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Theses/Dissertations

Doctoral Dissertations

2014

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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology And Additive Manufacturing Platforms For Clinical Medicine: An Investigation Of 3d Printing Bioactive Constructs And Halloysite Nanotubes For Drug Delivery And Biomaterials, Jeffery A. Weisman Oct 2014

Nanotechnology And Additive Manufacturing Platforms For Clinical Medicine: An Investigation Of 3d Printing Bioactive Constructs And Halloysite Nanotubes For Drug Delivery And Biomaterials, Jeffery A. Weisman

Doctoral Dissertations

Personalized medicine requires the development of new technologies for controlled or targeted drug delivery. Three-dimensional (3D) printing and additive manufacturing techniques can be used to generate customized constructs for bioactive compound delivery. Nanotechnology in the form of nanoparticles, used as a stand-alone construct or for material enhancements, can significantly improve established biomaterials such as PMMA based bone cements or enable new technology to have enhanced capabilities. Combinations of the technologies can be used in such applications as infectious disease treatments, chemotherapeutic targeted drug delivery or targeted delivery of nearly any bioactive compound.

Chemotherapeutic or antibiotic enhanced 3D printing filaments were ...


Computational Study Of Sodium Magnesium Hydride For Hydrogen Storage Applications, Fernando Antonio Soto Valle Oct 2014

Computational Study Of Sodium Magnesium Hydride For Hydrogen Storage Applications, Fernando Antonio Soto Valle

Doctoral Dissertations

Hydrogen offers considerable potential benefits as an energy carrier. However, safe and convenient storage of hydrogen is one of the biggest challenges to be resolved in the near future. Sodium magnesium hydride (NaMgH 3) has attracted attention as a hydrogen storage material due to its light weight and high volumetric hydrogen density of 88 kg/m3. Despite the advantages, hydrogen release in this material occurs at approximately 670 K, which is well above the operable range for on-board hydrogen storage applications. In this regard, hydrogen release may be facilitated by substitution doping of transition-metals. This dissertation describes first-principles computational methods ...


Quartz-Mems: Wet Chemical Etching Assisted By Electromagnetic Energy Sources For The Development Of Quartz Crystal To Be Used For Microelectromechanical Systems, William J. Clower Oct 2014

Quartz-Mems: Wet Chemical Etching Assisted By Electromagnetic Energy Sources For The Development Of Quartz Crystal To Be Used For Microelectromechanical Systems, William J. Clower

Doctoral Dissertations

Quartz crystal resonators have been the most commonly used timing devices to date. Today's timing market requires devices to be as small as possible and consume smaller amounts of energy. Because of the market demand, many startup companies have formed to develop silicon resonators as timing devices. Silicon resonators have poor noise and temperature performance (due to its linear temperature versus frequency coefficient). At the moment the only advantage that silicon resonators have over quartz crystal resonators is a small form factor. The photolithography processing method currently being used in industry is a very tedious task, requiring multiple etching ...


Applications Of Halloysite Nanocontainers For Functional Protective Coating, Anupam Ramesh Joshi Oct 2014

Applications Of Halloysite Nanocontainers For Functional Protective Coating, Anupam Ramesh Joshi

Doctoral Dissertations

In this study we have explored the applications of halloysite clay nanotubes as a nanocontainer. Halloysite nanotubes are used as a storage unit for anticorrosion agents, flame retardants, and a dopant to extend the curing time for geopolymer composites. Halloysite is a naturally occurring clay mineral with a chemical formula of Al2Si2O 5(OH)4 · 2 H2O and is identical to kaolinite with the exception that it holds an additional water monolayer in its interlayered spaces. Upon heating at higher temperatures, halloysite loses the additional water monolayer, and this variant known colloquially as "meta-halloysite" has a chemical formula of Al2Si2O5 ...


Patterning And Mechanical Analysis Of Fiber-Based Materials, Samuel A. Pendergraph Sep 2014

Patterning And Mechanical Analysis Of Fiber-Based Materials, Samuel A. Pendergraph

Doctoral Dissertations

The ability to define and control the topography of a surface has been studied extensively due to its importance in a wide variety of applications. The control of a non-planar topography would be very valuable since a number of structures that are pervasive in artificial applications (e.g. fibers, lenses) are curved interfaces. This potential of enabling applications that incorporate non-planar geometries was the motivation for this thesis. The first study of this thesis comprises the study of patterning the circumference of micrometer sized fibers. Specifically, a unique technique was described to pattern the fiber with a periodic array of ...


