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Electrical and Computer Engineering

Applied sciences

University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Characterization Of Coupled Gold Nanoparticles In A Sparsely Populated Square Lattice, Roy Truett French Iii May 2017

Characterization Of Coupled Gold Nanoparticles In A Sparsely Populated Square Lattice, Roy Truett French Iii

Theses and Dissertations

Metal nanoparticles deposited in regular arrays spaced at optical wavelengths support a resonance due to a coherent coupling between localized surface plasmon mode and lattice diffraction allowing for engineering of tunable devices for use in biological sensors, nanoantennae, and enhanced spectroscopy. Techniques such as electron beam lithography, focused ion beam lithography, nanosphere lithography, and nanoimprint lithography are used for fabrication but are limited by cost, device throughput, and small deposition. Polymer soft lithography and continuous dewetting of particles is a potentially viable alternative showing promise in all of those areas. This thesis developed the fabrication of a refined hydrophilic nanoimprinted ...


Interactive Physics And Characteristics Of Photons And Photoelectrons In Hyperbranched Zinc Oxide Nanostructures, Garrett Edward Torix Dec 2016

Interactive Physics And Characteristics Of Photons And Photoelectrons In Hyperbranched Zinc Oxide Nanostructures, Garrett Edward Torix

Theses and Dissertations

As is commonly known, the world is full of technological wonders, where a multitude of electronic devices and instruments continuously help push the boundaries of scientific knowledge and discovery. These new devices and instruments of science must be utilized at peak efficiency in order to benefit humanity with the most advanced scientific knowledge. In order to attain this level of efficiency, the materials which make up these electronics, or possibly more important, the fundamental characteristics of these materials, must be fully understood. The following research attempted to uncover the properties and characteristics of a selected family of materials. Herein, zinc ...


Epitaxial Growth Of Si-Ge-Sn Alloys For Optoelectronic Device Application, Aboozar Mosleh Dec 2015

Epitaxial Growth Of Si-Ge-Sn Alloys For Optoelectronic Device Application, Aboozar Mosleh

Theses and Dissertations

Microelectronics industry has experienced a tremendous change over the last few decades and has shown that Moore’s law has been followed by doubling the number of transistors on the chip every 18 months. However, continuous scaling down of the transistors size is reaching the physical limits and data transfer through metal interconnects will not be able to catch up with the increasing data processing speed in the future. Therefore, optical data transfer between chips and on-chip has been widely investigated. Silicon based optoelectronics has received phenomenal attention since Si has been the core material on which microelectronic industry has ...


Broadband High Efficiency Fractal-Like And Diverse Geometry Silicon Nanowire Arrays For Photovoltaic Applications, Omar Hassan Al-Zoubi Jul 2015

Broadband High Efficiency Fractal-Like And Diverse Geometry Silicon Nanowire Arrays For Photovoltaic Applications, Omar Hassan Al-Zoubi

Theses and Dissertations

Solar energy has many advantages over conventional sources of energy. It is abundant, clean and sustainable. One way to convert solar energy directly into electrical energy is by using the photovoltaic solar cells (PVSC). Despite PVSC are becoming economically competitive, they still have high cost and low light to electricity conversion efficiency. Therefore, increasing the efficiency and reducing the cost are key elements for producing economically more competitive PVSC that would have significant impact on energy market and saving environment. A significant percentage of the PVSC cost is due to the materials cost. For that, thin films PVSC have been ...


Fabrication Of Sub-10 Nm Metallic Structures Via Nanomasking Technique For Plasmonic Enhancement Applications, Stephen Joseph Bauman Jul 2015

Fabrication Of Sub-10 Nm Metallic Structures Via Nanomasking Technique For Plasmonic Enhancement Applications, Stephen Joseph Bauman

Theses and Dissertations

One area of nanoscience that has become popular in recent years is the study of optics at the nanoscale. Due to enhanced fabrication techniques, new geometries and improved dimensional resolutions have been allowing the creation of nanostructures for use in this area. Nanoscale geometries cause unique optical effects such as enhancement of the signal’s electric field strength at the surface of a substrate. Specifically, structures separated by nanogaps (10 nm and smaller) have been shown to exhibit strong field enhancement within the gaps. This has opened up the potential for surface enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced absorption for photovoltaics, and improved ...


Large-Scale Graphene Film Deposition For Monolithic Device Fabrication, Khaled Al-Shurman May 2015

Large-Scale Graphene Film Deposition For Monolithic Device Fabrication, Khaled Al-Shurman

Theses and Dissertations

Since 1958, the concept of integrated circuit (IC) has achieved great technological developments and helped in shrinking electronic devices. Nowadays, an IC consists of more than a million of compacted transistors.

