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Polymer Chemistry

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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Alignment And Morphological Effects Of Nanoplates In Lamellar Diblock Copolymer Thin Films, Nadia Krook Jan 2019

Alignment And Morphological Effects Of Nanoplates In Lamellar Diblock Copolymer Thin Films, Nadia Krook

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The ability to disperse inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) of various shapes, sizes, and compositions in polymeric matrices enables researchers to continuously engineer new material combinations with different resulting properties. Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) can be further customized for specific applications by intentionally organizing and orienting NPs within these hybrid materials. Despite significant advances in the field of PNCs, full control over the orientation of embedded anisotropic NPs, specifically nanoplates, is not well-established without employing multistep processes. Capturing either in-plane (parallel) or out-of-plane (vertical) orientation of nanoplates in thin polymer films through a scalable method would create new opportunities for developing coating technologies ...


Cellulose Nanofiber-Reinforced Impact Modified Polypropylene: Assessing Material Properties From Fused Layer Modeling And Injection Molding Processing, Jordan Elliott Sanders Dec 2017

Cellulose Nanofiber-Reinforced Impact Modified Polypropylene: Assessing Material Properties From Fused Layer Modeling And Injection Molding Processing, Jordan Elliott Sanders

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to investigate the use of cellulose nanofibers (CNF) compounded into an impact modified polypropylene (IMPP) matrix. A IMPP was used because it shrinks less than a PP homopolymer during FLM processing. An assessment of material properties from fused layer modeling (FLM), an additive manufacturing (AM) method, and injection molding (IM) was conducted. Results showed that material property measurements in neat PP were statistically similar between IM and FLM for density, strain at yield and flexural stiffness. Additionally, PP plus the coupling agent maleic anhydride (MA) showed statistically similar results in comparison of IM and ...


Exploring Thermoresponsive Affinity Agents To Enhance Microdialysis Sampling Efficiency Of Proteins, Thaddeus Vasicek May 2017

Exploring Thermoresponsive Affinity Agents To Enhance Microdialysis Sampling Efficiency Of Proteins, Thaddeus Vasicek

Theses and Dissertations

Affinity agents increase microdialysis protein relative recovery, yet they have not seen widespread use within the microdialysis community due to their additional instrumentation requirements and prohibitive cost. This dissertation describes new affinity agents for microdialysis that require no additional instrumentation to use, have nearly 100% particle recovery, are 7 times more cost efficient than alternatives, and have low specificity enabling their use for a wide variety of proteins. Initially gold nanoparticles were chosen as an affinity ligand support due to their high surface area/volume ratio and colloidal stability. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) was immobilized to the gold nanoparticles, which served to ...


Electrospinning Of Polymeric Solutions Using Opuntia Ficus-Indica Mucilage And Iron Oxide For Nanofiber Membranes For Treating Arsenic Contaminated Water, Venkatesh Eppili Jun 2016

Electrospinning Of Polymeric Solutions Using Opuntia Ficus-Indica Mucilage And Iron Oxide For Nanofiber Membranes For Treating Arsenic Contaminated Water, Venkatesh Eppili

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Water is the essential part of every organism and it is also a vital constituent of healthy living and diet. Unfortunately water contamination over the past decade has increased dramatically leading to various diseases. As technology advances, we are detecting many pollutants at smaller levels of concentrations. Arsenic (As) is one of those major pollutants, and Arsenic poisoning is a condition caused due to excess levels of arsenic in the body. The main basis for Arsenic poisoning is from ground water which naturally contains high concentrations of arsenic. A case study from 2007 states that over 137 million people in ...


