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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Increasing Ph In Cancer: Enabling A New Therapeutic Paradigm Using Novel Carbonate Nanoparticles, Avik Som May 2018

Increasing Ph In Cancer: Enabling A New Therapeutic Paradigm Using Novel Carbonate Nanoparticles, Avik Som

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Enormous progress has been made to treat cancer, and yet the mortality rate of cancer remains unacceptably high. High clinical resistance to molecularly targeted therapeutics has pushed interest again towards inhibiting universal biochemical hallmarks of cancer. Recent evidence suggests that malignant tumors acidify the local extracellular environment to activate proteases for degrading the tumor matrix, which facilitates metastasis, and explains why more aggressive tumors are more acidic. Current therapies have only focused on using the low pH for enhancing drug release in tumors, thereby still relying on the traditional paradigm of intracellular inhibition of pathways, a method that continues to ...


Mechanistic Modeling Of Nanoparticle-Stabilized Supercritical Co2 Foams And Its Implication In Field-Scale Eor Applications, Doris Patricia Ortiz Maestre Nov 2017

Mechanistic Modeling Of Nanoparticle-Stabilized Supercritical Co2 Foams And Its Implication In Field-Scale Eor Applications, Doris Patricia Ortiz Maestre

LSU Master's Theses

Previous experimental studies show that nanoparticle-stabilized supercritical CO2 foams (or, NP CO2 foams) can be applied as an alternative to surfactant foams, in order to reduce CO2 mobility in gas injection enhanced oil recovery (EOR). These nanoparticles, if chosen correctly, can be an effective foam stabilizer attached at the fluid interface in a wide range of physicochemical conditions.

By using NP CO2 foam experiments available in the literature, this study performs two tasks: (i) presenting how a mechanistic foam model can be used to fit experimental data and determine required model parameters, and (ii) investigating the ...


Magnetic Field-Induced Intramolecular Cyclization As A Trigger For Nanoparticle-Based Delivery Systems., Sara Katherine Biladeau Aug 2017

Magnetic Field-Induced Intramolecular Cyclization As A Trigger For Nanoparticle-Based Delivery Systems., Sara Katherine Biladeau

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are used in a variety of applications, including as agents for magnetic resonance imaging, generation of local hyperthermia, and as platforms for drug delivery. Iron-based MNPs are often coated with a shell, such as silica or gold, to increase biocompatibility for drug delivery applications. Many MNPs used for cancer therapy rely on either an internal trigger, such as a difference in pH, or an external trigger, such as light or an alternating magnetic field (AMF), to cause release of a payload, typically a chemotherapeutic drug. Internal triggers are appealing because drug release can be targeted to a ...


Peptide-Directed Nanoparticle Synthesis With A Denovo Pd-Binding Sequence Fused To A Reporter Protein, Rita Eloisa Tejada Vaprio Aug 2017

Peptide-Directed Nanoparticle Synthesis With A Denovo Pd-Binding Sequence Fused To A Reporter Protein, Rita Eloisa Tejada Vaprio

Theses and Dissertations

There is a need for low-cost nanoparticle materials in the context of new technologies for catalyst development. The purpose of this work was to recombinantly produce a 45- amino acid long metal binding peptide that is useful for nanoparticle synthesis. Using splicing by overlap extension PCR, a synthetic gene containing the fusion of the metal binding peptide with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFPUV) was constructed. The metal binding peptide, fused to reporter protein GFPUV, was expressed using high cell density fermentation. Palladium nanoparticles of an average diameter of 1.18 0.45 nm were synthesized by using the crude cell extract ...


Gold Nanoparticle Colorimetric Sensing Technology, Eve Borden May 2016

Gold Nanoparticle Colorimetric Sensing Technology, Eve Borden

Nanoscale Science & Engineering (discontinued with class year 2014)

No abstract provided.


Synthesis, Morphological Control, Dispersion Stabilization And In Situ Self-Assembly Of Noble Metal Nanostructures Using Multidentate Resorcinarene Surfactants, Sangbum Han Apr 2016

Synthesis, Morphological Control, Dispersion Stabilization And In Situ Self-Assembly Of Noble Metal Nanostructures Using Multidentate Resorcinarene Surfactants, Sangbum Han

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

In this dissertation, a detailed investigation on the influence of various macrocyclic resorcinarene surfactants in determining the morphology, stabilization and self-assembly of mono- and bi- metallic nanoparticles was undertaken. Chapter 2 describes the influence of resorcinarene surfactants functionalized with amine- and thiol- headgroups in determining the morphology of monometallic Pt nanoparticles synthesized via the Brust-Schiffrin reaction. We found that while resorcinarene benzylthiol can lead to the formation of highly branched Pt nanostructures, resorcinarene amine can lead to the formation of anisotropic crystalline Pt nanoparticles. Further, we have evaluated the influence of resorcinarene ligands in determining the catalytic activity of these ...