The majority of current ICs use silicon as a semiconductor material. According to Moore's law, the number of transistors built-in on a microchip can be double every two years. However, silicon device manufacturing reaches its physical limits. To explain, there is a new trend to shrinking circuitry to seven nanometers where a lot of unknown quantum effects such as tunneling effect can not be controlled. Hence, there is ...


Zinc Oxide Nanorod Based Ultraviolet Detectors With Wheatstone Bridge Design, Arun Vasudevan Dec 2013

Zinc Oxide Nanorod Based Ultraviolet Detectors With Wheatstone Bridge Design, Arun Vasudevan

Theses and Dissertations

This research work, for the first time, investigated metal semiconductor-metal (MSM) zine oxide (ZnO) nanorod based ultra-violet (UV) detectors having a Wheatstone bridge design with a high

responsivity at room temperature and above, as well as a responsivity that was largely independent of the change in ambient conditions. The ZnO nanorods which acted as the sensing element of the detector were grown by a chemical growth technique. Studies were conducted to determine the effects on ZnO nanorod properties by varying the concentration of the chemicals used for the rod growth. These studies showed how the rod diameter and the deposition ...


Design And Fabrication Of Nanofluidic Systems With Integrated Sensing Electrodes For Rapid Biomolecule Characterization, Taylor Bradley Busch May 2013

Design And Fabrication Of Nanofluidic Systems With Integrated Sensing Electrodes For Rapid Biomolecule Characterization, Taylor Bradley Busch

Theses and Dissertations

A transparent nanofluidic system with embedded sensing electrodes was designed and fabricated by integrating Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nanolithography, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and metal deposition, and standard microfabrication processing. The fabrication process started with the evaporation of chrome/gold (Cr/Au) onto a Pyrex 7740 wafer followed by photolithography and wet etching of the microchannels. The wafer was patterned a second time to form Au microelectrodes with 15-45 micrometer separation gaps in the nanochannel region. Sensing electrodes (up to one micron wide) were then deposited using FIB to bridge the gaps. The nanochannels were realized through both AFM ...


New Effects Of Aging And Lattice Intercalation On Surface Properties Of Titanate Nanobelts, Roger Williams May 2013

New Effects Of Aging And Lattice Intercalation On Surface Properties Of Titanate Nanobelts, Roger Williams

Theses and Dissertations

Titanate nanobelts (NBs) have structural characteristics beyond that of clays. Due to a negatively charged lattice matrix of edge-shared TiO6-octahedra, the location of intercalated cations within the interlayer space may dictate the charge-conductions. This environment may in turn govern the lattice-framework's stability and surface properties, based upon our preliminary

data.

On that basis, these nanomaterials have been found in our lab to possess superb biological compatibility that is closely related to the types of the intercalated cations. In addition, a prolonged agitation was proven to enable us to manipulate the titanate NBs' length. In a parallel study, a ripening ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Iron Pyrite Nanocrystals For Photovoltaic Devices, Scott Curtis Mangham May 2013

Synthesis And Characterization Of Iron Pyrite Nanocrystals For Photovoltaic Devices, Scott Curtis Mangham

Theses and Dissertations

Iron pyrite nanocrystals have been synthesized using a hot-injection method with a variety of amines and characterized with properties necessary for photovoltaic devices. The iron pyrite nanocrystals were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, optical absorption, micro-Raman, and micro-Photoluminescence. The optical absorbance spectra showed the large absorption in the visible and near infrared spectral range for the nanocrystals as well as to show the band gap. The face-centered cubic crystal structure of the iron pyrite nanocrystals was shown by matching the measured X-ray diffraction pattern to a face-centered cubic iron pyrite reference pattern. Using Bragg's ...


The Geometry And Sensitivity Of Ion-Beam Sculpted Nanopores For Single Molecule Dna Analysis, Ryan Connor Rollings May 2013

The Geometry And Sensitivity Of Ion-Beam Sculpted Nanopores For Single Molecule Dna Analysis, Ryan Connor Rollings

Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, the relationship between the geometry of ion-beam sculpted solid-state nanopores and their ability to analyze single DNA molecules using resistive pulse sensing is investigated. To accomplish this, the three dimensional shape of the nanopore is determined using energy filtered and tomographic transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that this information enables the prediction of the ionic current passing through a voltage biased nanopore and improves the prediction of the magnitude of current drop signals when the nanopore interacts with single DNA molecules. The dimensional stability of nanopores in solution is monitored using this information and is improved ...


