Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Theses/Dissertations

University of Kentucky

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication

Articles 1 - 26 of 26

Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Towards The Rational Design And Application Of Polymers For Gene Therapy: Internalization And Intracellular Fate, Landon Alexander Mott Jan 2019

Towards The Rational Design And Application Of Polymers For Gene Therapy: Internalization And Intracellular Fate, Landon Alexander Mott

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Gene therapy is an approach for the treatment of acquired cancers, infectious disease, degenerative disease, and inherited genetic indications. Developments in the fields of immunotherapies and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing are revitalizing the efforts to move gene therapy to the forefront of modern medicine. However, slow progress and poor clinical outcomes have plagued the field due to regulatory and safety concerns associated with the flagship delivery vector, the recombinant virus. Immunogenicity and poor transduction in certain cell types severely limits the utility of viruses as a delivery agent of nucleic acids. As a result, significant efforts are being made to ...


Surface And Structural Modification Of Carbon Electrodes For Electroanalysis And Electrochemical Conversion, Yan Zhang Jan 2018

Surface And Structural Modification Of Carbon Electrodes For Electroanalysis And Electrochemical Conversion, Yan Zhang

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Electrocatalysis is key to both sensitive electrochemical sensing and efficient electrochemical energy conversion. Despite high catalytic activity, traditional metal catalysts have poor stability, low selectivity, and high cost. Metal-free, carbon-based materials are emerging as alternatives to metal-based catalysts because of their attractive features including natural abundance, environmental friendliness, high electrical conductivity, and large surface area. Altering surface functionalities and heteroatom doping are effective ways to promote catalytic performance of carbon-based catalysts. The first chapter of this dissertation focuses on developing electrode modification methods for electrochemical sensing of biomolecules. After electrochemical pretreatment, glassy carbon demonstrates impressive figures-of-merit in detecting small, redox-active ...


Tunable Nanocomposite Membranes For Water Remediation And Separations, Sebastián Hernández Sierra Jan 2017

Tunable Nanocomposite Membranes For Water Remediation And Separations, Sebastián Hernández Sierra

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Nano-structured material fabrication using functionalized membranes with polyelectrolytes is a promising research field for water pollution, catalytic and mining applications. These responsive polymers react to external stimuli like temperature, pH, radiation, ionic strength or chemical composition. Such nanomaterials provide novel hybrid properties and can also be self-supported in addition to the membranes.

Polyelectrolytes (as hydrogels) have pH responsiveness. The hydrogel moieties gain or lose protons based on the pH, displaying swelling properties. These responsive materials can be exploited to synthesize metal nanoparticles in situ using their functional groups, or to immobilize other polyelectrolytes and biomolecules. Due to their properties, these ...


Utilization Of Bio-Renewable Lignin In Building High Capacity, Durable, And Low-Cost Silicon-Based Negative Electrodes For Lithium-Ion Batteries, Tao Chen Jan 2017

Utilization Of Bio-Renewable Lignin In Building High Capacity, Durable, And Low-Cost Silicon-Based Negative Electrodes For Lithium-Ion Batteries, Tao Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Silicon-based electrodes are the most promising negative electrodes for the next generation high capacity lithium ion batteries (LIB) as silicon provides a theoretical capacity of 3579 mAh g-1, more than 10 times higher than that of the state-of-the-art graphite negative electrodes. However, silicon-based electrodes suffer from poor cycle life due to large volume expansion and contraction during lithiation/delithiation. In order to improve the electrochemical performance a number of strategies have been employed, such as dispersion of silicon in active/inactive matrixes, devising of novel nanostructures, and various coatings for protection. Amongst these strategies, silicon-carbon coating based composites are ...


Deconvolving The Steps To Control Morphology, Composition, And Structure, In The Synthesis Of High-Aspect-Ratio Metal Oxide Nanomaterials, Lei Yu Jan 2017

Deconvolving The Steps To Control Morphology, Composition, And Structure, In The Synthesis Of High-Aspect-Ratio Metal Oxide Nanomaterials, Lei Yu

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Metal oxides are of interest not only because of their huge abundance but also for their many applications such as for electrocatalysts, gas sensors, diodes, solar cells and lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Nano-sized metal oxides are especially desirable since they have larger surface-to-volume ratios advantageous for catalytic properties, and can display size and shape confinement properties such as magnetism. Thus, it is very important to explore the synthetic methods for these materials. It is essential, therefore, to understand the reaction mechanisms to create these materials, both on the nanoscale, and in real-time, to have design control of materials with desired ...


