scale Electro-Machining, M. P. Jahan, K. R. Virwani, Kamlakar P. Rajurkar, A. P. Malshe

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

In recent years, a nano-electromachining (nano-EM) process based on a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) platform has been demonstrated. Nano-EM is capable of machining nano-features, under both, liquid dielectric (wet nano-EM) and air dielectric (dry nano-EM) media. The objective of this paper is to present a comparative study between the wet and dry nano-EM processes based on process mechanism, machining performance, consistency and dimensional repeatability of these two processes. The comparison of the two processes has been conducted at near field nano-EM, where the gap between the tool electrode and workpiece is 2 nm and the machining is performed at room ...


Wire Electro-Discharge Machining Of Titanium Alloy, Farnaz Nourbakhsh, Kamlakar P. Rajurkar, Ajay P. Malshe, Jian Cao Jan 2013

Wire Electro-Discharge Machining Of Titanium Alloy, Farnaz Nourbakhsh, Kamlakar P. Rajurkar, Ajay P. Malshe, Jian Cao

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper presents an experimental investigation of wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) of titanium alloy. The objective is to investigate the effect of seven process parameters including pulse width, servo reference voltage, pulse current, and wire tension on process performance parameters (such as cutting speed, wire rupture and surface integrity). A Taguchi L18 design of experiment (DOE) has been applied. All experiments have been conducted using Charmilles WEDM. It was also found that the cutting speed increases with peak current and pulse interval. Surface roughness was found to increase with pulse width and decrease with pulse interval. The Analysis of Variance ...


Selective Detection And Automated Counting Of Fluorescently-Labeled Chrysotile Asbestos Using A Dual-Mode High-Throughput Microscopy (Dm-Htm) Method, Myoung-Ock Cho, Hyo Mi Chang, Donghee Lee, Yeon Gyu Yu, Hwataik Han, Jung Kyung Kim Jan 2013

Selective Detection And Automated Counting Of Fluorescently-Labeled Chrysotile Asbestos Using A Dual-Mode High-Throughput Microscopy (Dm-Htm) Method, Myoung-Ock Cho, Hyo Mi Chang, Donghee Lee, Yeon Gyu Yu, Hwataik Han, Jung Kyung Kim

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Phase contrast microscopy (PCM) is a widely used analytical method for airborne asbestos, but it is unable to distinguish asbestos from non-asbestos fibers and requires time-consuming and laborious manual counting of fibers. Previously, we developed a high-throughput microscopy (HTM) method that could greatly reduce human intervention and analysis time through automated image acquisition and counting of fibers. In this study, we designed a dual-mode HTM (DM-HTM) device for the combined reflection and fluorescence imaging of asbestos, and automated a series of built-in image processing commands of ImageJ software to test its capabilities. We used DksA, a chrysotile-adhesive protein, for selective ...


Inducing Neurite Outgrowth By Mechanical Cell Stretch, Suzanne Higgins, Jeong Soon Lee, Ligyeom Ha, Jung Yul Lim Jan 2013

Inducing Neurite Outgrowth By Mechanical Cell Stretch, Suzanne Higgins, Jeong Soon Lee, Ligyeom Ha, Jung Yul Lim

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Establishing extracellular milieus to stimulate neuronal regeneration is a critical need in neuronal tissue engineering. Many studies have used a soluble factor (such as nerve growth factor or retinoic acid [RA]), micropatterned substrate, and electrical stimulation to induce enhanced neurogenesis in neuronal precursor cells. However, little attention has been paid to mechanical stimulation because neuronal cells are not generally recognized as being mechanically functional, a characteristic of mechanoresponsive cells such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and muscle cells. In this study, we performed proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the potential anabolic effects of mechanical stretch to enhance cellular neurogenesis. We cultured human neuroblastoma ...