Plasmonic Nanostructures For The Absorption Enhancement Of Silicon Solar Cells, Nathan Matthias Burford May 2013

Plasmonic Nanostructures For The Absorption Enhancement Of Silicon Solar Cells, Nathan Matthias Burford

Theses and Dissertations

In this work, computational investigation of plasmonic nanostructures was conducted using the commercial finite element electromagnetics solver Ansys® HFSS. Arrays of silver toroid nanoparticles located on the surface of an amorphous silicon thin-film absorbing layer were studied for particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm in outer diameter. Parametric optimization by calculating an approximation of the photocurrent enhancement due to the nanoparticles was performed to determine optimal surface coverage of the nanoparticles. A comparison was made between these optimized nanotoroid arrays and optimized nanosphere arrays based on spectral absorption enhancement and potential photocurrent enhancement in an amorphous silicon ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Thinner Solid-State Nanopores, Denis Forbi Tita Aug 2012

Fabrication And Characterization Of Thinner Solid-State Nanopores, Denis Forbi Tita

Theses and Dissertations

Solid State nanopores that are fabricated by the ion beam sculpting process and electron beam drilling have shown great promise as a sensing device for DNA and protein molecules. Even though biological pores such as the alpha-Haemolysin have been in use for quite some time, the use of solid state Nanopores in single biomolecule detection has been on the rise since the mid 1990s. Solid State nanopores have an advantage over biological pores in that they are more robust, stable, and can be sculpted to any desired size for use in translocation experiments. One of the major challenges in Nanopore ...


Molecular Dynamics Study Of Diffusion Of O2 Penetrates In Uncrosslinked Polydimethysiloxane (Pdms), Crosslinked Pdms, And Pdms-Based Nanocomposites, Varun Ullal May 2012

Molecular Dynamics Study Of Diffusion Of O2 Penetrates In Uncrosslinked Polydimethysiloxane (Pdms), Crosslinked Pdms, And Pdms-Based Nanocomposites, Varun Ullal

Theses and Dissertations

Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study diffusion of O2 molecules in pure polydimethysiloxane (PDMS), crosslinked PDMS, and PDMS-based nanocomposites. The PDMS chains and penetrates are modeled using a hybrid interatomic potential which treats the Si-O atoms along the chain backbone explicitly while coarse-graining the methyl side groups and penetrates. By tracking the diffusion of penetrates in the system and subsequently computing their mean-squared displacement, diffusion coefficients are obtained. In pure PDMS models of varying molecular weight, diffusivity of the O22 penetrates is found to have an inverse relationship with chain length. Simulation models with longer chains ...


High Frequency Characterization Of Carbon Nanotube Networks For Device Applications, Emmanuel Decrossas May 2012

High Frequency Characterization Of Carbon Nanotube Networks For Device Applications, Emmanuel Decrossas

Theses and Dissertations

This work includes the microwave characterization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to design new CNTs-based high frequency components. A novel developed method to extract the electrical properties over a broad microwave frequency band from 10 MHz to 50 GHz of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a powder form is performed. The measured scattering parameters (S-parameters) with a performance network analyzer are compared to the simulated one obtained from an in-house computed mode matching technique (MMT). An optimized first order gradient method iteratively changes the unknown complex permittivity parameters to map the simulated S-parameters with the measured one until convergence criteria are satisfied ...


Experimental Study Of Novel Materials And Module For Cryogenic (4k) Superconducting Multi-Chip Modules, Ranjith John May 2012

Experimental Study Of Novel Materials And Module For Cryogenic (4k) Superconducting Multi-Chip Modules, Ranjith John

Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this proposal are to understand the science and technology of interfaces in the packaging of superconducting electronic (SCE) multichip modules (MCMs) at 4 K. The thermal management issue of the current SCE-MCMs was examined and the package assembly was optimized. A novel thermally conducting and electrically insulating nano-engineered polymer was developed for the thermal management of SCE-MCMs for 4 K cryogenic packaging. Finally, the nano-engineered polymer was integrated as underfill in a SCE-MCM and the thermal and electrical performance of SCE-MCM was demonstrated at 4 K.

Niobium based superconducting electronics (SCE) are the fastest known digital logic ...


Use Of Ultra High Vacuum Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition For Graphene Fabrication, Shannen Adcock May 2012

Use Of Ultra High Vacuum Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition For Graphene Fabrication, Shannen Adcock

Theses and Dissertations

Graphene, what some are terming the "new silicon", has the possibility of revolutionizing technology through nanoscale design processes. Fabrication of graphene for device processing is limited largely by the temperatures used in conventional deposition. High temperatures are detrimental to device design where many different materials may be present. For this reason, graphene synthesis at low temperatures using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is the subject of much research. In this thesis, a tool for ultra-high vacuum plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (UHV-PECVD) and accompanying subsystems, such as control systems and alarms, are designed and implemented to be used in future graphene growths ...