Peptide-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles For Cancer Therapy Applications, Anastasia K. Hauser Jan 2016

Peptide-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles For Cancer Therapy Applications, Anastasia K. Hauser

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the United States. Radiation and chemotherapy are conventional treatments, but they result in serious side effects and the probability of tumor recurrence remains high. Therefore, there is an increasing need to enhance the efficacy of conventional treatments. Magnetic nanoparticles have been previously studied for a variety of applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, anemia treatment, magnetic cell sorting and magnetically mediated hyperthermia (MMH). In this work, dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles were developed and functionalized with peptides to target the nanoparticles to either the extracellular matrix ...


Synthesis Of Titania Thin Films With Controlled Mesopore Orientation: Nanostructure For Energy Conversion And Storage, Suraj R. Nagpure Jan 2016

Synthesis Of Titania Thin Films With Controlled Mesopore Orientation: Nanostructure For Energy Conversion And Storage, Suraj R. Nagpure

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

This dissertation addresses the synthesis mechanism of mesoporous titania thin films with 2D Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP) cylindrical nanopores by an evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method with Pluronic surfactants P123 and F127 as structure directing agents, and their applications in photovoltaics and lithium ion batteries. To provide orthogonal alignment of the pores, surface modification of substrates with crosslinked surfactant has been used to provide a chemically neutral surface. GISAXS studies show not only that aging at 4°C facilitates ordered mesostructure development, but also that aging at this temperature helps to provide orthogonal orientation of the cylindrical micelles which assemble into ...


Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of The Three-Way Junction Of Phi29 Motor Prna And Its Assembly Into Nanoparticles For Therapeutic Delivery To Prostate Cancer, Daniel W. Binzel Jan 2016

Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of The Three-Way Junction Of Phi29 Motor Prna And Its Assembly Into Nanoparticles For Therapeutic Delivery To Prostate Cancer, Daniel W. Binzel

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology necessitates creation of functional RNA nanoparticles, but has been limited by particle instability. Previously, it was found the three-way junction (3WJ) of the Phi29 DNA packaging motor pRNA was found to be ultra-stable and assemble in solution without the presence of metal ions. The three-way junction is composed of three short oligo RNA strands and proven to be thermodynamically stable. Here the assembly mechanism, thermodynamic and enzymatic stabilities, and kinetics are examined in order to understand the stability behind this unique motif. Thermodynamic and kinetics studies found that the pRNA 3WJ formed out of ...


Biomimetic Oral Mucin From Polymer Micelle Networks, Sundar Prasanth Authimoolam Jan 2015

Biomimetic Oral Mucin From Polymer Micelle Networks, Sundar Prasanth Authimoolam

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Mucin networks are formed by the complexation of bottlebrush-like mucin glycoprotein with other small molecule glycoproteins. These glycoproteins create nanoscale strands that then arrange into a nanoporous mesh. These networks play an important role in ensuring surface hydration, lubricity and barrier protection. In order to understand the functional behavior in mucin networks, it is important to decouple their chemical and physical effects responsible for generating the fundamental property-function relationship. To achieve this goal, we propose to develop a synthetic biomimetic mucin using a layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition approach. In this work, a hierarchical 3-dimensional structures resembling natural mucin networks was generated ...


Cnt Membrane Platforms For Transdermal Drug Delivery And Aptamer Modulated Transport, Tao Chen Jan 2014

Cnt Membrane Platforms For Transdermal Drug Delivery And Aptamer Modulated Transport, Tao Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

CNT membrane platforms are biomimetic polymeric membranes imbedded with carbon nanotubes which show fast fluid flow, electric conductivity, and the ability to be grafted with chemistry. A novel micro-dialysis probe nicotine concentration sampling technique was proposed and proved in vitro, which could greatly improve the efficiency and accuracy of future animal transdermal studies. To enhance the scope of transdermal drug delivery which was limited to passive diffusion of small, potent lipophilic drugs, a wire mesh lateral electroporation design was also proposed which could periodically disrupt the skin barrier and enhance drug flux.

It was shown that AMP binding aptamer at ...