Refractive Index Engineering And Optical Properties Enhancement By Polymer Nanocomposites, Cheng Li Jan 2016

Refractive Index Engineering And Optical Properties Enhancement By Polymer Nanocomposites, Cheng Li

Doctoral Dissertations

The major part of this dissertation discusses the engineering of the refractive index of materials using solution-processable polymer nanocomposites and their applications in building optical components and devices. Three particular polymer nanocomposites have been introduced to achieve materials with tunable refractive indices and enhanced optical properties, which can be used to manipulate the behavior of light or electromagnetic radiations. In the first system, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polymer nanocomposites are developed. Thin films with tunable, low refractive indicies were fabricated from the composites. The mechanical strength of these films was characterized, and their application in antireflective coatings is discussed. In ...


Functional Nanostructures From Nanoparticle Building Blocks, Jimmy Lawrence Jan 2015

Functional Nanostructures From Nanoparticle Building Blocks, Jimmy Lawrence

Doctoral Dissertations

Advances in the synthetic strategies of engineered nanomaterials, multifunctional molecules and polymers have opened pathways for the development of functional nanomaterials having unique optoelectronic, mechanical, and biological properties. By designing the chemistry of surface ligands, the organic interface of nanoparticles, one can further the versatility and utilization of engineered nanomaterials, opening pathways for breakthroughs in sensing, catalysis, and delivery using nanomaterials.

This thesis describes the synthesis and characterization of small molecule and polymer ligand functionalized inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., metal, semiconducting). Embedding specific chemical functionality into the ligand periphery of nanoparticles enables the resulting functional nanoparticles to react selectively with ...


Wear Resistant Polydopamine/Ptfe Nanoparticle Composite Coating For Dry Lubrication Applications, Samuel George Beckford Dec 2014

Wear Resistant Polydopamine/Ptfe Nanoparticle Composite Coating For Dry Lubrication Applications, Samuel George Beckford

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents an investigation into the effect of nanoparticle fillers and a polydopamine adhesive primer on the tribological performance of thin PTFE films. The principal objective of this investigation was to reduce wear in PTFE films, an issue which precludes the use of PTFE films in tribological applications requiring high durability. The friction and wear of the composite films were evaluated using a ball-on-flat configuration in linear reciprocating motion. It was found that the use of a polydopamine adhesive primer reduces the wear of PTFE films more than 600 times. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that a tenacious ...


Optical Resonators And Fiber Tapers As Transducers For Detection Of Nanoparticles And Bio-Molecules, Huzeyfe Yilmaz Aug 2014

Optical Resonators And Fiber Tapers As Transducers For Detection Of Nanoparticles And Bio-Molecules, Huzeyfe Yilmaz

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

In recent years, detection of biological interactions on single molecule level has aspired many researchers to investigate several optical, chemical, electrical and mechanical sensing tools. Among these tools, toroidal optical resonators lead the way in detection of the smallest particle/molecule with the real time measurements. In this work, bio-sensing capabilities of toroidal optical resonators are investigated. Bio-sensing is realized via measuring the analyte-antigen interaction while the antigen is immobilized through a novel functionalization method.

Not long ago, detection of single nanoparticles using optical resonators has been accomplished however the need for cost-effective and practical transducers demands simpler tools. A ...


Hybrid Nanomaterial And Its Applications: Ir Sensing And Energy Harvesting, Yi-Hsuan Tseng Jul 2014

Hybrid Nanomaterial And Its Applications: Ir Sensing And Energy Harvesting, Yi-Hsuan Tseng

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, a hybrid nanomaterial, single-wall carbon nanotubes-copper sulfide nanoparticles (SWNTs-CuS NPs), was synthesized and its properties were analyzed. Due to its unique optical and thermal properties, the hybrid nanomaterial exhibited great potential for infrared (IR) sensing and energy harvesting.

