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Theses/Dissertations

Virginia Commonwealth University

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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Engineering Magnetic Properties Of Nanoparticles For Biomedical Applications And Magnetic Thin Film Composite Heterostructures For Device Applications., Shivakumar Hunagund Jan 2019

Engineering Magnetic Properties Of Nanoparticles For Biomedical Applications And Magnetic Thin Film Composite Heterostructures For Device Applications., Shivakumar Hunagund

Theses and Dissertations

The motivation of this study is to investigate the size dependent properties of Gadolinium silicide nanoparticles and their potential applications in Biomedicine. We use two approaches in our investigation - size dependence and possible exchange interaction in a core-shell structure. Past results showed Gd5Si4 NPs exhibit significantly reduced echo time compared to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) when measured in a 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. This indicates potential use of Gd5Si4 ferromagnetic nanoparticles as T2 contrast agents for MRI.

Until recently most contrast agents (CA) that are used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging ...


Straintronic Nanomagnetic Devices For Non-Boolean Computing, Md Ahsanul Abeed Jan 2019

Straintronic Nanomagnetic Devices For Non-Boolean Computing, Md Ahsanul Abeed

Theses and Dissertations

Nanomagnetic devices have been projected as an alternative to transistor-based switching devices due to their non-volatility and potentially superior energy-efficiency. The energy efficiency is enhanced by the use of straintronics which involves the application of a voltage to a piezoelectric layer to generate a strain which is ultimately transferred to an elastically coupled magnetostrictive nanomaget, causing magnetization rotation. The low energy dissipation and non-volatility characteristics make straintronic nanomagnets very attractive for both Boolean and non-Boolean computing applications. There was relatively little research on straintronic switching in devices built with real nanomagnets that invariably have defects and imperfections, or their adaptation ...


Resonant Acoustic Wave Assisted Spin-Transfer-Torque Switching Of Nanomagnets, Austin R. Roe Jan 2019

Resonant Acoustic Wave Assisted Spin-Transfer-Torque Switching Of Nanomagnets, Austin R. Roe

Theses and Dissertations

We studied the possibility of achieving an order of magnitude reduction in the energy dissipation needed to write bits in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) by simulating the magnetization dynamics under a combination of resonant surface acoustic waves (r-SAW) and spin-transfer-torque (STT). The magnetization dynamics were simulated using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation under macrospin assumption with the inclusion of thermal noise. We studied such r-SAW assisted STT switching of nanomagnets for both in-plane elliptical and circular perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) nanomagnets and show that while thermal noise affects switching probability in in-plane nanomagnets, the PMA nanomagnets are relatively robust to the ...


Graphene As A Solid-State Ligand For Palladium Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions, Yuan Yang Jan 2018

Graphene As A Solid-State Ligand For Palladium Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions, Yuan Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Palladium-catalyzed carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions have emerged a broadly useful, selective and widely applicable method to synthesize pharmaceutical active ingredients. As currently practiced in the pharmaceutical industry, homogeneous Pd catalysts are typically used in cross-coupling reactions. The rational development of heterogeneous catalysts for cross-coupling reactions is critical for overcoming the major drawbacks of homogeneous catalysis including difficulties in the separation, purification, and quality control process in drug production. In order to apply heterogeneous catalysis to flow reactors that may overcome this limitation, the catalyst must be strongly bound to a support, highly stable with respect to leaching, and highly active. While ...


Low-Temperature Fabrication Process For Integrated High-Aspect Ratio Metal Oxide Nanostructure Semiconductor Gas Sensors, William Paul Clavijo Jan 2017

Low-Temperature Fabrication Process For Integrated High-Aspect Ratio Metal Oxide Nanostructure Semiconductor Gas Sensors, William Paul Clavijo

Theses and Dissertations

This work presents a new low-temperature fabrication process of metal oxide nanostructures that allows high-aspect ratio zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowires and nanotubes to be readily integrated with microelectronic devices for sensor applications. This process relies on a new method of forming a close-packed array of self-assembled high-aspect-ratio nanopores in an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template in a thin (2.5 µm) aluminum film deposited on a silicon and lithium niobate substrate (LiNbO3). This technique is in sharp contrast to traditional free-standing thick film methods and the use of an integrated thin aluminum film greatly ...