Fabrication Of Magnetic Two-Dimensional And Three-Dimensional Microstructures For Microfluidics And Microrobotics Applications, Hui Li Jan 2014

Fabrication Of Magnetic Two-Dimensional And Three-Dimensional Microstructures For Microfluidics And Microrobotics Applications, Hui Li

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology has had an increasing impact on industry and our society. A wide range of MEMS devices are used in every aspects of our life, from microaccelerators and microgyroscopes to microscale drug-delivery systems. The increasing complexity of microsystems demands diverse microfabrication methods and actuation strategies to realize. Currently, it is challenging for existing microfabrication methods—particularly 3D microfabrication methods—to integrate multiple materials into the same component. This is a particular challenge for some applications, such as microrobotics and microfluidics, where integration of magnetically-responsive materials would be beneficial, because it enables contact-free actuation. In addition, most existing ...


Reference Compensation For Localized Surface-Plasmon Resonance Sensors, Neha Nehru Jan 2014

Reference Compensation For Localized Surface-Plasmon Resonance Sensors, Neha Nehru

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Noble metal nanoparticles supporting localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) have been extensively investigated for label free detection of various biological and chemical interactions. When compared to other optical sensing techniques, LSPR sensors offer label-free detection of biomolecular interactions in localized sensing volume solutions. However, these sensors also suffer from a major disadvantage – LSPR sensors remain highly susceptible to interference because they respond to both solution refractive index change and non-specific binding as well as specific binding of the target analyte. These interactions can severely compromise the measurement of the target analyte in a complex unknown media and hence limit the ...


Addressing Public Health Risks Of Persistent Pollutants Through Nutritional Modulation And Biomimetic Nanocomposite Remediation Platforms, Bradley J. Newsome Jan 2014

Addressing Public Health Risks Of Persistent Pollutants Through Nutritional Modulation And Biomimetic Nanocomposite Remediation Platforms, Bradley J. Newsome

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Due to their relative chemical stability and ubiquity in the environment, chlorinated organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose significant health risks and enduring remediation challenges. Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) provide a novel platform for sensing/remediation of these toxicants, in addition to the growing use of NPs in many industrial and biomedical applications, but there remains concern for their potential long-term health effects. Research highlighted herein also represents a transdisciplinary approach to address human health challenges associated with exposure to PCBs and NPs. The objectives of this dissertation research are two-fold, 1) to develop effective methods for capture/sensing ...


Transformations, Bioavailability And Toxicity Of Manufactured Zno Nanomaterials In Wastewter, Sewwandi Rathnayake Jan 2013

Transformations, Bioavailability And Toxicity Of Manufactured Zno Nanomaterials In Wastewter, Sewwandi Rathnayake

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

In order to properly evaluate the ecological and human health risks of ZnO Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) released to the environment, it is critical to understand the likely transformation products in the wastewater treatment process and in soils receiving biosolids. To address this critical knowledge gap, we examined the transformation reactions of 30 nm ZnO MNMs in single component and multi-component systems, with phosphate and natural organic matter (NOM). We also assessed the influence of nano ZnO transformation on the bioavailability, and toxicity of ZnO transformation products to Triticum aestivum. The data revealed that ZnO MNMs react with phosphate at concentrations ...


Influence Of Surface Modification On Properties And Applications Of Complex Engineered Nanoparticles, Binghui Wang Jan 2013

Influence Of Surface Modification On Properties And Applications Of Complex Engineered Nanoparticles, Binghui Wang

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Complex engineered nanoparticles (CENPs) are being used on various applications. Their properties are different from those of neat nanoparticles. The dissertation explores these differences from four aspects: 1) Modify carbon nanomaterials’ inert surfaces and investigate the effect on thermal and rheological behavior of their dispersions; 2) Generate self-assembly bi-layer structure of oxide nanoparticles via surface modification; 3) Study interaction between lysozyme and different surface-charged ceria nanoparticles; 4) Investigate the biodistribution and transformations of CENPs in biological media.

An environment-friendly surface modification was developed to modify surfaces of carbon nanomaterials for increasing their affinity to non-polar fluid. It can offset formation ...


Near Wall Shear Stress Modification Using An Active Piezoelectric Nanowire Surface, Christopher R. Guskey Jan 2013

Near Wall Shear Stress Modification Using An Active Piezoelectric Nanowire Surface, Christopher R. Guskey

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

An experimental study was conducted to explore the possible application of dynamically actuated nanowires to effectively disturb the wall layer in fully developed, turbulent channel flow. Actuated nanowires have the potential to be used for the mixing and filtering of chemicals, enhancing convective heat transfer and reducing drag. The first experimental evidence is presented suggesting it is possible to manipulate and subsequently control turbulent flow structures with active nanowires. An array of rigid, ultra-long (40 μm) TiO2 nanowires was fabricated and installed in the bounding wall of turbulent channel flow then oscillated using an attached piezoelectric actuator. Flow velocity ...


