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Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Zinc Oxide Nanorod Based Ultraviolet Detectors With Wheatstone Bridge Design, Arun Vasudevan Dec 2013

Zinc Oxide Nanorod Based Ultraviolet Detectors With Wheatstone Bridge Design, Arun Vasudevan

Theses and Dissertations

This research work, for the first time, investigated metal semiconductor-metal (MSM) zine oxide (ZnO) nanorod based ultra-violet (UV) detectors having a Wheatstone bridge design with a high

responsivity at room temperature and above, as well as a responsivity that was largely independent of the change in ambient conditions. The ZnO nanorods which acted as the sensing element of the detector were grown by a chemical growth technique. Studies were conducted to determine the effects on ZnO nanorod properties by varying the concentration of the chemicals used for the rod growth. These studies showed how the rod diameter and the deposition ...


Non-Silicon Mosfets And Circuits With Atomic Layer Deposited Higher-K Dielectrics, Lin Dong Oct 2013

Non-Silicon Mosfets And Circuits With Atomic Layer Deposited Higher-K Dielectrics, Lin Dong

Open Access Dissertations

The quest for technologies beyond 14nm node complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices has now called for research on higher-k gate dielectrics integration with high mobility channel materials such as III-V semiconductors and germanium. Ternary oxides, such as La2-xYxO3 and LaAlO3, have been considered as strong candidates due to their high dielectric constants and good thermal stability. Meanwhile, the unique abilities of delivering large area uniform thin film, excellent controlling of composition and thickness to an atomic level, which are keys to ultra-scaled devices, have made atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique an excellent choice.

In this thesis, we systematically study the atomic ...


Solar Cell Temperature Dependent Efficiency And Very High Temperature Efficiency Limits, John Robert Wilcox Oct 2013

Solar Cell Temperature Dependent Efficiency And Very High Temperature Efficiency Limits, John Robert Wilcox

Open Access Dissertations

Clean renewable solar energy is and will continue to be a critically important source of electrical energy. Solar energy has the potential of meeting all of the world's energy needs, and has seen substantial growth in recent years. Solar cells can convert sun light directly into electrical energy, and much progress has been made in making them less expensive and more efficient. Solar cells are often characterized and modeled at 25 °C, which is significantly lower than their peak operating temperature. In some thermal concentrating systems, solar cells operate above 300 °C. Since increasing the temperature drastically affects the ...


Multiscale Study Of Batio3 Nanostructures And Nanocomposites, Lydie Louis Louis Aug 2013

Multiscale Study Of Batio3 Nanostructures And Nanocomposites, Lydie Louis Louis

Theses and Dissertations

Advancements in integrated nanoelectronics will continue to require the use of unique materials or systems of materials with diverse functionalities in increasingly confined spaces.

Hence, research on finite-dimensional systems strive to unearth and expand the knowledge of fundamental physical properties in certain key materials which exhibit numerous concurrent and exploitable functions.

Correspondingly, ferroelectric nanostructures, which particularly display a plethora of complex phenomena, prevalent in countless fields of research, are noteworthy candidates. Presently, however, the assimilation of zero-(0D) and one-dimensional (1D) ferroelectric into micro- or nano-electronics has been lagging, in part due to a lack of applied and fundamental studies ...


Plasmonic Nanostructures For The Absorption Enhancement Of Silicon Solar Cells, Nathan Matthias Burford May 2013

Plasmonic Nanostructures For The Absorption Enhancement Of Silicon Solar Cells, Nathan Matthias Burford

Theses and Dissertations

In this work, computational investigation of plasmonic nanostructures was conducted using the commercial finite element electromagnetics solver Ansys® HFSS. Arrays of silver toroid nanoparticles located on the surface of an amorphous silicon thin-film absorbing layer were studied for particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm in outer diameter. Parametric optimization by calculating an approximation of the photocurrent enhancement due to the nanoparticles was performed to determine optimal surface coverage of the nanoparticles. A comparison was made between these optimized nanotoroid arrays and optimized nanosphere arrays based on spectral absorption enhancement and potential photocurrent enhancement in an amorphous silicon ...


The Geometry And Sensitivity Of Ion-Beam Sculpted Nanopores For Single Molecule Dna Analysis, Ryan Connor Rollings May 2013

The Geometry And Sensitivity Of Ion-Beam Sculpted Nanopores For Single Molecule Dna Analysis, Ryan Connor Rollings

Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, the relationship between the geometry of ion-beam sculpted solid-state nanopores and their ability to analyze single DNA molecules using resistive pulse sensing is investigated. To accomplish this, the three dimensional shape of the nanopore is determined using energy filtered and tomographic transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that this information enables the prediction of the ionic current passing through a voltage biased nanopore and improves the prediction of the magnitude of current drop signals when the nanopore interacts with single DNA molecules. The dimensional stability of nanopores in solution is monitored using this information and is improved ...