The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with the non-covalent bond technique to functionalize the surface of the SWNTs and bind the CuS nanoparticles on the surface of the SWNTs. For testing and analyzing the hybrid nanomaterial, SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles were formed as a thin film structure using the vacuum filtration method. Two conductive wires were bound on the ends of the ...


Functional Nanocomposites From Self-Assembly Of Block Copolymers With Nanoparticles, Xinyu Wang Jun 2014

Functional Nanocomposites From Self-Assembly Of Block Copolymers With Nanoparticles, Xinyu Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation studied the proper distribution and location control of nanoparticles (NPs) within block copolymer (BCP) templates. A facile ligand exchange reaction was introduced for the hydrophilic magnetic NPs (MNPs) that are readily dispersed in polar solvents with outstanding stability. Small molecule ligands were selected to associate strongly with particle surfaces, provide hydrophilic termini for polarity matching with polar solvents, and offer the potential for hydrogen-bonding interactions to facilitate NP incorporation into polymers. Areal ligand densities of NPs indicated a significant increase in the ligand coverage after the exchange reaction.

Hydrophilic MNPs were shown to drive the self-assembly of BCPs ...


Property Enhancements Of Dielectric Nanoparticles Via Surface Functionalization, Andrew Byro Feb 2014

Property Enhancements Of Dielectric Nanoparticles Via Surface Functionalization, Andrew Byro

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis describes the surface modification of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles for use in polymer/ceramic composite thin film capacitors with resultant improved dielectric and film-making properties. Phosphonic acid-type ligands proved to be most effective for surface conjugation to the surface of the barium strontium titanate nanoparticles. Amine-terminated ligands proved to be effective at removing surface adsorbed water before being almost entirely removed during the sample washing stage. Carboxylic acid terminated ligands proved to adhere less well to the nanoparticle than the phosphonic acid, but resulted in thin films with a higher dielectric constant, which was more stable in the ...


Nucleation And Growth Of Metals On Carbon Surfaces, David Victor Appy Jan 2014

Nucleation And Growth Of Metals On Carbon Surfaces, David Victor Appy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis work presents an investigation of the basic interaction between metals and the carbon surfaces HOPG and amorphous carbon. This work was motivated by the discovery of a family of metal nanowires which grow as single crystals protruding substantially perpendicular to a substrate, where the substrate is held at elevated temperature (800-1100 K). The most prolific growth is seen for Cu on amorphous carbon substrates. The fabrication and properties of these wires have been pioneered by our collaborator, Dr. Gunther Richter, at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems in Stuttgart, Germany. They have potential uses in nanoscale mechanical ...


Theranostic Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Cancer, Thomas Moore Aug 2013

Theranostic Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Cancer, Thomas Moore

All Dissertations

The main focus of this research was to evaluate the ability of a novel multifunctional nanoparticle to mediate drug delivery and enable a non-invasive approach to measure drug release kinetics in situ for the treatment of cancer. These goals were approached by developing a nanoparticle consisting of an inorganic core (i.e. gadolinium sulfoxide doped with europium ions or carbon nanotubes). This was coated with an external amphiphilic polymer shell comprised of a biodegradable polyester (i.e. poly(lactide) or poly(glycolide)), and poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer. In this system, the inorganic core mediates the imaging aspect, the relatively ...


Neoadjuvant Therapy For Ovarian Cancer Using Bioglycogentm Nanoparticles Sbir Grant Proposal, Alexander E. Talamo May 2013

Neoadjuvant Therapy For Ovarian Cancer Using Bioglycogentm Nanoparticles Sbir Grant Proposal, Alexander E. Talamo

Nanoscale Science & Engineering (discontinued with class year 2014)

Project Summary Technical Abstract This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project, presented by Talamo Inc., is to test an ovarian cancer therapeutic delivery system, comprised of a nanoscale biocompatible vesicle that carries a bioactive small interfering RNA molecule (siRNA), in vivio in mice. The siRNA has shown to reduce the expression of an enzyme (Sod2) that is highly expressed in multiple ovarian cancer types. The reduced expression of Sod2 will allow the tumor to become increasingly susceptible to chemotherapy agents, while simultaneously diminishing tumor progression. Research has proved that the nanoscale vesicle is non-toxic and in combination with siRNA ...