Numerical Modeling And Characterization Of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays, Johnson Joseph Jan 2013

Numerical Modeling And Characterization Of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays, Johnson Joseph

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Since their discoveries, carbon nanotubes have been widely studied, but mostly in the forms of 1D individual carbon nanotube (CNT). From practical application point of view, it is highly desirable to produce carbon nanotubes in large scales. This has resulted in a new class of carbon nanotube material, called the vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (VA-CNTs). To date, our ability to design and model this complex material is still limited. The classical molecular mechanics methods used to model individual CNTs are not applicable to the modeling of VA-CNT structures due to the significant computational efforts required. This research is to ...


The Critical Role Of Mechanism-Based Models For Understanding And Predicting Liposomal Drug Loading, Binding And Release Kinetics, Sweta Modi Jan 2013

The Critical Role Of Mechanism-Based Models For Understanding And Predicting Liposomal Drug Loading, Binding And Release Kinetics, Sweta Modi

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Liposomal delivery systems hold considerable promise for improvement of cancer therapy provided that critical formulation design criteria can be met. The main objective of the current project was to enable quality by design in the formulation of liposomal delivery systems by developing comprehensive, mechanism-based mathematical models of drug loading, binding and release kinetics that take into account not only the therapeutic requirement but the physicochemical properties of the drug, the bilayer membrane, and the intraliposomal microenvironment.

Membrane binding of the drug affects both drug loading and release from liposomes. The influence of bilayer composition and phase structure on the partitioning ...


Nanoparticle Additives For Multiphase Systems: Synthesis, Formulation And Characterization, Vinod Kanniah Jan 2012

Nanoparticle Additives For Multiphase Systems: Synthesis, Formulation And Characterization, Vinod Kanniah

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Study on nanoparticle additives in multiphase systems (liquid, polymer) are of immense interest in developing new product applications. Critical challenges for nanoparticle additives include their synthesis, formulation and characterization. These challenges are addressed in three application areas: nanofluids for engine lubrication, ultrathin nanocomposites for optical devices, and nanoparticle size distribution characterization.

Nanoparticle additives in oligomer mixtures can be used to develop extended temperature range motor oils. A model system includes poly(α-olefin) based oligomers with a modest fraction of poly(dimethylsiloxane) oligomers along with graphite as nanoparticle additive. Partition coefficients of each oligomer are determined since the oligomer mixture phase ...


Novel Design Of Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Electrodes And Membranes For Fuel Cells And Energy Storage, Xin Su Jan 2012

Novel Design Of Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Electrodes And Membranes For Fuel Cells And Energy Storage, Xin Su

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

A novel electrochemical method to generate nm-scale bubbles at the tips of CNTs can temporarily block the membrane. A 92% blocking efficiency is achieved when the bubbles are stabilized in 30-60 nm diameter „wells‟ at the tips of CNTs. This well is formed by the electrochemical oxidation of the conductive CNTs partially into the polymer matrix of the membrane. Meanwhile, the nanoscale bubbles can be removed with 0.004 atm pressure to recover the transport through the CNT membrane. The CNT membrane with nanoscale bubble valve system was used to demonstrate electrochemical energy storage.

Uniform ultrathin Pt films were electrodeposited ...


Finite Element Analysis Of The Contact Deformation Of Piezoelectric Materials, Ming Liu Jan 2012

Finite Element Analysis Of The Contact Deformation Of Piezoelectric Materials, Ming Liu

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Piezoelectric materials in the forms of both bulk and thin-film have been widely used as actuators and sensors due to their electromechanical coupling. The characterization of piezoelectric materials plays an important role in determining device performance and reliability. Instrumented indentation is a promising method for probing mechanical as well as electrical properties of piezoelectric materials.

The use of instrumented indentation to characterize the properties of piezoelectric materials requires analytical relations. Finite element methods are used to analyze the indentation of piezoelectric materials under different mechanical and electrical boundary conditions.

For indentation of a piezoelectric half space, a three-dimensional finite element ...