Hybrid Straintronics-Spintronics: Energy-Efficient Non-Volatile Devices For Boolean And Non-Boolean Computation, Ayan K. Biswas Jan 2016

Hybrid Straintronics-Spintronics: Energy-Efficient Non-Volatile Devices For Boolean And Non-Boolean Computation, Ayan K. Biswas

Theses and Dissertations

Research in future generation computing is focused on reducing energy dissipation while maintaining the switching speed in a binary operation to continue the current trend of increasing transistor-density according to Moore’s law. Unlike charge-based CMOS technology, spin-based nanomagnetic technology, based on switching bistable magnetization of single domain shape-anisotropic nanomagnets, has the potential to achieve ultralow energy dissipation due to the fact that no charge motion is directly involved in switching. However, switching of magnetization has not been any less dissipative than switching transistors because most magnet switching schemes involve generating a current to produce a magnetic field, or spin ...


The Dawn Of New Quantum Dots: Synthesis And Characterization Of Ge1-Xsnx Nanocrystals For Tunable Bandgaps., Richard J. Esteves Jan 2016

The Dawn Of New Quantum Dots: Synthesis And Characterization Of Ge1-Xsnx Nanocrystals For Tunable Bandgaps., Richard J. Esteves

Theses and Dissertations

Ge1-xSnx alloys are among a small class of benign semiconductors with composition tunable bandgaps in the near-infrared spectrum. As the amount of Sn is increased the band energy decreases and a transition from indirect to direct band structure occurs. Hence, they are prime candidates for fabrication of Si-compatible electronic and photonic devices, field effect transistors, and novel charge storage device applications. Success has been achieved with the growth of Ge1-xSnx thin film alloys with Sn compositions up to 34%. However, the synthesis of nanocrystalline alloys has proven difficult due to larger discrepancies (~14%) in ...


Diagnostics And Degradation Investigations Of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes Using Single Nanowire Electrochemical Cells, Naveen Kumar Reddy Palapati, Naveen Kumar Reddy Palapati Jan 2016

Diagnostics And Degradation Investigations Of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes Using Single Nanowire Electrochemical Cells, Naveen Kumar Reddy Palapati, Naveen Kumar Reddy Palapati

Theses and Dissertations

Portable energy storage devices, which drive advanced technological devices, are improving the productivity and quality of our everyday lives. In order to meet the growing needs for energy storage in transportation applications, the current lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology requires new electrode materials with performance improvements in multiple aspects: (1) energy and power densities, (2) safety, and (3) performance lifetime. While a number of interesting nanomaterials have been synthesized in recent years with promising performance, accurate capabilities to probe the intrinsic performance of these high-performance materials within a battery environment are lacking. Most studies on electrode nanomaterials have so far used ...


Designed Synthesis Of Nanoporous Organic Polymers For Selective Gas Uptake And Catalytic Applications, Pezhman Arab Jan 2015

Designed Synthesis Of Nanoporous Organic Polymers For Selective Gas Uptake And Catalytic Applications, Pezhman Arab

Theses and Dissertations

Design and synthesis of porous organic polymers have attracted considerable attentions during the past decade due to their wide range of applications in gas storage, gas separation, energy conversion, and catalysis. Porous organic polymers can be pre-synthetically and post-synthetically functionalized with a wide variety of functionalities for desirable applications. Along these pursuits, we introduced new synthetic strategies for preparation of porous organic polymers for selective CO2 capture.

Porous azo-linked polymers (ALPs) were synthesized by an oxidative reaction of amine-based monomers using copper(I) as a catalyst which leads to azo-linkage formation. ALPs exhibit high surface areas of up to ...


Ultrafine Particle Generation And Measurement, Qiaoling Liu Jan 2015

Ultrafine Particle Generation And Measurement, Qiaoling Liu

Theses and Dissertations

Ultrafine particles (UFPs) with diameters smaller than 100 nm are omnipresent in ambient air. They are important sources for fine particles produced through the agglomeration and/or vapor condensation. With their unique properties, UFPs have also been manufactured for industrial applications. But, from the toxicological and health perspective, ultrafine particles with high surface-to-volume ratios often have high bio-availability and toxicity. Many recent epidemiologic studies have evidence UFPs are highly relevant to human health and disease. In order to better investigate UFPs, better instrumentation and measurement techniques for UFPs are thus in need. The overall objective of this dissertation is to ...


