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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

The Processing And Polarization Reversal Dynamics Of Thin Film Poly(Vinylidene) Fluoride, Noel Mayur Dawson Dec 2017

The Processing And Polarization Reversal Dynamics Of Thin Film Poly(Vinylidene) Fluoride, Noel Mayur Dawson

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

Many ferroelectric devices benefit from the ability to deposit thin ferroelectric layers. Poly(vinylidene) fluoride (PVDF) is the prototypical ferroelectric polymer, but processing of thin film ferroelectric PVDF remains a challenge due to the formation of large voids in the film during traditional thin film processing. The research described in this dissertation starts by investigating the origin of these voids. The cause of these voids is found to be caused by vapor induced phase separation (VIPS). Guided by the thermodynamics of VIPS, a process is then designed to produce void-free ferroelectric PVDF thin films on polar and non-polar substrates. The ...


Incorporation Of Catalytic Modalities For Forming Of A Catalytic Cascade, Albert T. Perry Iii Nov 2017

Incorporation Of Catalytic Modalities For Forming Of A Catalytic Cascade, Albert T. Perry Iii

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

This dissertation investigates the novel incorporation of inorganic and enzymatic catalysts. There is little literature on inorganic catalysts operating at biologically relevant pHs and as such a significant amount of this dissertation focuses on determination of catalyst activity. Mn amino-anitpyrene (MnAAPyr), Pt, Pt alloys, Mn-N-C and Pd catalysts on 3D graphene supports(3D-GNS), were explored for activity towards glycerol intermediates: oxalic acid, mesoxalic acid, glyoxalic acid, and formic acid. MnAAPyr was designed to mimic the reaction center of oxalate decarboxylase and oxalate oxidaze, the natural catalyst towards oxalic acid. It showed high activity towards oxalic acid, with onset potentials of ...


Ion Size Effects On The Properties Of Charge Regulating Electric Double Layers, Divya Jyoti Prakash Jul 2017

Ion Size Effects On The Properties Of Charge Regulating Electric Double Layers, Divya Jyoti Prakash

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

The behavior of charged interfaces formed in various systems like colloidal solution, fuel cells, battery, electro-deposition, catalysis is governed by the properties of electrical double layer(EDL). Civilized model with charge regulation boundary condition determined by thermodynamic equilibrium at the interface has been used to model electrical double layer and shows that size of the solvent plays a critical role in characterizing the properties of EDL using classical density functional theory.This thesis investigates the impact of ion size in electrolyte solutions on the electrical double layer formed at the interface using a similar model. It is found that ion ...


Copper Electrodeposition In Mesoscale Through-Silicon-Vias, Lyle Alexander Menk Jul 2017

Copper Electrodeposition In Mesoscale Through-Silicon-Vias, Lyle Alexander Menk

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

Copper (Cu) electrodeposition (ECD) in through-silicon-vias (TSVs) is an essential technique required for high-density 3-D integration of complex semiconductor devices. The importance of Cu ECD in damascene interconnects has led to a natural development towards copper electrodeposition in TSVs. Cu ECD is preferred over alternative approaches like the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tungsten (W) or aluminum (Al) because Cu ECD films have lower film stress, lower processing temperatures, and more optimal thermal and electrical properties as compared with CVD W or Al.

Via filling with electroplated Cu on substrates that have undergone atomic layer deposition of a conformal platinum ...


Graphite And Graphene-Oxide Based Pgm-Free Model Catalysts For The Oxygen Reduction Reaction, Joseph Henry Dumont Jul 2017

Graphite And Graphene-Oxide Based Pgm-Free Model Catalysts For The Oxygen Reduction Reaction, Joseph Henry Dumont

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

The world currently relies heavily on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas for its energy. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, that is, they draw on finite resources that will eventually dwindle, becoming too expensive or too environmentally damaging to retrieve. One alternative source of energy are fuel cells, electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity. They can be used in a wide range of applications, including transportation, stationary, portable and emergency power sources. Their development has been slowed by the high cost of PGM electrocatalysts needed at both electrodes as well as sluggish ...