Cryogenic Machining And Burnishing Of Az31b Magnesium Alloy For Enhanced Surface Integrity And Functional Performance, Zhengwen Pu Jan 2012

Cryogenic Machining And Burnishing Of Az31b Magnesium Alloy For Enhanced Surface Integrity And Functional Performance, Zhengwen Pu

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Surface integrity of manufactured components has a critical impact on their functional performance. Magnesium alloys are lightweight materials used in the transportation industry and are also emerging as a potential material for biodegradable medical implants. However, the unsatisfactory corrosion performance of Mg alloys limits their application to a great extent. Surface integrity factors, such as grain size, crystallographic orientation and residual stress, have been proved to remarkably influence the functional performance of magnesium alloys, including corrosion resistance, wear resistance and fatigue life.

In this dissertation, the influence of machining conditions, including dry and cryogenic cooling (liquid nitrogen was sprayed to ...


Structural Basis Of Substrate Recognition In Thimet Oligopeptidase And Development Of Nanoparticles For Therapeutic Enzyme Delivery, Jonathan Mark Wagner Jan 2012

Structural Basis Of Substrate Recognition In Thimet Oligopeptidase And Development Of Nanoparticles For Therapeutic Enzyme Delivery, Jonathan Mark Wagner

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Neuropeptidases are responsible for degradation of signaling peptides in the central nervous system and periphery. Some neuropeptidases have also been shown to play a role as part of the cell’s hydrolytic machinery responsible for breaking down proteins and peptides into amino acids, and these enzymes therefore influence small peptide availability for antigen presentation. A better understanding of how neuropeptidases recognize their substrates could lead to therapeutics that modulate the activity of these important enzymes. Alternatively, re-engineering these enzymes to selectively hydrolyze undesirable peptides could make them attractive as therapeutics themselves. A key question in understanding the activity of these ...


Investigations Of Oxidative Stress Effects And Their Mechanisms In Rat Brain After Systemic Administration Of Ceria Engineered Nanomaterials, Sarita S. Hardas Jan 2012

Investigations Of Oxidative Stress Effects And Their Mechanisms In Rat Brain After Systemic Administration Of Ceria Engineered Nanomaterials, Sarita S. Hardas

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Advancing applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) in various fields create the opportunity for intended (e.g. drug and gene delivery) or unintended (e.g. occupational and environmental) exposure to ENM. However, the knowledge of ENM-toxicity is lagging behind their application development. Understanding the ENM hazard can help us to avoid potential human health problems associated with ENM applications as well as to increase their public acceptance. Ceria (cerium [Ce] oxide) ENM have many current and potential commercial applications. Beyond the traditional use of ceria as an abrasive, the scope of ceria ENM applications now extends into fuel cell manufacturing, diesel ...


Nanocrystals Of Chemotherapeutic Agents For Cancer Theranostics: Development And In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation, Christin P. Hollis Jan 2012

Nanocrystals Of Chemotherapeutic Agents For Cancer Theranostics: Development And In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation, Christin P. Hollis

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

The majority of pharmacologically active chemotherapeutics are poorly water soluble. Solubilization enhancement by the utilization of organic solvents often leads to adverse side effects. Nanoparticle-based cancer therapy, which is passively targeted to the tumor tissue via the enhanced permeation and retention effect, has been vastly developed in recent years. Nanocrystals, which exist as crystalline and carry nearly 100% drug loading, has been explored for delivering antineoplastic agents. Additionally, the hybrid nanocrystal concept offers a novel and simple way to integrate imaging agents into the drug crystals, enabling the achievement of theranostics. The overall objective of this dissertation is to formulate ...


Nanoscale Functionalization And Characterization Of Surfaces With Hydrogel Patterns And Biomolecules, Hariharasudhan Chirra Dinakar Jan 2010

Nanoscale Functionalization And Characterization Of Surfaces With Hydrogel Patterns And Biomolecules, Hariharasudhan Chirra Dinakar

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The advent of numerous tools, ease of techniques, and concepts related to nanotechnology, in combination with functionalization via simple chemistry has made gold important for various biomedical applications. In this dissertation, the development and characterization of planar gold surfaces with responsive hydrogel patterns for rapid point of care sensing and the functionalization of gold nanoparticles for drug delivery are highlighted.

Biomedical micro- and nanoscale devices that are spatially functionalized with intelligent hydrogels are typically fabricated using conventional UV-lithography. Herein, precise 3-D hydrogel patterns made up of temperature responsive crosslinked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) over gold were synthesized. The XY control of the ...