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Articles 781 - 810 of 833

Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Pamam Dendrimer-Based Therapeutic And Diagnostic Nanodevices, Admira Bosnjakovic Jan 2011

Pamam Dendrimer-Based Therapeutic And Diagnostic Nanodevices, Admira Bosnjakovic

Wayne State University Dissertations

Dendrimers are ideal materials to be used in the emerging field of nanomedicine. Their nanoscale size and high density of functional groups on their peripheries allow them to be used for various biomedical applications. This work exploits dendrimers as drug delivery vehicles and a versatile platform for capturing biomarkers with improved sensitivity and specificity. Hydroxyl terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM-OH) was modified with a linker having amine group at the end and conjugated to two drugs, erythromycin (EM) and allopregnanonolne, respectively and evaluated in vitro. Both drugs were provided with a linker having carboxylic group required for conjugation reaction with ...


Preparation And Characterization Of Iron Oxide And Hydroxide Based Nanomaterials, Guillermo Carbajal Franco Jan 2011

Preparation And Characterization Of Iron Oxide And Hydroxide Based Nanomaterials, Guillermo Carbajal Franco

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Iron (Fe) oxides and hydroxides are common and abundant materials. They exhibit diverse crystal structures, properties and phenomena by virtue of which they find a wide range of scientific and technological applications. Controlled growth and manipulation of the specific structure and electronic behavior to meet the requirements of a given application is a challenging problem in view of many possible phases and composition of the resulting materials. The preparation method and experimental conditions will, therefore, significantly affect the properties and performance of Fe oxides and hydroxides. The goal of the project is to obtain Fe-based oxide/hydroxide catalytic materials and ...


Magneto-Dielectric Polymer Nanocomposite Engineered Substrate For Rf And Microwave Antennas, Cesar A. Morales Jan 2011

Magneto-Dielectric Polymer Nanocomposite Engineered Substrate For Rf And Microwave Antennas, Cesar A. Morales

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents the first reported systematic investigation on the implementation of multilayer patch antennas over Fe3O4-based polymer nanocomposite (PNC) magneto-dielectric substrates. The PNC substrate is created by the monodispersion of Fe3O4 nanopthesiss, with mean size of 7.5nm, in a polymeric matrix of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

Recently, magneto-dielectric substrates have been proposed by several researchers as a means for decreasing the size and increasing the bandwidth of planar antennas. Nevertheless, factors such as high loss and diminished control over magnetic and dielectric properties have hindered the optimal performance of antennas. In addition, the incompatibility and elevated complexity prevents integration of ...


Thermophysical Characterization Of Nanofluids Through Molecular Dynamic Simulations, John Shelton Jan 2011

Thermophysical Characterization Of Nanofluids Through Molecular Dynamic Simulations, John Shelton

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, an analysis of the key thermophysical properties critical to heat transfer processes is performed. Replication of thermal conductivity and shear viscosity observations found in experimental investigations were performed using a theoretical nanopthesis-fluid system and a novel colloid-fluid interaction potential to investigate the key nanofluid parameters. Analysis of both the heat current (thermal conductivity) and stress (shear viscosity) autocorrelation functions have suggested that the dominant physical mechanisms for thermal and momentum transport arises from enhancements to the longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes energy transfer brought about by the increased mass ratio of the nanopthesis to the ...


Design, Synthesis And Test Of Reversible Circuits For Emerging Nanotechnologies, Himanshu Thapliyal Jan 2011

Design, Synthesis And Test Of Reversible Circuits For Emerging Nanotechnologies, Himanshu Thapliyal

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Reversible circuits are similar to conventional logic circuits except that they are built from reversible gates. In reversible gates, there is a unique, one-to-one mapping between the inputs and outputs, not the case with conventional logic. Also, reversible gates require constant ancilla

inputs for reconfiguration of gate functions and garbage outputs that help in keeping reversibility. Reversible circuits hold promise in futuristic computing technologies like quantum computing, quantum dot cellular automata, DNA computing, optical computing, etc. Thus, it is important to

minimize parameters such as ancilla and garbage bits, quantum cost and delay in the design of reversible circuits.

