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Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Commons

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2010

Selected Works

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Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Second-Harmonic Imaging Microscopy Of Living Cells, Paul J. Campagnola, Heather Clark, William A. Mohler, Aaron Lewis (Prof.), Leslie M. Loew Nov 2010

Second-Harmonic Imaging Microscopy Of Living Cells, Paul J. Campagnola, Heather Clark, William A. Mohler, Aaron Lewis (Prof.), Leslie M. Loew

Heather Clark

Second harmonic generation (SHG) has been developed in our laboratories as a high-resolution nonlinear optical imaging microscopy for cellular membranes and intact tissues. SHG shares many of the advantageous features for microscopy of another more established nonlinear optical technique: two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF). Both are capable of optical sectioning to produce threedimensional images of thick specimens and both result in less photodamage to living tissue than confocal microscopy. SHG is complementary to TPEF in that it uses a different contrast mechanism and is most easily detected in the transmitted light optical path. It can be used to image membrane probes ...


A Comparative Study Of Optical Fluorescent Nanosensors ("Pebbles") And Fiber Optic Microsensors For Oxygen Sensing, Z. Chen-Esterlit, S. F. Peteu, Heather Clark, W. Mcdonald, R. Kopelman Nov 2010

A Comparative Study Of Optical Fluorescent Nanosensors ("Pebbles") And Fiber Optic Microsensors For Oxygen Sensing, Z. Chen-Esterlit, S. F. Peteu, Heather Clark, W. Mcdonald, R. Kopelman

Heather Clark

In this paper we report the use of phase sensitive fluorometry to obtain preliminary results from opto-chemical fluorescent oxygen nanosensors. PEBBLE (Probe Encapsulated By Biologically Localized Embedding) sensors were fabricated by immobilizing tris(4,7-diphenyl—1, 10-phenanthroline)Ru(II) chloride and tris(1,10-phenanthroline)Ru(II) chloride within a polyacrylamide matrix. PEBBLEs have diameters of 20-200 nm and exhibit excellent performance for dissolved oxygen detection. Their performance is compared with micrometer-sized (10-20 μm) optical fiber sensors and free dye in solution. Oxygen sensing ability of PEBBLEs was tested in the presence of other quenchers and compared with free dyes in ...


Sub-Wavelength Plasmonic Readout For Direct Linear Analysis Of Optically Tagged Dna, Jonathan Varsanik, William Teynor, John Leblanc, Heather Clark, Jeffrey Krogmeier, Tian Yang, Jonathan Bernstein Nov 2010

Sub-Wavelength Plasmonic Readout For Direct Linear Analysis Of Optically Tagged Dna, Jonathan Varsanik, William Teynor, John Leblanc, Heather Clark, Jeffrey Krogmeier, Tian Yang, Jonathan Bernstein

Heather Clark

This work describes the development and fabrication of a novel nanofluidic flow-through sensing chip that utilizes a plasmonic resonator to excite fluorescent tags with sub-wavelength resolution. We cover the design of the microfluidic chip and simulation of the plasmonic resonator using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) software. The fabrication methods are presented, with testing procedures and preliminary results. This research is aimed at improving the resolution limits of the Direct Linear Analysis (DLA) technique developed by US Genomics. In DLA, intercalating dyes which tag a specific 8 base-pair sequence are inserted in a DNA sample. This sample is pumped though ...


Ultra-Thin-Film Aln Contour-Mode Resonators For Sensing Applications, Matteo Rinaldi, Chiara Zuniga, Gianluca Piazza Sep 2010

Ultra-Thin-Film Aln Contour-Mode Resonators For Sensing Applications, Matteo Rinaldi, Chiara Zuniga, Gianluca Piazza

Matteo Rinaldi

This paper reports on the design and experimental verification of a new class of ultra-thin-film (250 nm) aluminum nitride (AlN) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) contour mode resonators (CMRs) suitable for the fabrication of ultra-sensitive gravimetric sensors. The device thickness was opportunely scaled in order to increase the mass sensitivity, while keeping a constant frequency of operation. In this first demonstration the resonance frequency of the device was set to 178 MHz and a mass sensitivity as high as 38.96 KHz⋅μm2/fg was attained. This device demonstrates the unique capability of the CMR-S technology to decouple resonance frequency from mass ...