Engineering Surface Functionality Of Nanoparticles For Biological Applications, Yi-Cheun Yeh Sep 2014

Engineering Surface Functionality Of Nanoparticles For Biological Applications, Yi-Cheun Yeh

Doctoral Dissertations

Engineering the surface functionality of nanomaterials is the key to investigate the interactions between nanomaterials and biomolecules for potent biological applications such as therapy, imaging and diagnostics. My research has been orientted to engineer both of the surface monolayers and core materials to fabricate surface-functionalized nanomaterials through the synergistic multidisciplinary approach that combine organic chemistry, materials science and biology. This thesis illustrates the design and synthesis of the surface-funcitonalized quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for the fundamental studies and practical applications. For QDs, A new class of cationic QDs with quaternary ammonium derivatives was synthesized to provide permanent ...


Structural, Electronic And Catalytic Properties Of Graphene-Supported Platinum Nanoclusters, Ioanna Fampiou Aug 2014

Structural, Electronic And Catalytic Properties Of Graphene-Supported Platinum Nanoclusters, Ioanna Fampiou

Doctoral Dissertations

Carbon materials are predominantly used as catalytic supports due to their high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, resistance to corrosion and structural stability. Graphene, a 2D monolayer of graphite, with its excellent thermal, electronic and mechanical features, has been considered a promising support material for next generation metal-graphene nanocatalysts. The main focus of this dissertation is to investigate the properties of such metal-graphene nanocomposites using computational methods, and to develop a comprehensive understanding of the experimentally observed enhanced catalytic activity of graphene-supported Platinum (Pt) clusters.

In particular, we seek to understand the role of graphene supports on the ground-state morphology ...


Quantum Tuning Of Plasmons In Ultrathin Metal Films, Ao Teng Aug 2014

Quantum Tuning Of Plasmons In Ultrathin Metal Films, Ao Teng

Doctoral Dissertations

The surface plasmon is a coherent charge density oscillation localized at a metal surface. It can couple with light and the resulting plasmon-polariton hybrid mode is confined to volumes that are much smaller than the classical diffraction limit of light. Nano-plasmonics is a rapidly evolving field where light manipulation at the nanoscale may lead to novel applications. However, as the size of plasmonic devices approaches the quantum-size regime, the macroscopic picture of plasmon may no longer be valid. To elucidate the influence of the discretization of the single particle spectrum on the collective plasmon response, we performed a systematic study ...


Nanostructured Aluminum Oxide (Nao): Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging And Sensing, Xiang Li Jul 2014

Nanostructured Aluminum Oxide (Nao): Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging And Sensing, Xiang Li

Doctoral Dissertations

A new fluorescence enhancement technical platform based on nanostructured aluminum oxide (NAO) has been discovered. Experiments reveal that this new platform can enhance the fluorescence signals up to two or three orders of magnitude compared to a traditional glass substrate platform. In order to realize a large-scale arrayed fluorescence biosensing platform for high throughput applications, a rapid and cost-effective process has been developed to fabricate the micropatterned NAO of a variety of shapes. An optical characterization technology, by introducing UV light irradiance, has been found for the first time to determine if the NAO has been formed from Al and ...


Thermoelectric Elisa For Quantification Of 8ohdg In A Microfluidic Device, Gergana Nestorova Jul 2014

Thermoelectric Elisa For Quantification Of 8ohdg In A Microfluidic Device, Gergana Nestorova

Doctoral Dissertations

This research demonstrates the feasibility of a novel method for performing thermoelectric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microfluidic device. The feasibility of the thermoelectric ELISA is demonstrated by measuring the concentration of 8-hydroxy 2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) in urine samples from amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. The detection method is based on formation of a complex between 8OHdG and anti-8OHdG capture antibody conjugated to biotin. The complex is immobilized over the measuring junctions of a thermopile via biotin streptavidin interaction. The concentration of the analyte is determined by using enzyme linked secondary IgG antibody specific to the primary one. The ...


Hybrid Nanomaterial And Its Applications: Ir Sensing And Energy Harvesting, Yi-Hsuan Tseng Jul 2014

Hybrid Nanomaterial And Its Applications: Ir Sensing And Energy Harvesting, Yi-Hsuan Tseng

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, a hybrid nanomaterial, single-wall carbon nanotubes-copper sulfide nanoparticles (SWNTs-CuS NPs), was synthesized and its properties were analyzed. Due to its unique optical and thermal properties, the hybrid nanomaterial exhibited great potential for infrared (IR) sensing and energy harvesting.

