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Michigan Technological University

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Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Nanotextured Titanium Surfaces For Implants: Manufacturing And Packaging Aspects, Sachin Bhosle Jan 2017

Nanotextured Titanium Surfaces For Implants: Manufacturing And Packaging Aspects, Sachin Bhosle

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

It has been shown that nanotexturing the surface of otherwise smooth titanium orthopedic materials increases osteoblast proliferation in vitro, and the bone-implant contact area and pullout force in vivo. However, this prior work has not focused on the requirements for scale-up to industrial processes. This dissertation reports on titanium surface modifications by electrochemical anodization using a benign NH4F electrolyte, and a hybrid electrolyte also containing AgF, rather than hazardous hydrofluoric acid used elsewhere. Nanotube fabrication of Ti6Al4V foils, rods, thermal plasma sprayed commercial implants, and laser and e-beam melted powder materials was demonstrated.

It was found that the ...


Electrospinning Novel Aligned Polymer Fiber Structures For Use In Neural Tissue Engineering, Rachel Martin Jan 2017

Electrospinning Novel Aligned Polymer Fiber Structures For Use In Neural Tissue Engineering, Rachel Martin

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

A suitable tissue scaffold to support and assist in the repair of damaged tissues or cells is important for success in clinical trials and for injury recovery. Electrospinning can create a variety of polymer nanofibers and microfibers, and is being widely used to produce experimental tissue scaffolds for neural applications. This dissertation examines various approaches by which electrospinning is being used for neural tissue engineering applications for the repair of injuries to the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Due to the poor regeneration of neural tissues in the event of injury, tissue scaffolds are being ...


Molecular Modeling Of Aerospace Polymer Matrices Including Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Epoxy, Matthew Radue Jan 2017

Molecular Modeling Of Aerospace Polymer Matrices Including Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Epoxy, Matthew Radue

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Carbon fiber (CF) composites are increasingly replacing metals used in major structural parts of aircraft, spacecraft, and automobiles. The current limitations of carbon fiber composites are addressed through computational material design by modeling the salient aerospace matrix materials. Molecular Dynamics (MD) models of epoxies with and without carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforcement and models of pure bismaleimides (BMIs) were developed to elucidate structure-property relationships for improved selection and tailoring of matrices.

The influence of monomer functionality on the mechanical properties of epoxies is studied using the Reax Force Field (ReaxFF). From deformation simulations, the Young’s modulus, yield point, and Poisson ...


Nanosphere Lithography And Its Application In Rapid And Economic Fabrication Of Plasmonic Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Devices, Chenlong Zhang Jan 2016

Nanosphere Lithography And Its Application In Rapid And Economic Fabrication Of Plasmonic Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Devices, Chenlong Zhang

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Solar photovoltaic (PV) devices harvest energy from solar radiation and convert it to electricity. PV technologies, as an alternative to traditional fossil fuels, use clean and renewable energy while minimizing pollution. For decades researchers have been developing thin film solar cells as an important alternatives to the relatively expensive bulk crystal solar cell technology. Among those, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells prevails for good efficiency, non-toxic and materially abundant nature. However, a-Si:H thickness must be minimized to prevent light induced degradation, so optical enhancement is necessary. Light manipulation has to be applied and carefully engineered to trap ...


An Assessment Of The Validity Of The Kinetic Model For Liquid-Vapor Phase Change By Examining Cryogenic Propellants, Kishan Bellur Jan 2016

An Assessment Of The Validity Of The Kinetic Model For Liquid-Vapor Phase Change By Examining Cryogenic Propellants, Kishan Bellur

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Evaporation is ubiquitous in nature and occurs even in a microgravity space envi- ronment. Long term space missions require storage of cryogenic propellents and an accurate prediction of phase change rates. Kinetic theory has been used to model and predict evaporation rates for over a century but the reported values of accommodation coefficients are highly inconsistent and no accurate data is available for cryogens. The proposed study involves a combined experimental and computational approach to ex- tract the accommodation coefficients. Neutron imaging is used as the visualization technique due to the difference in attenuation between the cryogen and the metallic ...


Dynamic Atomistic Study Of Tunnel Functions In Nanostructured Transitional Metal Oxides, Yifei Yuan Jan 2016

Dynamic Atomistic Study Of Tunnel Functions In Nanostructured Transitional Metal Oxides, Yifei Yuan

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Alpha (α-) MnO2 is a well know transitional metal oxide possessing one dimensional 2×2 (4.6 × 4.6 Å2) tunnels for accommodation of various ions. Such a characteristic tunneled structure has enabled the wide applications of α-MnO2 in the fields of ion exchange, molecular sieves, biosensor, catalysis and energy storage. This PhD dissertation focuses on the dynamic study of ion transport functionality of α-MnO2 at atomic level using an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with a special holder with a scanning tunneling microscopy probe.