The ...


Sub-Cooled Pool Boiling Enhancement With Nanofluids, Elliott Charles Rice Jan 2011

Sub-Cooled Pool Boiling Enhancement With Nanofluids, Elliott Charles Rice

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Phase-change heat transfer is an important process used in many engineering thermal designs. Boiling is an important phase change phenomena as it is a common heat transfer process in many thermal systems. Phase change processes are critical to thermodynamic cycles as most closed loop systems have an evaporator, in which the phase change process occurs. There are many applications/processes in which engineers employ the advantages of boiling heat transfer, as they seek to improve heat transfer performance. Recent research efforts have experimentally shown that nanofluids can have significantly better heat transfer properties than those of the pure base fluids ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Electrospun Cactus Mucilage Nanofibers, Yanay Pais Jan 2011

Fabrication And Characterization Of Electrospun Cactus Mucilage Nanofibers, Yanay Pais

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This work seeks to fabricate, optimize, and characterize nanofibers of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage and Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by electrospinning. Mucilage is a neutral mixture of sugars produced by cactus and PVA is a non-toxic, water-soluble, synthetic polymer, which is widely used as a co-spinning agent for polymers. Mucilage was extracted from the cactus pad and prepared for electrospinning by mixing with acetic acid. Two types of PVA were used differentiating in high and low molecular weights. Concentrations of PVA were varied to find an adequate threshold for fiber formation. Changing the ratio of PVA to cactus mucilage produced ...


Enhanced Field Emission From Vertically Oriented Graphene By Thin Solid Film Coatings, Michael Bagge-Hansen Jan 2011

Enhanced Field Emission From Vertically Oriented Graphene By Thin Solid Film Coatings, Michael Bagge-Hansen

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Recent progress and a coordinated national research program have brought considerable effort to bear on the synthesis and application of carbon nanostructures for field emission. at the College of William and Mary, we have developed field emission arrays of vertically oriented graphene (carbon nanosheets, CNS) that have demonstrated promising cathode performance, delivering emission current densities up to 2 mA/mm2 and cathode lifetime >800 hours. The work function (&phis;) of CNS and other carbonaceous cathode materials has been reported to be &phis;∼4.5-5.1 eV. The application of low work function thin films can achieve several orders of magnitude enhancement of ...


Artificial And Natural Nucleic Acid Self Assembling Systems, Marcus Wood Jan 2011

Artificial And Natural Nucleic Acid Self Assembling Systems, Marcus Wood

Wayne State University Dissertations

Nucleic acids are good candidates for nanomachine construction. They participate in all the processes of life, and so can function as structural building blocks and dynamic catalysts. However, to use nucleic acids as nanomachines, a better understanding of their material properties, how to design structures using them, and their dynamics is needed. We have tried to address these issues, in a small way, with nucleic acid force field development, an attempt at nanostructural design and synthesis using DNA, and a study of the RNA/protein regulatory dynamics of the tryptophan regulatory attenuation protein.


Field Effect And Magnetically Induced Capacitive Tuning In Hole Doped La1-Xsrxmno3, Zsolt Marton Dec 2010

Field Effect And Magnetically Induced Capacitive Tuning In Hole Doped La1-Xsrxmno3, Zsolt Marton

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Electrostatic modulation of interface conduction between semiconductors and insulating oxides is the foundation of semiconductor technology. This field effect concept can be applied on complex oxides, such as high temperature superconductors and colossal magnetoresistive manganites, in order to create new electronic and magnetic phases. Competition and coexistence of multiple nanoscale phases make them exciting to study around phase transitions. This study on hole doped La1-xSrxMnO3 systems has a two-fold purpose.

One is the demonstration of the field effect on La1-xSrxMnO3 (x = 0.125, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5) thin films. It is an important step towards electrostatic control of ...