The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with the non-covalent bond technique to functionalize the surface of the SWNTs and bind the CuS nanoparticles on the surface of the SWNTs. For testing and analyzing the hybrid nanomaterial, SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles were formed as a thin film structure using the vacuum filtration method. Two conductive wires were bound on the ends of the ...


Micro And Nano Technology Platforms: From Cell Viability Monitoring To Fet Based Biosensing, Pushparaj D. Pathak Jul 2014

Micro And Nano Technology Platforms: From Cell Viability Monitoring To Fet Based Biosensing, Pushparaj D. Pathak

Doctoral Dissertations

Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that combines science and engineering to design, synthesize, characterize and explore applications for materials and devices whose smallest functional organization in at least one dimension is on the nanometer scale. Nanotechnology is undergoing an explosive development and the extent of potential application is vast and widely diverse. In the field of human health care, nanotechnology is helping to develop novel materials and structures, which have made it possible to miniaturize many of the tools used in conventional assays. Smart biochips constructed out of these novel materials and structures are now capable of performing limited in ...


Functional Nanocomposites From Self-Assembly Of Block Copolymers With Nanoparticles, Xinyu Wang Jun 2014

Functional Nanocomposites From Self-Assembly Of Block Copolymers With Nanoparticles, Xinyu Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation studied the proper distribution and location control of nanoparticles (NPs) within block copolymer (BCP) templates. A facile ligand exchange reaction was introduced for the hydrophilic magnetic NPs (MNPs) that are readily dispersed in polar solvents with outstanding stability. Small molecule ligands were selected to associate strongly with particle surfaces, provide hydrophilic termini for polarity matching with polar solvents, and offer the potential for hydrogen-bonding interactions to facilitate NP incorporation into polymers. Areal ligand densities of NPs indicated a significant increase in the ligand coverage after the exchange reaction.

Hydrophilic MNPs were shown to drive the self-assembly of BCPs ...


Study And Development Of Sulfated Zirconia Based Proton Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes, Brittany Wilson Kemp Apr 2014

Study And Development Of Sulfated Zirconia Based Proton Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes, Brittany Wilson Kemp

Doctoral Dissertations

With the increasing consumption of energy, fuel cells are among the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels, provided some technical challenges are overcome. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been investigated and improvements have been made, but the problem with Nafion®, the main membrane for PEMFCs, has not been solved. Nafion® restricts the membranes from operating at higher temperatures, thus preventing them from working in small electronics. The problem is to develop a novel fuel cell membrane that performs comparably to Nafion® in PEMFCs.

The membranes were fabricated by applying sulfated zirconia, via template wetting, to porous alumina membranes ...


Selected Durability Studies Of Geopolymer Concrete With Respect To Carbonation, Elevated Temperature, And Microbial Induced Corrosion, Mohammad Sufian Badar Apr 2014

Selected Durability Studies Of Geopolymer Concrete With Respect To Carbonation, Elevated Temperature, And Microbial Induced Corrosion, Mohammad Sufian Badar

Doctoral Dissertations

This thesis reports a comprehensive study related to the experimental evaluation of carbonation in reinforced geopolymer concrete, the evaluation of geopolymer concretes at elevated temperature, and the resistance of geopolymer concrete to microbial induced corrosion (MIC).

Carbonation: Reinforced concretes, made of geopolymer, prepared from two class F fly ashes and one class C fly ash, were subjected to accelerated carbonation treatment for a period of 450 days. Electrochemical, microstructure and pore structure examinations were performed to evaluate the effect of corrosion caused due to carbonation. GPC specimens prepared from class F fly ash exhibited lower corrosion rates by a factor ...


Development Of A Nitrogen Incorporated Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Film Based Field Emitter Array For A Flat Panel X-Ray Source, Chrystian Mauricio Posada Jan 2014

Development Of A Nitrogen Incorporated Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Film Based Field Emitter Array For A Flat Panel X-Ray Source, Chrystian Mauricio Posada

Doctoral Dissertations

"As an alternative to conventional X-ray sources, a flat panel transmission X-ray source is being developed. A field emitter array (FEA) prototype to be incorporated as cold cathode in this flat panel X-ray source was fabricated for this work. Using the Particle-in-Cell code OOPIC Pro, an initial FEA was designed through simulations. Based on the simulation results, a FEA prototype was fabricated using conventional microfabrication techniques. Planar nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) films were used as field emitters. This N-UNCD based FEA prototype was composed of 9 pixels distributed in a 3x3 array, with a pixel size of 225x225 µm, and ...