Ultra-Thin Super High Frequency Two-Port Aln Contour-Mode Resonators And Filters, Matteo Rinaldi, Chiara Zuniga, Chnegjie Zuo, Gianluca Piazza Sep 2010

Ultra-Thin Super High Frequency Two-Port Aln Contour-Mode Resonators And Filters, Matteo Rinaldi, Chiara Zuniga, Chnegjie Zuo, Gianluca Piazza

Matteo Rinaldi

This paper reports on the demonstration of a new class of ultra-thin (250 nm thick) super high frequency (SHF) AlN piezoelectric two-port resonators and filters. A thickness field excitation scheme was employed to excite a higher order contour extensional mode of vibration in an AlN nano plate (250 nm thick) above 3 GHz and synthesize a 1.96 GHz narrow-bandwidth channel-select filter. The devices of this work are able to operate over a frequency range from 1.9 to 3.5 GHz and are employed to synthesize the highest frequency MEMS filter based on electrically self-coupled AlN contour-mode resonators. Very ...


Münch, Morphology, Microfluidics – Our Structural Problem With The Phloem [Review Article], Michael Knoblauch, Winfried S. Peters Aug 2010

Münch, Morphology, Microfluidics – Our Structural Problem With The Phloem [Review Article], Michael Knoblauch, Winfried S. Peters

Winfried S. Peters

The sieve tubes of the phloem are enigmatic structures. Their role as channels for the distribution of assimilates was established in the 19th century, but their sensitivity to disturbations has hampered the elucidation of their transport mechanisms and its regulation ever since. Ernst Münch's classical monograph of 1930 is generally regarded as the first coherent theory of phloem transport, but the ‘Münchian’ pressure flow mechanism had been discussed already before the turn of the century. Münch's impact rather rested on his simple physical models of the phloem that visualized pressure flow in an intuitive way, and we argue ...


Effect Of Particle Properties And Light Polarization On The Plasmonic Resonances In Metallic Nanoparticles, U. Guler, R. Turan Jul 2010

Effect Of Particle Properties And Light Polarization On The Plasmonic Resonances In Metallic Nanoparticles, U. Guler, R. Turan

U. Guler

The resonance behavior of localized surface plasmons in silver and gold nanoparticles was studied in the visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Arrays of nano-sized gold (Au) and silver (Ag) particles with different properties were produced with electron-beam lithography technique over glass substrates. The effect of the particle size, shape variations, period, thickness, metal type, substrate type and sulfidation were studied via transmission and reflectance measurements. The results are compared with the theoretical calculations based on the DDA simulations performed by software developed in this study. We propose a new intensity modulation technique based on localized surface plasmons ...


Nanoparticle Effects On The Morphology And Mechanical Properties Of Polypropylene Spunbond Webs, Raghavendra Hegde Jul 2010

Nanoparticle Effects On The Morphology And Mechanical Properties Of Polypropylene Spunbond Webs, Raghavendra Hegde

Raghavendra R Hegde Dr

We report morphology and mechanical properties of natural nanoclay incorporated spunbond polypropylene composite webs. Nanocomposite spunbond webs were produced with up to 5 wt % natural nanoclay additives on ReicofilVR -2 spunbond line. Influence of nanoclay on the resin rheological properties, processibility, and mechanical properties of webs were studied. Wide angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis were used to investigate the nanocomposite morphology. Intercalated and flocculated morphology was observed for all the concentrates and for all the spunbond fiber webs. The microstructure and polymer morphology in the presence of additives was characterized using a polarized optical microscope. At higher ...


Knowledge, Capabilities And Manufacturing Innovation: A Us-Europe Comparison, Stephen Roper, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira, Andrea Fernandez-Ribas Mar 2010

Knowledge, Capabilities And Manufacturing Innovation: A Us-Europe Comparison, Stephen Roper, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira, Andrea Fernandez-Ribas

Andrea Fernandez-Ribas

This paper presents a comparative analysis of factors contributing to the innovation performance of manufacturing firms in Georgia (USA), Wales (UK), the West Midlands (UK), and Catalonia (Spain). Enabled by comparable survey data, multivariate probit models are developed to estimate how various types of firms’ innovative activities are influenced by links to external knowledge sources, internal resources, absorptive capacity, and public innovation support. The results suggest the potential for mutual learning. For the European study regions there are insights about how universities in Georgia support innovation. For Georgia and Catalonia there are lessons from UK firms about better capturing potential ...