Modification Of Nanostructures Via Laser Processing, Louis Franzel Apr 2013

Modification Of Nanostructures Via Laser Processing, Louis Franzel

Theses and Dissertations

Modification of nanostructures via laser processing is of great interest for a wide range of applications such as aerospace and the storage of nuclear waste. The primary goal of this dissertation is to improve the understanding of nanostructures through two primary routes: the modification of aerogels and pulsed laser ablation in ethanol. A new class of materials, patterned aerogels, was fabricated by photopolymerizing selected regions of homogeneous aerogel monoliths using visible light. The characterization and fabrication of functionally graded, cellular and compositionally anisotropic aerogels and ceramics is discussed. Visible light was utilized due to it’s minimal absorption and scattering ...


Studies Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Smart Self-Assembly And As Controlled Drug Delivery, Xiaochu Ding Jan 2013

Studies Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Smart Self-Assembly And As Controlled Drug Delivery, Xiaochu Ding

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

This dissertation is related to the studies of functionalized nanoparticles for self-assembly and as controlled drug delivery system. The whole topic is composed of two parts. In the first part, the research was conducted to design and synthesize a new type of ionic peptide-functionalized copolymer conjugates for self-assembly into nanoparticle fibers and 3D scaffolds with the ability of multi-drug loading and governing the release rate of each drug for tissue engineering. The self-assembly study confirmed that such peptide-functionalized amphiphilic copolymers underwent different self-assembly behavior. The bigger nanoparticles were more easily assembled into nanoparticle fibers and 3D scaffolds with larger pore ...


Molecular Simulations Of Assembly Of Functionalized Spherical Nanoparticles, Arezou Seifpour Jan 2013

Molecular Simulations Of Assembly Of Functionalized Spherical Nanoparticles, Arezou Seifpour

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Precise assembly of nanoparticles is crucial for creating spatially engineered materials that can be used for photonics, photovoltaic, and metamaterials applications. One way to control nanoparticle assembly is by functionalizing the nanoparticle with ligands, such as polymers, DNA, and proteins, that can manipulate the interactions between the nanoparticles in the medium the particles are placed in. This thesis research aims to design ligands to provide a new route to the programmable assembly of nanoparticles.

We first investigate using Monte Carlo simulation the effect of copolymer ligands on nanoparticle assembly. We first study a single nanoparticle grafted with many copolymer chains ...


Morphological Control Of Copper And Cuprous Oxide Nanoparticles Via Synthesis And Oxidation/Reduction Reactions, Ryan William Mowbray Jan 2013

Morphological Control Of Copper And Cuprous Oxide Nanoparticles Via Synthesis And Oxidation/Reduction Reactions, Ryan William Mowbray

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Morphological structure at the nanoscale dictates material properties due to size and shape dependent effects which are not present in bulk materials. In this work, novel synthetic routes are presented for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles including cubes, octahedra and platelets which could find applications in catalysis and sensing applications. In addition, intermediate morphology of copper/cuprous oxide nanoparticles during reduction by hydrogen gas are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and TEM imaging. The results of the UV-Vis characterization show that nanoparticle oxide reduction occurs by a different mechanism than reduction in the bulk due to short diffusion lengths and high ...


Rod-Like Plasmonic Nanoparticles As Optical Building Blocks: How Differences In Particle Shape And Structural Geometry Influence Optical Signal, Anthony Shawn Stender Jan 2013

Rod-Like Plasmonic Nanoparticles As Optical Building Blocks: How Differences In Particle Shape And Structural Geometry Influence Optical Signal, Anthony Shawn Stender

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Gold nanoparticles, particularly those with an anisotropic shape, have become a popular optical probe for experiments involving work on the nanoscale. However, to carry out such delicate and intricate experiments, it is first necessary to understand the detailed behavior of individual nanoparticles. In this series of experiments, optical and electron microscopy were utilized for the characterization of individual nanoparticles and small assemblies of nanoparticles.

In the first experiment, gold nanorods were investigated. Single, isolated nanorods exhibit two maxima of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), which are associated with the two nanorod axes. Upon the physical rotation of a nanorod at ...


Phase Field Approach For Melting Of Aluminum Nanoparticles, Kamran Samani Jan 2013

Phase Field Approach For Melting Of Aluminum Nanoparticles, Kamran Samani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Aluminum nanoparticles are of interest due to the variety of their applications, including additives for plastics and powder metallurgy. They can also enhance the burning rate of propellants. Metallic particles in traditional thermites are in the micron size range. When the particle diameter reduces to the nanometer range, their reactivity increases by several orders of magnitude. Thus flame rates of 0.9-1 km/s can be reached, while for micron size thermites they are on the order of centimeters or meters per second. Ignition delay time also decreases by up to three orders of magnitude.