Patterning Of Alloy Precipitation Through External Pressure, Jack A. Franklin Dec 2010

Patterning Of Alloy Precipitation Through External Pressure, Jack A. Franklin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Due to the nature of their microstructure, alloyed components have the benefit of meeting specific design goals across a wide range of electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. In general by selecting the correct alloy system and applying a proper heat treatment it is possible to create a metallic sample whose properties achieve a unique set of design requirements. This dissertation presents an innovative processing technique intended to control both the location of formation and the growth rates of precipitates within metallic alloys in order to create multiple patterned areas of unique microstructure within a single sample. Specific experimental results for ...


Studies On The Preparation And Luminescence Properties Of Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots, Their Immobilization, And Applications., Travis Justin Heath Dec 2010

Studies On The Preparation And Luminescence Properties Of Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots, Their Immobilization, And Applications., Travis Justin Heath

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quantum dots are semiconductive particles whose properties are highly influenced by the presence of at least one electron. Cadmium selenide quantum dots were synthesized via colloidal synthesis. Contrary to previous preparations, more focus was placed on the temperature rather than the duration of time at which they form. A series of colored solutions were obtained because the excited quantum dots of various sizes emitted specific wavelengths of light. The emission spectra showed that the temperature-dependent quantum dots were successfully synthesized. The quantum dots were also immobilized on various surfaces, and the luminescence properties were examined. The quantum dots that were ...


Energetics And Kinetics Of Dislocation Initiation In The Stressed Volume At Small Scales, Tianlei Li Dec 2010

Energetics And Kinetics Of Dislocation Initiation In The Stressed Volume At Small Scales, Tianlei Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Instrumented nanoindentation techniques have been widely used in characterizing mechanical behavior of materials in small length scales. For defect-free single crystals under nanoindentation, the onset of elastic-plastic transition is often shown by a sudden displacement burst in the measured load-displacement curve. It is believed to result from the homogeneous dislocation nucleation because the maximum shear stress at the pop-in load approaches the theoretical strength of the material and because statistical measurements agree with a thermally activated process of homogeneous dislocation nucleation. For single crystals with defects, the pop-in is believed to result from the sudden motion of pre-existing dislocations or ...


Molecular Physics Of Electrical Double Layers In Electrochemical Capacitors, Guang Feng Dec 2010

Molecular Physics Of Electrical Double Layers In Electrochemical Capacitors, Guang Feng

All Dissertations

At present, electrochemical capacitors (ECs) are emerging as a novel type of energy storage devices and have attracted remarkable attention, due to their key characteristics, such as high power density and excellent durability. However, the moderate energy density of ECs restricts their widespread deployment in everyday technology. To surmount this limitation, four strategies are adopted: (1) to reduce the total system mass, (2) to increase the specific surface area of electrodes, (3) to enhance normalized capacitance, and (4) to expand the range of potentials applied on electrodes. The implementation of these approaches critically relies on the fundamental understanding of physical ...


Synthesis, Stabilization, And Characterization Of Metal Nanoparticles, Gregory White Ii Dec 2010

Synthesis, Stabilization, And Characterization Of Metal Nanoparticles, Gregory White Ii

All Dissertations

Wet chemical synthesis techniques offer the ability to control various nanoparticle characteristics including size, shape, dispersibility in both aqueous and organic solvents, and tailored surface chemistries appropriate for different applications. Large quantities of stabilizing ligands or surfactants are often required during synthesis to achieve these nanoparticle characteristics. Unfortunately, excess reaction byproducts, surfactants, and ligands remaining in solution after nanoparticle synthesis can impede application, and therefore post-synthesis purification must be employed. A liquid-liquid solvent/anti-solvent pair (typically ethanol/toluene or ethanol/hexane for gold nanoparticles, GNPs) can be used to both purify and size-selectively fractionate hydrophobically modified nanoparticles. Alternatively, carbon dioxide ...