Morphological Evolution Of Single-Crystal Ultrathin Solid Films, Mikhail Khenner Mar 2010

Morphological Evolution Of Single-Crystal Ultrathin Solid Films, Mikhail Khenner

Mikhail Khenner

An introduction to mathematical modeling of ultrathin solid films and the role of such modeling in nanotechnologies: Educational/Research presentation for senior physics majors


Molecular Dynamics Simulation Of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Oligomers, David Keffer, Qifei Wang, Simioan Petrovan, J. Thomas Dec 2009

Molecular Dynamics Simulation Of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Oligomers, David Keffer, Qifei Wang, Simioan Petrovan, J. Thomas

David Keffer

Molecular dynamics simulations of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) oligomers are performed in the isobaric−isothermal (NpT) ensemble at a state point typical of a finishing reactor. The oligomer size ranges from 1 to 10 repeat units. We report thermodynamic properties (density, potential energy, enthalpy, heat capacity, isothermal compressibility, and thermal expansivity), transport properties (self-diffusivity, zero-shear-rate viscosity, thermal conductivity), and structural properties (pair correlation functions, hydrogen bonding network, chain radius of gyration, chain end-to-end distance) as a function of oligomer size. We compare the results with existing molecular-level theories and experimental data. Scaling exponents as a function of degree of polymerization ...


Molecular Simulations Of H2 Adsorption In Metal-Porphyrin Frameworks (Mpfs): A Potential New Material Evaluation, Ruichang Xiong, David Keffer Dec 2009

Molecular Simulations Of H2 Adsorption In Metal-Porphyrin Frameworks (Mpfs): A Potential New Material Evaluation, Ruichang Xiong, David Keffer

David Keffer

Path integral grand canonical Monte Carlo (PI-GCMC) simulations using standard force fields are carried out to calculate the adsorption of H2 in five metal-porphyrin frameworks (MPFs), a new class of metal organic framework (MOF)-type materials. These simulations are performed at 77 K and room temperature (300 K). The adsorption isotherms of H2 in IRMOF-1 and IRMOF-10 are also calculated as a comparison. All calculations indicate that all MPFs adsorbed a higher weight fraction of H2 than both IRMOF-1 and IRMOF-10, with one exception (MPF-2). The gravimetric hydrogen capacities are still well short of practical goals. The MPFs provide additional ...


Molecular Simulation Images, David Keffer Dec 2009

Molecular Simulation Images, David Keffer

David Keffer

These animations and interactive structures are created from various molecular dynamics simulations and quantum calculations. In order to view the interactive structures, you need the free "Chime" Plug-in. In order to view the movie files (in avi format), you will require the following codec: TSCC codec. This work has been supported by DOE BES, AFOSR, NSF and ACS PRF.


Effective Potentials Between Nanoparticles In Suspension, Gary Grest, Qifei Wang, Pieter In't Veld, David Keffer Dec 2009

Effective Potentials Between Nanoparticles In Suspension, Gary Grest, Qifei Wang, Pieter In't Veld, David Keffer

David Keffer

Results of molecular dynamics simulations are presented for the pair distribution function between nanoparticles in an explicit solvent as a function of nanoparticle diameter and interaction strength between the nanoparticle and solvent. The effect of including the solvent explicitly is demonstrated by comparing the pair distribution function of nanoparticles to that in an implicit solvent. The nanoparticles are modeled as a uniform distribution of Lennard-Jones particles, while the solvent is represented by standard Lennard-Jones particles. The diameter of the nanoparticle is varied from 10 to 25 times that of the solvent for a range of nanoparticle volume fractions. As the ...


Dynamics Of Individual Molecules Of Linear Polyethylene Liquids Under Shear: Atomistic Simulation And Comparison With A Free-Draining Bead-Rod Chain, David Keffer, J. Kim, B. Edwards, B. Khomami Dec 2009

Dynamics Of Individual Molecules Of Linear Polyethylene Liquids Under Shear: Atomistic Simulation And Comparison With A Free-Draining Bead-Rod Chain, David Keffer, J. Kim, B. Edwards, B. Khomami

David Keffer

Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations of a dense liquid composed of linear polyethylene chains were performed to investigate the chain dynamics under shear. Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations of a freely jointed chain with equivalent contour length were also performed in the case of a dilute solution. This allowed for a close comparison of the chain dynamics of similar molecules for two very different types of liquids. Both simulations exhibited a distribution of the end-to-end vector, |Rete|, with Gaussian behavior at low Weissenberg number (Wi). At high Wi, the NEMD distribution was bimodal, with two peaks associated with rotation and ...