Targeted Delivery Of Nrf2 Sirna Using Modular Polymeric Micellar Nanodelivery System For Efficient Target Gene Knockdown In Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Shaimaa Mohamed Ibrahim Yousef Jan 2016

Targeted Delivery Of Nrf2 Sirna Using Modular Polymeric Micellar Nanodelivery System For Efficient Target Gene Knockdown In Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Shaimaa Mohamed Ibrahim Yousef

Wayne State University Theses

Tumor selective drug delivery as well as chemotherapy associated multi drug resistance (MDR) pose tremendous hurdles for effective cancer therapy. In this regard, designing multifunctional nanocarriers loaded with drug/gene payloads and engineered with tumor targeting ligands can serve as a modular platform for targeted drug/gene delivery. In this study we undertook the synthesis of a self-assembling block copolymer constructed using poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride, partial iso-octyl ester) (SMAPIE) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI) as building blocks and evaluated its micelle forming ability, siRNA complexation and siRNA delivery potentials. In addition, we engineered galactosamine decorated nanomicelles using modular “click” chemistry based ...


Shape Memorization And Reconfiguration Of Polymer Particles, Lewis Michael Cox Jan 2016

Shape Memorization And Reconfiguration Of Polymer Particles, Lewis Michael Cox

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Polymer particle systems have been experienced tremendous research efforts in recent years owing to their rapidly expanding applications. Improvements in synthesis methodologies have resulted in unprecedented control over the structure and chemistry of particles. In contrast to these advancements, knowledge of the experimental studies of the mechanical properties of particles remains scarce. Smart particles, specimens capable of changing shape in response to external stimuli, have specifically begun to attract attention. In this thesis two different smart particle systems capable of conforming to an infinite spectrum of user-controlled geometries are investigated: shape memory and shape reconfiguring particles.

Shape memory polymers have ...


Synthesis Of Hybrid Nanomaterials Through Amphiphilic Self-Assembly, Qingjie Luo Jan 2016

Synthesis Of Hybrid Nanomaterials Through Amphiphilic Self-Assembly, Qingjie Luo

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

There have been tremendous efforts toward combining nanoparticles, polymers, biomolecules in material synthesis and device fabrication in order to take advantage of the unique properties of each component. The ability to construct multicomponent hybrid nanomaterials with controllable structure and properties is critical to truly exploit the potential of these functional materials in many applications. This thesis presents the construction of self-assemblies of various components including nanoparticles, synthetic block copolymers, DNA block copolymers, and lipid molecules.

The location of nanoparticles in colloidal block copolymer assemblies is controlled by using nanoparticles modified with mixed surface ligands. Different morphologies including micelles, Janus-like micelles ...


Refractive Index Engineering And Optical Properties Enhancement By Polymer Nanocomposites, Cheng Li Jan 2016

Refractive Index Engineering And Optical Properties Enhancement By Polymer Nanocomposites, Cheng Li

Doctoral Dissertations

The major part of this dissertation discusses the engineering of the refractive index of materials using solution-processable polymer nanocomposites and their applications in building optical components and devices. Three particular polymer nanocomposites have been introduced to achieve materials with tunable refractive indices and enhanced optical properties, which can be used to manipulate the behavior of light or electromagnetic radiations. In the first system, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polymer nanocomposites are developed. Thin films with tunable, low refractive indicies were fabricated from the composites. The mechanical strength of these films was characterized, and their application in antireflective coatings is discussed. In ...


Solution And Surface Properties Of Architecturally- And Compositionally-Complex Block Copolymers And Their Binary Mixtures, Jesse Lawrence Davis Dec 2015

Solution And Surface Properties Of Architecturally- And Compositionally-Complex Block Copolymers And Their Binary Mixtures, Jesse Lawrence Davis

Doctoral Dissertations

The spontaneous generation of complex structures from polymeric building blocks provides a simple yet effective route to create useful soft matter structures having potential application in a variety of nanotechnologies. The topology, chemical structure, block composition, and sequence of the constituent building blocks of polymers are tunable through synthetic chemistry. This tunability offers attractive opportunities to generate complex, yet well-defined structures with control over the geometry, packing symmetry, and microdomain structure. This thesis work involves the study of the self-assembly behaviors of architecturally complex amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs). ABCs are composed of two or more chemically distinct blocks that are ...