Waveguide-Coupled Avalanche Photodiodes For A Cmos Compatible Tranceiver Package, Nick Martinez Jul 2017

Waveguide-Coupled Avalanche Photodiodes For A Cmos Compatible Tranceiver Package, Nick Martinez

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

Optical signal detection is most readily done with classical sources emitting signals

which undergo very little attenuation. Detection of signals with these power levels

benets from classical photodetectors, where the photon induced electronic signal is

discernible above the background noise. In other instances, where the optical signal

may start from an attenuated source, or in cases where the optical signal is severely

attenuated in transit, a detector which exhibits gain converts a weak optical signal

into a measurable electrical one. Detectors which convert a weak photo-generated

electrical pulse into a strong one do so through a process known as carrier ...


Role Of Vapor Phase Processes On The Sintering Of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts, Cristhian Carrillo Jul 2017

Role Of Vapor Phase Processes On The Sintering Of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts, Cristhian Carrillo

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

This work provides a fundamental understanding on the vapor phase processes that govern the sintering of supported nanoparticles in relation to the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Sintering is a deactivation process that affects this catalyst significantly, and many other catalyst systems. Therefore, it is important to understand the sintering mechanisms in order to improve the long term catalytic reactivity.

Pt is an active catalyst in the DOC but it sinters via Ostwald ripening to form large particles under the accelerated aging conditions (800 oC) recommended by the Department of Energy (DOE). At 800 oC in the presence of ...


Study Of Polysulfide Speciation In Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using In Situ Confocal Raman Microscopy, Josefine Mcbrayer Jul 2017

Study Of Polysulfide Speciation In Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using In Situ Confocal Raman Microscopy, Josefine Mcbrayer

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

Secondary lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been heavily studied in the battery community since the start of the 21st century due to their high theoretical capacity and specific energy density. The ground-breaking lithium ion battery has revolutionized society and its ability to store energy, however the lithium ion battery is reaching its limit with a theoretical capacity almost five times lower than that of lithium sulfur. With the improvement and commercialization of Li-S batteries, electric vehicles and personal electronics will have extended performance on a single charge. The viability of this promising chemistry relies on overcoming several key difficulties ...


A Study Of Dislocation Networks In Gasb On Gaas Using Transmission Electron Microscopy, Darryl M. Shima May 2017

A Study Of Dislocation Networks In Gasb On Gaas Using Transmission Electron Microscopy, Darryl M. Shima

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

The growth of GaSb on GaAs is of interest for a variety of scientific and technological applications. Some evidence suggests that low threading dislocation density GaSb can be grown directly on GaAs through arrays of periodic edge misfit dislocations. However, significant conflicting data also exist. This work seeks to clarify the question through transmission electron microscopy analysis of GaSb grown on GaAs. The results of this work show that the single strategy of direct growth of GaSb on GaAs results in dislocation densities too high for devices. A secondary strategy of dislocation filtering layers is introduced to further reduce threading ...


Dna Directed Assembly Of Gold-Tipped Metallic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Into Electrical Devices, Ronald D. Salesky Apr 2017

Dna Directed Assembly Of Gold-Tipped Metallic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Into Electrical Devices, Ronald D. Salesky

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

Carbon nanotubes have rightfully been regarded as a wonder material since their discovery by Iijima in 1991 and the subsequent elucidation of their many material properties. Their extreme strength is 10-fold higher than any industrial fiber. Their current density carrying capability is orders of magnitude higher than copper without failure from electromigration. Their high thermal conductivity bests diamond, and their structural versatility leads to either semiconducting or metallic electronic character. These properties all make the integration of carbon nanotubes into functional devices of high value. However, they remain a material of largely unrealized potential due to several challenges that arise ...


A Study Of Iron-Nitrogen-Carbon Fuel Cell Catalysts: Chemistry – Nanostructure – Performance, Michael J. Workman Mar 2017

A Study Of Iron-Nitrogen-Carbon Fuel Cell Catalysts: Chemistry – Nanostructure – Performance, Michael J. Workman

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

Fuel cells have the potential to be a pollution-free, low-cost, and energy efficient alternative to the internal combustion engine for transportation and small-scale stationary power applications. The current state of fuel cell technology has already achieved two of these three lofty goals. The remaining barrier to wide-scale deployment is the high cost, which is primarily caused by dependence on large amounts of platinum to catalyze the energy conversion reactions. To overcome this barrier and facilitate the integration of fuel cells into mainstream applications, research into a new class of catalyst materials that do not require platinum is needed.

There has ...