Integrated Nanoscale Imaging And Spatial Recognition Of Biomolecules On Surfaces, Congzhou Wang Jan 2015

Integrated Nanoscale Imaging And Spatial Recognition Of Biomolecules On Surfaces, Congzhou Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Biomolecules on cell surfaces play critical roles in diverse biological and physiological processes. However, conventional bulk scale techniques are unable to clarify the density and distribution of specific biomolecules in situ on single, living cell surfaces at the micro or nanoscale. In this work, a single cell analysis technique based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is developed to spatially identify biomolecules and characterize nanomechanical properties on single cell surfaces. The unique advantage of these AFM-based techniques lies in the ability to operate in situ (in a non-destructive fashion) and in real time, under physiological conditions or controlled micro-environments.

First, AFM-based ...


Experimental Development Of Advanced Air Filtration Media Based On Electrospun Polymer Fibers, Negar Ghochaghi Jan 2014

Experimental Development Of Advanced Air Filtration Media Based On Electrospun Polymer Fibers, Negar Ghochaghi

Theses and Dissertations

Electrospinning is a process by which polymer fibers can be produced using an electrostatically driven fluid jet. Electrospun fibers can be produced at the micro- or nano-scale and are, therefore, very promising for air filtration applications. However, because electrospun fibers are electrically charged, it is difficult to control the morphology of filtration media. Fiber size, alignment and uniformity are very important factors that affect filter performance. The focus of this project is to understand the relationship between filter morphology and performance and to develop new methods to create filtration media with optimum morphology.

This study is divided into three focus ...


Modification Of Nanostructures Via Laser Processing, Louis Franzel Apr 2013

Modification Of Nanostructures Via Laser Processing, Louis Franzel

Theses and Dissertations

Modification of nanostructures via laser processing is of great interest for a wide range of applications such as aerospace and the storage of nuclear waste. The primary goal of this dissertation is to improve the understanding of nanostructures through two primary routes: the modification of aerogels and pulsed laser ablation in ethanol. A new class of materials, patterned aerogels, was fabricated by photopolymerizing selected regions of homogeneous aerogel monoliths using visible light. The characterization and fabrication of functionally graded, cellular and compositionally anisotropic aerogels and ceramics is discussed. Visible light was utilized due to it’s minimal absorption and scattering ...


Investigation Of Surface Properties For Ga- And N-Polar Gan Using Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques, Josephus Daniel Ferguson Iii Apr 2013

Investigation Of Surface Properties For Ga- And N-Polar Gan Using Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques, Josephus Daniel Ferguson Iii

Theses and Dissertations

Because the surface plays an important role in the electrical and optical properties of GaN devices, an improved understanding of surface effects should help optimize device performance. In this work, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related techniques have been used to characterize three unique sets of n-type GaN samples. The sample sets comprised freestanding bulk GaN with Ga polar and N polar surfaces, epitaxial GaN films with laterally patterned Ga- and N-polar regions on a common surface, and truncated, hexagonal GaN microstructures containing Ga-polar mesas and semipolar facets. Morphology studies revealed that bulk Ga-polar surfaces treated with a chemical-mechanical polish ...


Investigation Of Band Bending In N- And P-Type Gan, Michael Foussekis Apr 2012

Investigation Of Band Bending In N- And P-Type Gan, Michael Foussekis

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation details the study of band bending in n- and p-type GaN samples with a Kelvin probe utilizing different illumination geometries, ambients (air, oxygen, vacuum 10-6 mbar), and sample temperatures (77 – 650 K). The Kelvin probe, which is mounted inside an optical cryostat, is used to measure the surface potential. Illumination of the GaN surface with band-to-band light generates electron-hole pairs, which quickly separate in the depletion region due to a strong electric field caused by the near-surface band bending. The charge that is swept to the surface reduces the band bending and generates a surface photovoltage (SPV). Information ...