Microbiorobots For Single Cell Manipulation, Mahmut Selman Sakar Nov 2010

Microbiorobots For Single Cell Manipulation, Mahmut Selman Sakar

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

One of the great challenges in nano and micro scale science and engineering is the independent manipulation of biological cells and small man-made objects with active sensing. For such biomedical applications as single cell manipulation, telemetry, and localized targeted delivery of chemicals, it is important to fabricate microstructures that can be powered and controlled without a tether in fluidic environments. These microstructures can be used to develop microrobots that have the potential to make existing therapeutic and diagnostic procedures less invasive.

Actuation can be realized using various different organic and inorganic methods. Previous studies explored different forms of actuation and ...


Atomic Force Microscopy For Better Probing Surface Properties At Nanoscale: Calibration, Design And Application, Yu Liu Oct 2010

Atomic Force Microscopy For Better Probing Surface Properties At Nanoscale: Calibration, Design And Application, Yu Liu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

To measure force by AFM with high resolution requires accurate calibration of optic – lever detection sensitivity and spring constant. On biological AFM force mode, the coupling effects of the liquid environment, spot size of laser beam and laser spot location on AFM cantilever backside, must be considered to correlate the static sensitivities from force curves in air and in liquid for calibration. An effective model has been developed first and experimentally elucidated to calibrate the static sensitivity in liquid. The proposed model eliminates inconvenience of static sensitivity calibration in liquid with possible contamination sources.

The static sensitivity based on force ...


Surface Morphology Of Platelet Adhesion Influenced By Activators, Inhibitors And Shear Stress, Melanie Groan Watson Oct 2010

Surface Morphology Of Platelet Adhesion Influenced By Activators, Inhibitors And Shear Stress, Melanie Groan Watson

Doctoral Dissertations

Platelet activation involves multiple events, one of which is the generation and release of nitric oxide (NO), a platelet aggregation inhibitor. Platelets simultaneously send and receive various agents that promote a positive and negative feedback control system during hemostasis. Although the purpose of platelet-derived NO is not fully understood, NO is known to inhibit platelet recruitment. NO's relatively large diffusion coefficient allows it to diffuse more rapidly than platelet agonists. It may thus be able to inhibit recruitment of platelets near the periphery of a growing thrombus before agonists have substantially accumulated in those regions.

Results from two studies ...


Halloysite Clay Nanotubes For Controlled Delivery Of Chemically Active Agents, Elshard Abdullayev Oct 2010

Halloysite Clay Nanotubes For Controlled Delivery Of Chemically Active Agents, Elshard Abdullayev

Doctoral Dissertations

In this work we explored the capabilities of halloysite nanotubes as capsules for encapsulation and controlled delivery of the chemically and biologically active substances. Halloysite is a two-layered aluminosilicate which has a predominantly hollow tubular structure in the submicron range and is chemically similar to kaolinite [1, 2].

In the first section of this work, we analyzed the structure of the halloysite nanotubes as well as its capability to encapsulate and deliver biologically and chemically active agents, similarities and differences between release characteristics of different agents and how these differences relate with their chemical structure. Models were used to describe ...


An Improved Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembly Technique To Generate Biointerfaces For Platelet Adhesion Studies: Dynamic Lbl, Juan Manuel Lopez Oct 2010

An Improved Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembly Technique To Generate Biointerfaces For Platelet Adhesion Studies: Dynamic Lbl, Juan Manuel Lopez

Doctoral Dissertations

Layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL) is a technique that generates engineered nano-scale films, coatings, and particles. These nanoscale films have recently been used in multiple biomedical applications. Concurrently, microfabrication methods and advances in microfluidics are being developed and combined to create "Lab-on-a-Chip" technologies. The potential to perform complex biological assays in vitro as a first-line screening technique before moving on to animal models has made the concept of lab on a chip a valuable research tool.

Prior studies in the Biofluids Laboratory at Louisiana Tech have used layer-by-layer and in vitro biological assays to study thrombogenesis in a controlled, repeatable, engineered environment ...