The two main continuum methods ...


Probing And Controlling Fluid Rheology At Microscale With Magnetic Nanorods, Alexander Tokarev Aug 2012

Probing And Controlling Fluid Rheology At Microscale With Magnetic Nanorods, Alexander Tokarev

All Dissertations

This Dissertation is focused on the development of new methods for characterization and control of fluid rheology using magnetic nanorods. This Dissertation consists of five chapters. In the first chapter, we review current microrheologial methods and develop a Magnetic Rotational Spectroscopy (MRS) model describing nanorod response to a rotating magnetic field. Using numerical modeling, we analyze the effects of materials parameters of nanorods and fluids on the MRS characteristic features. The model is designed for a specific experimental protocol. We introduce and examine physical parameters which can be measured experimentally. The model allows identification of MRS features enabling the calculation ...


Structural Basis Of Substrate Recognition In Thimet Oligopeptidase And Development Of Nanoparticles For Therapeutic Enzyme Delivery, Jonathan Mark Wagner Jan 2012

Structural Basis Of Substrate Recognition In Thimet Oligopeptidase And Development Of Nanoparticles For Therapeutic Enzyme Delivery, Jonathan Mark Wagner

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Neuropeptidases are responsible for degradation of signaling peptides in the central nervous system and periphery. Some neuropeptidases have also been shown to play a role as part of the cell’s hydrolytic machinery responsible for breaking down proteins and peptides into amino acids, and these enzymes therefore influence small peptide availability for antigen presentation. A better understanding of how neuropeptidases recognize their substrates could lead to therapeutics that modulate the activity of these important enzymes. Alternatively, re-engineering these enzymes to selectively hydrolyze undesirable peptides could make them attractive as therapeutics themselves. A key question in understanding the activity of these ...


Growth And Characterization Of Functional Nanoparticulate Films By A Microwave Plasma-Assisted Spray Deposition Process, Ted Wangensteen Jan 2012

Growth And Characterization Of Functional Nanoparticulate Films By A Microwave Plasma-Assisted Spray Deposition Process, Ted Wangensteen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nanoparticle and nanoparticulate films have been grown by a unique approach combining a microwave and nebulized droplets where the concentration and thus the resulting particle size can be controlled. The goal of such a scalable approach was to achieve it with the least number of steps, and without using expensive high purity chemicals or the precautions necessary to work with such chemicals. This approach was developed as a result of first using a laser unsuccessfully to achieve the desired films and particles. Some problems with the laser approach for growing desired films were solved by substituting the higher energy microwave ...


Synthesis, Stabilization, And Characterization Of Metal Nanoparticles, Gregory White Ii Dec 2010

Synthesis, Stabilization, And Characterization Of Metal Nanoparticles, Gregory White Ii

All Dissertations

Wet chemical synthesis techniques offer the ability to control various nanoparticle characteristics including size, shape, dispersibility in both aqueous and organic solvents, and tailored surface chemistries appropriate for different applications. Large quantities of stabilizing ligands or surfactants are often required during synthesis to achieve these nanoparticle characteristics. Unfortunately, excess reaction byproducts, surfactants, and ligands remaining in solution after nanoparticle synthesis can impede application, and therefore post-synthesis purification must be employed. A liquid-liquid solvent/anti-solvent pair (typically ethanol/toluene or ethanol/hexane for gold nanoparticles, GNPs) can be used to both purify and size-selectively fractionate hydrophobically modified nanoparticles. Alternatively, carbon dioxide ...


Galvanic Porous Silicon: Processing And Characterization For Nanoenergetics, Collin R. Becker Jan 2010

Galvanic Porous Silicon: Processing And Characterization For Nanoenergetics, Collin R. Becker

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Porous silicon (PS) is a silicon (Si) based material composed of pores with diameters ranging from several nanometers to several micrometers. Typically PS is formed by electrochemically etching a Si wafer in a hydrofluoric acid (HF) based electrolyte. This route requires a custom built etch cell and a power supply and is difficult to integrate with the batch processing techniques of conventional Microsystems fabrication. In the first part of this work, a galvanic etching approach is used to fabricate PS in which neither a power supply nor custom etch cell are required. Galvanic etching methods are developed to fabricate thick ...