The Synthesis And Characterization Of Water-Reducible Nanoscale Colloidal Unimolecular Polymer (Cup) Particles, Cynthia J. Riddles Jan 2015

The Synthesis And Characterization Of Water-Reducible Nanoscale Colloidal Unimolecular Polymer (Cup) Particles, Cynthia J. Riddles

Doctoral Dissertations

"The coatings industry has adapted to more stringent guidelines in paint formulations. Current VOC (volatile organic compound) limits placed by the federal government have pushed the industry toward the development of paint formulations which have very little to no VOC's. The development of Colloidal Unimolecular Polymer (CUP) particles is a step in the direction of providing a resin system which exists in zero VOC aqueous dispersion.

The CUP particles are a part of the polymer field of Single Chain Nano Particles (SCNP) and ranged in diameters of 3-9 nm. The research presented in this dissertation describes the synthesis and ...


Simulation Studies Of Diblock-Copolymer Grafted Nanoparticle Assembly In Solvent And Polymer Matrix, Carla E. Estridge Jan 2015

Simulation Studies Of Diblock-Copolymer Grafted Nanoparticle Assembly In Solvent And Polymer Matrix, Carla E. Estridge

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Macroscopic properties of polymer nanocomposites are fundamentally linked to the morphology (or assembled structure) of its constituents. In order to design composites to have specific macroscopic properties it is important to be able to control the assembly of the constituents in the composite. In this thesis we use molecular simulations to study the molecular-level interactions and assembly of one class of polymer nanocomposites, namely diblock-copolymer grafted nanoparticles in solvent and in polymer matrix.

First, we study how the molecular features of the diblock-copolymer grafts affect the assembly of grafted nanoparticles in a (implicit) small molecule solvent. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics ...


Functional Nanostructures From Nanoparticle Building Blocks, Jimmy Lawrence Jan 2015

Functional Nanostructures From Nanoparticle Building Blocks, Jimmy Lawrence

Doctoral Dissertations

Advances in the synthetic strategies of engineered nanomaterials, multifunctional molecules and polymers have opened pathways for the development of functional nanomaterials having unique optoelectronic, mechanical, and biological properties. By designing the chemistry of surface ligands, the organic interface of nanoparticles, one can further the versatility and utilization of engineered nanomaterials, opening pathways for breakthroughs in sensing, catalysis, and delivery using nanomaterials.

This thesis describes the synthesis and characterization of small molecule and polymer ligand functionalized inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., metal, semiconducting). Embedding specific chemical functionality into the ligand periphery of nanoparticles enables the resulting functional nanoparticles to react selectively with ...


Tunable Photonic Multilayers From Stimulus-Responsive, Photo-Crosslinkable Polymers, Maria C. Chiappelli Jan 2015

Tunable Photonic Multilayers From Stimulus-Responsive, Photo-Crosslinkable Polymers, Maria C. Chiappelli

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes the synthesis of photo-crosslinkable copolymers and their utilization for the fabrication and testing of tunable and responsive one-dimensional (1D) photonic multilayers. Photonic multilayers exhibit structural color due to the interference of incident light at layer interfaces, providing a convenient route towards optically responsive materials that do not rely on potentially light- or oxygen-sensitive chromophore-containing pigments and dyes. A fabrication technique based on sequential spin-coating and crosslinking of photo-crosslinkable polymers is used to assemble tunable and responsive photonic multilayers.

Chapter One introduces the fundamental underlying principles of 1D photonic structures and explores their importance in a variety of ...


Patterning And Mechanical Analysis Of Fiber-Based Materials, Samuel A. Pendergraph Sep 2014

Patterning And Mechanical Analysis Of Fiber-Based Materials, Samuel A. Pendergraph

Doctoral Dissertations

The ability to define and control the topography of a surface has been studied extensively due to its importance in a wide variety of applications. The control of a non-planar topography would be very valuable since a number of structures that are pervasive in artificial applications (e.g. fibers, lenses) are curved interfaces. This potential of enabling applications that incorporate non-planar geometries was the motivation for this thesis. The first study of this thesis comprises the study of patterning the circumference of micrometer sized fibers. Specifically, a unique technique was described to pattern the fiber with a periodic array of ...