Iii-V Bismide Optoelectronic Devices, Dongsheng Fan May 2013

Iii-V Bismide Optoelectronic Devices, Dongsheng Fan

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores modeling, molecular beam epitaxy growth, and fabrication of III-V bismide optoelectronic devices, which are of great importance in modern applications of telecommunication, gas sensing, environment monitoring, etc. In the current room-temperature continuous-wave operational GaSb-based type-I InGaAsSb/AlGaInAsSb quantum well laser diodes in 3-4 um mid-wavelength range, the lasing wavelength and performance of the devices are limited due to the lack of hole confinement in the active regions. In this dissertation, a novel GaSb-based GaInAsSbBi material is proposed to replace the conventional InGaAsSb material in the quantum well region, which enables the laser diodes achieve up to 4 ...


Design And Fabrication Of Nanofluidic Systems With Integrated Sensing Electrodes For Rapid Biomolecule Characterization, Taylor Bradley Busch May 2013

Design And Fabrication Of Nanofluidic Systems With Integrated Sensing Electrodes For Rapid Biomolecule Characterization, Taylor Bradley Busch

Theses and Dissertations

A transparent nanofluidic system with embedded sensing electrodes was designed and fabricated by integrating Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nanolithography, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and metal deposition, and standard microfabrication processing. The fabrication process started with the evaporation of chrome/gold (Cr/Au) onto a Pyrex 7740 wafer followed by photolithography and wet etching of the microchannels. The wafer was patterned a second time to form Au microelectrodes with 15-45 micrometer separation gaps in the nanochannel region. Sensing electrodes (up to one micron wide) were then deposited using FIB to bridge the gaps. The nanochannels were realized through both AFM ...


New Effects Of Aging And Lattice Intercalation On Surface Properties Of Titanate Nanobelts, Roger Williams May 2013

New Effects Of Aging And Lattice Intercalation On Surface Properties Of Titanate Nanobelts, Roger Williams

Theses and Dissertations

Titanate nanobelts (NBs) have structural characteristics beyond that of clays. Due to a negatively charged lattice matrix of edge-shared TiO6-octahedra, the location of intercalated cations within the interlayer space may dictate the charge-conductions. This environment may in turn govern the lattice-framework's stability and surface properties, based upon our preliminary

data.

On that basis, these nanomaterials have been found in our lab to possess superb biological compatibility that is closely related to the types of the intercalated cations. In addition, a prolonged agitation was proven to enable us to manipulate the titanate NBs' length. In a parallel study, a ripening ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Iron Pyrite Nanocrystals For Photovoltaic Devices, Scott Curtis Mangham May 2013

Synthesis And Characterization Of Iron Pyrite Nanocrystals For Photovoltaic Devices, Scott Curtis Mangham

Theses and Dissertations

Iron pyrite nanocrystals have been synthesized using a hot-injection method with a variety of amines and characterized with properties necessary for photovoltaic devices. The iron pyrite nanocrystals were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, optical absorption, micro-Raman, and micro-Photoluminescence. The optical absorbance spectra showed the large absorption in the visible and near infrared spectral range for the nanocrystals as well as to show the band gap. The face-centered cubic crystal structure of the iron pyrite nanocrystals was shown by matching the measured X-ray diffraction pattern to a face-centered cubic iron pyrite reference pattern. Using Bragg's ...


Stochastic Charge Transport In Multi-Island Single-Electron Tunneling Devices, Madhusudan A. Savaikar Jan 2013

Stochastic Charge Transport In Multi-Island Single-Electron Tunneling Devices, Madhusudan A. Savaikar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

The physics of the operation of singe-electron tunneling devices (SEDs) and singe-electron tunneling transistors (SETs), especially of those with multiple nanometer-sized islands, has remained poorly understood in spite of some intensive experimental and theoretical research. This computational study examines the current-voltage (IV) characteristics of multi-island single-electron devices using a newly developed multi-island transport simulator (MITS) that is based on semi-classical tunneling theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The dependence of device characteristics on physical device parameters is explored, and the physical mechanisms that lead to the Coulomb blockade (CB) and Coulomb staircase (CS) characteristics are proposed.

