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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Plasmonic And Upconversion Nanoparticles For Bladder Cancer Treatment, Suehyun Katherine Cho Apr 2018

Plasmonic And Upconversion Nanoparticles For Bladder Cancer Treatment, Suehyun Katherine Cho

Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This thesis reports syntheses and surface modifications of various nanoparticles, including plasmonic, upconversion, and indium tin oxide nanoparticles for in situ bladder cancer detection and treatment.

The first part of this thesis reports a new and efficient polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating of gold nanorods (AuNRs). This coating technique is proven not only to be more stable in water compared to conventional coating methods, but also allows conjugation of an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor, C-225 antibodies. The AuNRs conjugated with C-225 antibodies (CNR) is then used in both in vitro and in vivo settings to demonstrate specific, targeted treatment capabilities by ...


Exceeding Conventional Photovoltaic Efficiency Limits Using Colloidal Quantum Dots, Gregory F. Pach Apr 2017

Exceeding Conventional Photovoltaic Efficiency Limits Using Colloidal Quantum Dots, Gregory F. Pach

Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are a widely investigated field of research due to their highly tunable nature in which the optical and electronic properties of the nanocrystal can be manipulated by merely changing the nanocrystal’s size. Specifically, colloidal quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) have become a promising candidate for future generation photovoltaic technology. Quantum dots exhibit multiple exciton generation (MEG) in which multiple electron-hole pairs are generated from a single high-energy photon. This process is not observed in bulk-like semiconductors and allows for QDSCs to achieve theoretical efficiency limits above the standard single-junction Shockley-Queisser limit. However, the fast expanding ...


Graphene-Semiconductor Heterojunctions And Devices, Tzu-Min Ou Apr 2015

Graphene-Semiconductor Heterojunctions And Devices, Tzu-Min Ou

Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In this thesis we explore the potential of versatile graphene-semiconductor heterojunctions in photodetection and field-effect transistor (FET) applications. The first part of the thesis studies near-infrared photodiode (NIR PD) based on a graphene- n-Si heterojunction in which graphene is used as the absorbing medium. Graphene is chosen for its absorption in NIR wavelengths to which Si is not responsive. Most graphene detectors in the literature are photoconductors that have a high dark current. The graphene-Si heterojunction PD has a large Schottky barrier height that suppresses the dark current and enhances the current rectification and the photon detectivity.

The fabricated graphene-Si ...


Graphene Geometric Diodes For Optical Rectennas, Zixu James Zhu Jul 2014

Graphene Geometric Diodes For Optical Rectennas, Zixu James Zhu

Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Optical rectennas, which are micro-antennas to convert optical-frequency radiation to alternating current combined with ultrahigh-speed diodes to rectify the current, can in principle provide high conversion efficiency solar cells and sensitive detectors. Currently investigated optical rectennas using metal/insulator/metal (MIM) diodes are limited in their RC response time and poor impedance matching between diodes and antennas. A new rectifier, the geometric diode, can overcome these limitations. The thesis work has been to develop geometric diode rectennas, along with improving fabrication processes for MIM diode rectennas. The geometric diode consists of a conducting thin-film, currently graphene, patterned into a geometry ...


Photoinhibition Superresolution Lithography, Darren Lawrence Forman Apr 2014

Photoinhibition Superresolution Lithography, Darren Lawrence Forman

Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

While the prospect of nanoscale manufacturing has generated tremendous excitement, arbitrary patterning at nanometer length scales cannot be brought about with current photolithography -- the technology that for decades has driven electronics miniaturization and enabled mass production of digital logic, memory, MEMS and flat-panel displays. This is due to the relatively long wavelength of light and diffraction, which imposes a physical not technological limit on the resolution of a far-field optical pattern. Photoinhibited superresolution (PInSR) lithography is a new scheme designed to beat the diffraction limit through two-color confinement of photopolymerization and, via efficient single-photon absorption kinetics, also be high-throughput capable ...


Silicon Nanophotonics For Many-Core On-Chip Networks, Moustafa Mohamed Apr 2013

Silicon Nanophotonics For Many-Core On-Chip Networks, Moustafa Mohamed

Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Number of cores in many-core architectures are scaling to unprecedented levels requiring ever increasing communication capacity. Traditionally, architects follow the path of higher throughput at the expense of latency. This trend has evolved into being problematic for performance in many-core architectures. Moreover, the trends of power consumption is increasing with system scaling mandating nontraditional solutions. Nanophotonics can address these problems, offering benefits in the three frontiers of many-core processor design: Latency, bandwidth, and power. Nanophotonics leverage circuit-switching flow control allowing low latency; in addition, the power consumption of optical links is significantly lower compared to their electrical counterparts at intermediate ...


Sub-Wavelength Silicon Photonic Devices For Optical Interconnect Networks, Eric F. Dudley Apr 2013

Sub-Wavelength Silicon Photonic Devices For Optical Interconnect Networks, Eric F. Dudley

Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

As our demand for information grows, so too does the demand for networks capable of handling this flood of data. Conventional on-chip electrical networks are approaching their limits in terms of latency, power consumption and data rates and will need to be replaced with new technology in the near future. Photonic networks promise great improvements over electrical networks, but several key challenges still hinder their widespread deployment. This thesis focuses on addressing the problem of encoding and routing data inside integrated optical communication networks. This is accomplished through electrically driven optical switches or modulators that are able to produce a ...


Mechanism Of Heat Generation From Loading Gaseous Hydrogen Isotopes Into Palladium Nanoparticles, Olga Dmitriyeva Apr 2012

Mechanism Of Heat Generation From Loading Gaseous Hydrogen Isotopes Into Palladium Nanoparticles, Olga Dmitriyeva

Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

I have carried out the study of hydrogen isotope reactions in the presence of palladium nanoparticles impregnated into oxide powder. My goal was to explain the mechanisms of heat generation in those systems as a result of exposure to deuterium gas. Some researchers have associated this heating with a nuclear reaction in the Pd lattice. While some earlier experiments showed a correlation between the generation of excess heat and helium production as possible evidence of a nuclear reaction, the results of that research have not been replicated by the other groups and the search for radiation was unsuccessful. Therefore, the ...