A Tangent-Plane, Marker-Particle Method For The Computation Of Three-Dimensional Solid Surfaces Evolving By Surface Diffusion On A Substrate, Ping Du, Mikhail Khenner, Harris Wong Dec 2009

A Tangent-Plane, Marker-Particle Method For The Computation Of Three-Dimensional Solid Surfaces Evolving By Surface Diffusion On A Substrate, Ping Du, Mikhail Khenner, Harris Wong

Mikhail Khenner

We introduce a marker-particle method for the computation of three-dimensional solid surface morphologies evolving by surface diffusion. The method does not use gridding of surfaces or numerical differentiation, and applies to surfaces with finite slopes and overhangs. We demonstrate the method by computing the evolution of perturbed cylindrical wires on a substrate. We show that computed growth rates at early times agree with those predicted by the linear stability analysis. Furthermore, when the marker particles are redistributed periodically to maintain even spacing, the method can follow breakup of the wire.


Oscillatory And Monotonic Modes Of Long-Wave Marangoni Convection In A Thin Film, Sergey Shklyaev, Mikhail Khenner, Alexei Alabuzhev Dec 2009

Oscillatory And Monotonic Modes Of Long-Wave Marangoni Convection In A Thin Film, Sergey Shklyaev, Mikhail Khenner, Alexei Alabuzhev

Mikhail Khenner

We study long-wave Marangoni convection in a layer heated from below. Using the scaling k=O#1;#3;Bi#2;, where k is the wave number and Bi is the Biot number, we derive a set of amplitude equations. Analysis of this set shows presence of monotonic and oscillatory modes of instability. Oscillatory mode has not been previously found for such direction of heating. Studies of weakly nonlinear dynamics demonstrate that stable steady and oscillatory patterns can be found near the stability threshold.


Thickness-Dependent Spontaneous Dewetting Morphology Of Ultrathin Ag Films, H Krishna, R Sachan, J Strader, C Favazza, Mikhail Khenner, Ramki Kalyanaraman Dec 2009

Thickness-Dependent Spontaneous Dewetting Morphology Of Ultrathin Ag Films, H Krishna, R Sachan, J Strader, C Favazza, Mikhail Khenner, Ramki Kalyanaraman

Mikhail Khenner

We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO2 under nanosecond laser melting is found to be film thickness dependent. For films with thickness h between 2<=h<=9.5 nm, the intermediate stages of the morphology consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films 11.5<=h<=20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly-sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films [A. Shama et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., v81, pp3463 (1998); R. Seemann et al, J. Phys. Cond. Matt., v13, pp4925, (2001)]. Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for Ag on SiO2. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.


Super-High-Frequency Two-Port Aln Contour-Mode Resonators For Rf Applications, Matteo Rinaldi, Chiara Zuniga, Chengjie Zuo, Gianluca Piazza Dec 2009

Super-High-Frequency Two-Port Aln Contour-Mode Resonators For Rf Applications, Matteo Rinaldi, Chiara Zuniga, Chengjie Zuo, Gianluca Piazza

Matteo Rinaldi

This paper reports on the design and experimental verification of a new class of thin-film (250 nm) super-high-frequency laterally-vibrating piezoelectric microelectromechanical (MEMS) resonators suitable for the fabrication of narrow-band MEMS filters operating at frequencies above 3 GHz. The device dimensions have been opportunely scaled both in the lateral and vertical dimensions to excite a contour-extensional mode of vibration in nanofeatures of an ultra-thin (250 nm) AlN film. In this first demonstration, 2-port resonators vibrating up to 4.5 GHz have been fabricated on the same die and attained electromechanical coupling, kt2, in excess of 1.5%. These devices are employed ...


2009 Report Of Crerg Research Activities, João F. Gomes Dec 2009

2009 Report Of Crerg Research Activities, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

No abstract provided.


Toxicological Assessment Of Coated Versus Uncoated Rubber Granulates Obtained From Used Tires For Use In Sport Facilities, João F. Gomes Dec 2009

Toxicological Assessment Of Coated Versus Uncoated Rubber Granulates Obtained From Used Tires For Use In Sport Facilities, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

Reuse of tire crumb in sport facilities is currently a very cost-effective waste management measure. Considering that incorporation of the waste materials in artificial turf would be facilitated if the rubber materials were already colored green, coatings were specifically developed for this purpose. This paper presents an experimental toxicological and environmental assessment aimed at comparing the obtained emissions to the environment in terms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and ecotoxicity for coated and noncoated rubber granulates. This study is a comprehensive evaluation of the major potential critical factors related with the release of all of these classes of ...