Simulations using MITS demonstrate ...


Orientation Controllable Epitaxial Vapor-Liquid-Solid Semiconductor Nanowire Synthesis On Silicon Substrate, Sung Hwan Chung Jan 2013

Orientation Controllable Epitaxial Vapor-Liquid-Solid Semiconductor Nanowire Synthesis On Silicon Substrate, Sung Hwan Chung

Open Access Dissertations

Semiconductor nanowires synthesized via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism have attracted extensive research interest in recent years owing to their unique structure as a promising candidate for the future electronic devices. Germanium and silicon nanowires, in particular, are compatible with the current silicon-based technology via direct assembly. However, one of the main challenges for the successful nanowire application in large-scale is the lack of the method for obtaining nanowires in desired positions and directions. Therefore, the comprehensive, systematic understanding of epitaxial nanowire growth and the more suitable method to align nanowires on novel structure are required. In this work, the synthesis ...


Quantum Computing With Steady State Spin Currents, Brian Matthew Sutton Jan 2013

Quantum Computing With Steady State Spin Currents, Brian Matthew Sutton

Open Access Theses

Many approaches to quantum computing use spatially confined qubits in the presence of dynamic fields to perform computation. These approaches are contrasted with proposals using mobile qubits in the presence of static fields. In this thesis, steady state quantum computing using mobile electrons is explored using numerical modeling. Firstly, a foundational introduction to the case of spatially confined qubits embodied via quantum dots is provided. A collection of universal gates implemented with dynamic fields is described using simulations. These gates are combined to implement a five-qubit Grover search to provide further insight on the time-dependent field approach. Secondly, the quantum ...


Surface Plasmon Polaritons And Waveguide Modes At Structured And Inhomogeneous Surfaces, Javier Polanco Jan 2013

Surface Plasmon Polaritons And Waveguide Modes At Structured And Inhomogeneous Surfaces, Javier Polanco

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In chapter 1, properties of a p-polarized surface plasmon polariton are studied, propagating circumferentially around a portion of a cylindrical interface between vacuum and a metal, a situation investigated earlier by M. V. Berry (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 8, (1975) 1952). When the metal is convex toward the vacuum this mode is radiative and consequently is attenuated as it propagates on the cylindrical surface. An approximate analytic solution of the dispersion relation for this wave is obtained by an approach different from the one used by Berry, and plots of the real and imaginary parts of its wave number ...


Integration Of Memristors With Mems For Dynamic Displacement Control, Sergio Fabian Almeida Loya Jan 2013

Integration Of Memristors With Mems For Dynamic Displacement Control, Sergio Fabian Almeida Loya

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In recent years the demand for high-speed, lower power consumption and large-capacity non-volatile memories has increased. Promisingly the memristor can be used due to its special characteristic of having memory through resistance change. The memristor behavior is not limited to digital applications but it can be used in analog application as well including: memristors in chaotic circuits, amoeba's learning, neural synaptic emulation, reprogrammable and reconfigurable circuits, and for neuromorphic computers. On the other hand Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are small scale structures that can interact with the physical world due to their mechanical properties. These devices are widely ...


High Voltage Electrophoretic Deposition For Electrochemical Energy Storage And Other Applications, Sunand Santhanagopalan Jan 2013

High Voltage Electrophoretic Deposition For Electrochemical Energy Storage And Other Applications, Sunand Santhanagopalan

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

High voltage electrophoretic deposition (HVEPD) has been developed as a novel technique to obtain vertically aligned forests of one-dimensional nanomaterials for efficient energy storage. The ability to control and manipulate nanomaterials is critical for their effective usage in a variety of applications. Oriented structures of one-dimensional nanomaterials provide a unique opportunity to take full advantage of their excellent mechanical and electrochemical properties. However, it is still a significant challenge to obtain such oriented structures with great process flexibility, ease of processing under mild conditions and the capability to scale up, especially in context of efficient device fabrication and system packaging ...


Nanoscale Electrochemistry By In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy, Qi Gao Jan 2013

Nanoscale Electrochemistry By In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy, Qi Gao

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Nanoscale research in energy storage has recently focused on investigating the properties of nanostructures in order to increase energy density, power rate, and capacity. To better understand the intrinsic properties of nanomaterials, a new and advanced in situ system was designed that allows atomic scale observation of materials under external fields. A special holder equipped with a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) probe inside a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) system was used to perform the in situ studies on mechanical, electrical, and electrochemical properties of nanomaterials. The nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes are characterized by electron imaging, diffraction, and chemical ...