Providing A Theoretical Basis For Nanotoxicity Risk Analysis Departing From Traditional Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (Pbpk) Modeling, Dirk P. Yamamoto Sep 2010

Providing A Theoretical Basis For Nanotoxicity Risk Analysis Departing From Traditional Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (Pbpk) Modeling, Dirk P. Yamamoto

Theses and Dissertations

The same novel properties of engineered nanoparticles that make them attractive may also present unique exposure risks. But, the traditional physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling assumption of instantaneous equilibration likely does not apply to nanoparticles. This simulation-based research begins with development of a model that includes diffusion, active transport, and carrier mediated transport. An eigenvalue analysis methodology was developed to examine model behavior to focus future research. Simulations using the physicochemical properties of size, shape, surface coating, and surface charge were performed and an equation was determined which estimates area under the curve for arterial blood concentration, which is a surrogate ...


Macrophages Loaded With Gold Nanoshells For Photothermal Ablation Of Glioma: An In Vitro Model, Amani Riad Makkouk Aug 2010

Macrophages Loaded With Gold Nanoshells For Photothermal Ablation Of Glioma: An In Vitro Model, Amani Riad Makkouk

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The current median survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common type of glioma, remains at 14.6 months despite multimodal treatments (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy). This research aims to study the feasibility of photothermal ablation of glioma using gold nanoshells that are heated upon laser irradiation at their resonance wavelength. The novelty of our approach lies in improving nanoshell tumor delivery by loading them in macrophages, which are known to be recruited to gliomas via tumor-released chemoattractive agents. Ferumoxides, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, are needed as an additional macrophage load in order to visualize macrophage accumulation ...


Fabrication, Characterization And Simulation Of Non-Lithographic Nanostructures And Their Potential Applications, Neelanjan Bhattacharya Aug 2010

Fabrication, Characterization And Simulation Of Non-Lithographic Nanostructures And Their Potential Applications, Neelanjan Bhattacharya

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The dissertation describes the formation of porous silicon through the pores of porous alumina on a silicon substrate. Porous silicon, by itself, is inherently a non-uniform material that has non-uniform optical and electronic properties. In addition, it is also mechanically fragile material requiring careful material handling. The porous silicon fabricated through the nanosized pores of porous alumina are expected to mitigate these problems, thereby enhancing commercial viability of the device. The porous silicon as well the porous alumina have been synthesized through anodisation for various parameters and also various types of anodizing electrolytes. The porous silicon, so obtained have been ...


Methods For Characterizing Mechanical Properties Of Wood Cell Walls Via Nanoindentation, Yujie Meng Aug 2010

Methods For Characterizing Mechanical Properties Of Wood Cell Walls Via Nanoindentation, Yujie Meng

Masters Theses

Nanoindentation is a method of contacting a material whose mechanical properties are unknown with another material whose properties are known. Nanoindentation has the advantage of being able to probe a material’s microstructure while being sensitive enough to detect variations in mechanical properties. However, nanoindentation has some limitations as a testing technique due to the specific formation and structure of some biomaterials. The main objective of this research is to identify any factors that influence the nanoindentation measurement of wood cell walls (a typical biomaterial).

The function of the embedding media in describing the properties of wood cells is poorly ...


The Applications And Limitations Of Printable Batteries, Matthew Delmanowski Jun 2010

The Applications And Limitations Of Printable Batteries, Matthew Delmanowski

Graphic Communication

This study focuses on the potential applications for printed batteries and how they could affect the printing industry. It also analyzes the main problems associated with manufacturing this technology and what needs to be done to overcome these issues. To find the answers to these questions, two methods of research were used. The first was through the elite and specialized interviewing of Dr. Scott Williams of Rochester Institute of Technology and Professor Nancy Cullins from Cal Poly. The second form of research was a common, yet useful, method called secondary research. This entailed looking at recent written research papers about ...