Photoinhibition Superresolution Lithography, Darren Lawrence Forman Apr 2014

Photoinhibition Superresolution Lithography, Darren Lawrence Forman

Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

While the prospect of nanoscale manufacturing has generated tremendous excitement, arbitrary patterning at nanometer length scales cannot be brought about with current photolithography -- the technology that for decades has driven electronics miniaturization and enabled mass production of digital logic, memory, MEMS and flat-panel displays. This is due to the relatively long wavelength of light and diffraction, which imposes a physical not technological limit on the resolution of a far-field optical pattern. Photoinhibited superresolution (PInSR) lithography is a new scheme designed to beat the diffraction limit through two-color confinement of photopolymerization and, via efficient single-photon absorption kinetics, also be high-throughput capable ...


Self-Assembled Nanostructures In Block Copolymer Thin Films For Nanofabrication, Chunlin He Jan 2014

Self-Assembled Nanostructures In Block Copolymer Thin Films For Nanofabrication, Chunlin He

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Self-assembly of block copolymer in thin films provides an attractive approach to fabricating nanoscale dots and lines (5~100 nm) rapidly and in parallel over wafer-scale areas. This PhD dissertation mainly studies using the cross-linking reaction based on epoxide incorporated in copolymers to control the nanostructures of self-assembled block copolymer in thin films.

Although control over the domain orientation and long-range order of block copolymer nanostructures self-assembled in thin films has been achieved using various directed self-assembly techniques, more challenging but equally important for many lithographic applications is the ability to precisely control the shape of the interface between domains ...


Addressing Public Health Risks Of Persistent Pollutants Through Nutritional Modulation And Biomimetic Nanocomposite Remediation Platforms, Bradley J. Newsome Jan 2014

Addressing Public Health Risks Of Persistent Pollutants Through Nutritional Modulation And Biomimetic Nanocomposite Remediation Platforms, Bradley J. Newsome

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Due to their relative chemical stability and ubiquity in the environment, chlorinated organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose significant health risks and enduring remediation challenges. Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) provide a novel platform for sensing/remediation of these toxicants, in addition to the growing use of NPs in many industrial and biomedical applications, but there remains concern for their potential long-term health effects. Research highlighted herein also represents a transdisciplinary approach to address human health challenges associated with exposure to PCBs and NPs. The objectives of this dissertation research are two-fold, 1) to develop effective methods for capture/sensing ...


Studies Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Smart Self-Assembly And As Controlled Drug Delivery, Xiaochu Ding Jan 2013

Studies Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Smart Self-Assembly And As Controlled Drug Delivery, Xiaochu Ding

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

This dissertation is related to the studies of functionalized nanoparticles for self-assembly and as controlled drug delivery system. The whole topic is composed of two parts. In the first part, the research was conducted to design and synthesize a new type of ionic peptide-functionalized copolymer conjugates for self-assembly into nanoparticle fibers and 3D scaffolds with the ability of multi-drug loading and governing the release rate of each drug for tissue engineering. The self-assembly study confirmed that such peptide-functionalized amphiphilic copolymers underwent different self-assembly behavior. The bigger nanoparticles were more easily assembled into nanoparticle fibers and 3D scaffolds with larger pore ...


Hierarchical Assemblies Of Soft Matters From Polymers And Liquid Crystals On Structured Surfaces, Apiradee Honglawan Jan 2013

Hierarchical Assemblies Of Soft Matters From Polymers And Liquid Crystals On Structured Surfaces, Apiradee Honglawan

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Hierarchical, multifunctional materials hold important keys to numerous advanced technologies, including electronics, optics, and medicine. This thesis encompasses generation of hierarchical structures with novel morphologies and functions through self-assembly directed by lithographically fabricated templates. Here, two soft materials, amphiphilic random copolymers of photopolymerized acryloyl chloride (ranPAC) and smectic-A liquid crystal (SmA-LC) molecule, 4'(5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,11,11,12,12,12-heptadecaflu-orododecyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester, are synthesized as model systems to investigate the governing principles at the topographic surface/interface.