The wide application of in situ TEM studying the ...


Structures, Properties And Functionalities Of Magnetic Domain Walls In Thin Films, Nanowires And Atomic Chains: Micromagnetic And Ab Initio Studies, Liwei D. Geng Jan 2015

Structures, Properties And Functionalities Of Magnetic Domain Walls In Thin Films, Nanowires And Atomic Chains: Micromagnetic And Ab Initio Studies, Liwei D. Geng

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Structures, properties and functionalities of magnetic domain walls in thin film, nanowires and atomic chains are studied by micromagnetic simulations and ab initio calculations in this dissertation. For magnetic domain walls in thin films, we computationally investigated the dynamics of one-dimensional domain wall line in ultrathin ferromagnetic film, and the exponent α = 1.24 ± 0.05 is obtained in the creep regime near depinning force, indicating the washboard potential model is supported by our simulations. Furthermore, the roughness, creep, depinning and flow of domain wall line with commonly existed substructures driven by magnetic field are also studied. Our simulation results ...


Understanding Electronic Structure And Transport Properties In Nanoscale Junctions, Kamal B. Dhungana Jan 2015

Understanding Electronic Structure And Transport Properties In Nanoscale Junctions, Kamal B. Dhungana

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Understanding the electronic structure and the transport properties of nanoscale materials are pivotal for designing future nano-scale electronic devices. Nanoscale materials could be individual or groups of molecules, nanotubes, semiconducting quantum dots, and biomolecules. Among these several alternatives, organic molecules are very promising and the field of molecular electronics has progressed significantly over the past few decades. Despite these progresses, it has not yet been possible to achieve atomic level control at the metal-molecule interface during a conductance measurement, which hinders the progress in this field. The lack of atomic level information of the interface also makes it much harder ...


Multiscale Examination And Modeling Of Electron Transport In Nanoscale Materials And Devices, Douglas R. Banyai Jan 2015

Multiscale Examination And Modeling Of Electron Transport In Nanoscale Materials And Devices, Douglas R. Banyai

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

For half a century the integrated circuits (ICs) that make up the heart of electronic devices have been steadily improving by shrinking at an exponential rate. However, as the current crop of ICs get smaller and the insulating layers involved become thinner, electrons leak through due to quantum mechanical tunneling. This is one of several issues which will bring an end to this incredible streak of exponential improvement of this type of transistor device, after which future improvements will have to come from employing fundamentally different transistor architecture rather than fine tuning and miniaturizing the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs ...


In-Situ Tem Plasma Chip Nanofabrication And Characterization, Xuebo Cui Jan 2014

In-Situ Tem Plasma Chip Nanofabrication And Characterization, Xuebo Cui

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

A silicon-based microcell was fabricated with the potential for use in in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of materials under plasma processing. The microcell consisted of 50 nm-thick film of silicon nitride observation window with 60μm distance between two electrodes. E-beam scattering Mont Carlo simulation showed that the silicon nitride thin film would have very low scattering effect on TEM primary electron beam accelerated at 200 keV. Only 4.7% of primary electrons were scattered by silicon nitride thin film and the Ar gas (60 μm thick at 1 atm pressure) filling the space between silicon nitride films. Theoretical calculation also ...


Fabrication Of Drug Eluting Ti Implants For Dental/Orthopedic Applications, Azhang Hamlekhan Jan 2014

Fabrication Of Drug Eluting Ti Implants For Dental/Orthopedic Applications, Azhang Hamlekhan

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Titanium and its alloys are typically used for fabrication of dental and orthopedic implants as they possess various desirable properties including biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. In spite of such benefits, titanium implants show lack of osseointegration after surgery in minor cases. The objective of this research has been to modify the surface of titanium alloy for medical applications through increasing surface hydrophilicity and drug loading. Primarily, anodization method is employed for fabrication of nanotubes on titanium surface to act as anchoring cite for cells.

Considering the key role of surface hydrophilicity on cellular attachment to the surface and subsequent biological ...


Multiscale Modeling Of Liquid Crystalline/Nanotube Composites, Sharil Patrale Jan 2013

Multiscale Modeling Of Liquid Crystalline/Nanotube Composites, Sharil Patrale

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

The objective of this research is to synthesize structural composites designed with particular areas defined with custom modulus, strength and toughness values in order to improve the overall mechanical behavior of the composite. Such composites are defined and referred to as 3D-designer composites. These composites will be formed from liquid crystalline polymers and carbon nanotubes. The fabrication process is a variation of rapid prototyping process, which is a layered, additive-manufacturing approach. Composites formed using this process can be custom designed by apt modeling methods for superior performance in advanced applications. The focus of this research is on enhancement of Young ...