The Characterization And Analysis Of In-Vitro And Elevated Temperature Repassivation Of Ti-6al-4v Via Afm Techniques, Aaron J. Guerrero Jun 2010

The Characterization And Analysis Of In-Vitro And Elevated Temperature Repassivation Of Ti-6al-4v Via Afm Techniques, Aaron J. Guerrero

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ABSTRACT

The Characterization and Analysis of In-vitro and Elevated Temperature Repassivation of

Ti-6Al-4V via AFM Techniques

Aaron J Guerrero

Research in the corrosion of orthopaedic implants is a growing research field where implants have been known to show adverse effects in patients who have encountered the unfortunate dissolution of their implants due to corrosion. Once corrosion begins within the body, many adverse biological reactions can occur such as late on-set infections resulting in severe health complications. The focus of this research is specifically related to the problem of late on-set infections caused by localized corrosion of orthopaedic implants. In medical ...


Enhanced Light Extraction Efficiency From Gan Light Emitting Diodes Using Photonic Crystal Grating Structures, Simeon S. Trieu Jun 2010

Enhanced Light Extraction Efficiency From Gan Light Emitting Diodes Using Photonic Crystal Grating Structures, Simeon S. Trieu

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Gallium nitride (GaN) light emitting diodes (LED) embody a large field of research that aims to replace inefficient, conventional light sources with LEDs that have lower power, higher luminosity, and longer lifetime. This thesis presents an international collaboration effort between the State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics in Peking University (PKU) of Beijing, China and the Electrical Engineering Department of California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. Over the course of 2 years, Cal Poly’s side has simulated GaN LEDs within the pure blue wavelength spectrum (460nm), focusing specifically on the effects of reflection gratings, transmission gratings, top and ...


Molecular Simulations Of Adsorption And Diffusion In Metal-Organic Frameworks (Mofs), Ruichang Xiong May 2010

Molecular Simulations Of Adsorption And Diffusion In Metal-Organic Frameworks (Mofs), Ruichang Xiong

Doctoral Dissertations

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new class of nanoporous materials that have received great interest since they were first synthesized in the late 1990s. Practical applications of MOFs are continuously being discovered as a better understanding of the properties of materials adsorbed within the nanopores of MOFs emerges. One such potential application is as a component of an explosive-sensing system. Another potential application is for hydrogen storage.

This work is focused on tailoring MOFs to adsorb/desorb the explosive, RDX. Classical grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations have been performed to calculate adsorption isotherms and self-diffusivities ...


Analysis Of Conjugated Polymer Nanotubules Formed By Template Wetting Nanofabrication, Steven D. Bearden Jr. Apr 2010

Analysis Of Conjugated Polymer Nanotubules Formed By Template Wetting Nanofabrication, Steven D. Bearden Jr.

Doctoral Dissertations

Semiconducting and optoelectric conjugated polymers have potential in micro and nano-electronic applications. Their widely tunable physical conformations and orientations make these polymers ideal material for engineering small scale devices. The polymers have been incorporated into several electronic devices including light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and field-effect transistors. Widespread adoption of these materials will not be a reality until the issues of poor device performance, short lifespans, and device degradation are resolved.

Nanostructures have been demonstrated to have improvements in molecular ordering and electronic transport. In the work presented here, tubular nanostructures of conjugated polymers fabricated by the template wetting nanofabrication process ...


Galvanic Porous Silicon: Processing And Characterization For Nanoenergetics, Collin R. Becker Jan 2010

Galvanic Porous Silicon: Processing And Characterization For Nanoenergetics, Collin R. Becker

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Porous silicon (PS) is a silicon (Si) based material composed of pores with diameters ranging from several nanometers to several micrometers. Typically PS is formed by electrochemically etching a Si wafer in a hydrofluoric acid (HF) based electrolyte. This route requires a custom built etch cell and a power supply and is difficult to integrate with the batch processing techniques of conventional Microsystems fabrication. In the first part of this work, a galvanic etching approach is used to fabricate PS in which neither a power supply nor custom etch cell are required. Galvanic etching methods are developed to fabricate thick ...