The ranPAC can self-organize into nanomicelles with high regularity and stability ...


Raft Microemulsion Polymerization With Surface-Active Chain Transfer Agent, Ibrahim Adnan El-Hedok Jan 2013

Raft Microemulsion Polymerization With Surface-Active Chain Transfer Agent, Ibrahim Adnan El-Hedok

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The work described in this dissertation focuses on enhancing the polymer nanoparticle synthesis using RAFT (reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer) in microemulsion polymerization in order to achieve predetermined molecular weight with narrow molecular weight polydispersity.

The hypothesis is that the use of an amphiphilic chain transfer agent (surface-active CTA) will confine the CTA to the surface of the particle and thermodynamically favor partitioning of the CTA between micelles and particles throughout the polymerization. Thus, the CTA diffusion from micelles to polymer particles would be minimized and the breadth of the CTA per particle distribution would remain low.

We report the successful ...


Synthesis And Characterizations Of Pyridinium Salts Including Poly(Pyridinium Salt)S And Their Applications, Tae Soo Jo Dec 2012

Synthesis And Characterizations Of Pyridinium Salts Including Poly(Pyridinium Salt)S And Their Applications, Tae Soo Jo

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Pyridinium salts, both molecular and polymeric, are an interesting class of multifunctional materials that exhibit liquid-crystalline and light-emitting properties. Moreover, their properties can be easily tuned by introducing new types of anions or by modifying their chemical structures. This dissertation describes synthesis and characterization of poly(pyridinium salt)s containing macrocounterions and fluorene moieties in their backbones, synthesis and characterization of nanocomposites of poly(pyridinium salt)s with single-walled carbon nanotubes via non-covalent interactions, and synthesis and characterizations of pyridinium salts having different aliphatic linkages and their application in organic acid sensing.

First, all of these ionic polymers were prepared ...


Active Response Of Polymer Materials From External Stimuli – Solvents And Light; Grafting Reactions On Perovskite Layers, Jianxia Zhang May 2012

Active Response Of Polymer Materials From External Stimuli – Solvents And Light; Grafting Reactions On Perovskite Layers, Jianxia Zhang

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The active response of a series of polymeric materials was investigated. Both solvent activated and light activated thin films and wire systems show dynamic behaviors when exposed to different stimuli.

Solvent mediated fluxional behavior of polymer thin films involved extensive, rapid curling both on infusion and evaporation of good solvents. These films can be either lab-fabricated ones or commercial ones, and the curling behavior can be as fast as seconds. Conditions including polymer materials, chosen solvents, and film geometry can affect the behavior.

Methods that allowed for the creation and retention of distorted wire structures were also developed; the asymmetric ...


Synthesis And Self-Assembly Of Polymeric Hybrid Nanomaterials, Amanda C. Kamps Jan 2012

Synthesis And Self-Assembly Of Polymeric Hybrid Nanomaterials, Amanda C. Kamps

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The ability to construct functional polymeric hybrid nanomaterials is critically important for many applications. In this thesis I present the synthesis of amphiphilic polymers of various compositions including insulating coil-coil, semiconducting rod-coil, semiconducting brush-coil, and bioconjugated rod-coil polymers. The self-assembly of these polymers is presented along with methodologies for controlling the organization of nanomaterials and polymers towards the construction of functional hybrid materials with controllable structures and properties.

In this thesis, an analysis of the conditions necessary to stabilize the cooperative self-assembly of nanoparticles and amphiphilic block copolymers into a unique cavity-like structure is presented. This work reveals the mechanism ...