Co-Electrophoretic Deposition Of Liquid Metal And Silicon For Lithium-Ion Battery Application, Hanfei Zhang Jan 2013

Co-Electrophoretic Deposition Of Liquid Metal And Silicon For Lithium-Ion Battery Application, Hanfei Zhang

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

A low cost electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process was successfully used for liquid metal thin film deposition with a high depositing rate of 0.6 µ/min. Furthermore, silicon nano-powder and liquid metal were then simultaneously deposited as the negative electrode of lithium-ion battery by a technology called co-EPD. The liquid metal was hoping to act as the matrix for silicon particles during lithium ion insertion and distraction. Half-cell testing was performed using as prepared co-EPD sample. An initial discharge capacity of 1500 mAh/g was reported for nano-silicon and galinstan electrode, although the capacity fading issue of these samples was ...


Nanoscale Electrochemistry By In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy, Qi Gao Jan 2013

Nanoscale Electrochemistry By In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy, Qi Gao

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Nanoscale research in energy storage has recently focused on investigating the properties of nanostructures in order to increase energy density, power rate, and capacity. To better understand the intrinsic properties of nanomaterials, a new and advanced in situ system was designed that allows atomic scale observation of materials under external fields. A special holder equipped with a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) probe inside a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) system was used to perform the in situ studies on mechanical, electrical, and electrochemical properties of nanomaterials. The nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes are characterized by electron imaging, diffraction, and chemical ...


High Voltage Electrophoretic Deposition For Electrochemical Energy Storage And Other Applications, Sunand Santhanagopalan Jan 2013

High Voltage Electrophoretic Deposition For Electrochemical Energy Storage And Other Applications, Sunand Santhanagopalan

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

High voltage electrophoretic deposition (HVEPD) has been developed as a novel technique to obtain vertically aligned forests of one-dimensional nanomaterials for efficient energy storage. The ability to control and manipulate nanomaterials is critical for their effective usage in a variety of applications. Oriented structures of one-dimensional nanomaterials provide a unique opportunity to take full advantage of their excellent mechanical and electrochemical properties. However, it is still a significant challenge to obtain such oriented structures with great process flexibility, ease of processing under mild conditions and the capability to scale up, especially in context of efficient device fabrication and system packaging ...


Studies Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Smart Self-Assembly And As Controlled Drug Delivery, Xiaochu Ding Jan 2013

Studies Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Smart Self-Assembly And As Controlled Drug Delivery, Xiaochu Ding

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

This dissertation is related to the studies of functionalized nanoparticles for self-assembly and as controlled drug delivery system. The whole topic is composed of two parts. In the first part, the research was conducted to design and synthesize a new type of ionic peptide-functionalized copolymer conjugates for self-assembly into nanoparticle fibers and 3D scaffolds with the ability of multi-drug loading and governing the release rate of each drug for tissue engineering. The self-assembly study confirmed that such peptide-functionalized amphiphilic copolymers underwent different self-assembly behavior. The bigger nanoparticles were more easily assembled into nanoparticle fibers and 3D scaffolds with larger pore ...


Stochastic Charge Transport In Multi-Island Single-Electron Tunneling Devices, Madhusudan A. Savaikar Jan 2013

Stochastic Charge Transport In Multi-Island Single-Electron Tunneling Devices, Madhusudan A. Savaikar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

The physics of the operation of singe-electron tunneling devices (SEDs) and singe-electron tunneling transistors (SETs), especially of those with multiple nanometer-sized islands, has remained poorly understood in spite of some intensive experimental and theoretical research. This computational study examines the current-voltage (IV) characteristics of multi-island single-electron devices using a newly developed multi-island transport simulator (MITS) that is based on semi-classical tunneling theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The dependence of device characteristics on physical device parameters is explored, and the physical mechanisms that lead to the Coulomb blockade (CB) and Coulomb staircase (CS) characteristics are proposed.

Simulations using MITS demonstrate ...


In-Situ Electrical, Mechanical And Electrochemical Characterizations Of One-Dimensional Nanostructures, Hessam Mir Shah Ghassemi Jan 2011

In-Situ Electrical, Mechanical And Electrochemical Characterizations Of One-Dimensional Nanostructures, Hessam Mir Shah Ghassemi

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

One-dimensional nanostructures initiated new aspects to the materials applications due to their superior properties compared to the bulk materials. Properties of nanostructures have been characterized by many techniques and used for various device applications. However, simultaneous correlation between the physical and structural properties of these nanomaterials has not been widely investigated. Therefore, it is necessary to perform in-situ study on the physical and structural properties of nanomaterials to understand their relation. In this work, we will use a unique instrument to perform real time atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) of nanomaterials inside a transmission electron microscopy ...