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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Potential Of Nanoscale Elements To Control Fusarium Wilt Disease In Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum), Enhance Macronutrient Use Efficiency, And Increase Its Yield, Ishaq Olarewaju Adisa Jan 2019

Potential Of Nanoscale Elements To Control Fusarium Wilt Disease In Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum), Enhance Macronutrient Use Efficiency, And Increase Its Yield, Ishaq Olarewaju Adisa

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Nanotechnology has a great potential in ensuring food production, security and safety globally. Over the past decade, research on the use of nanomaterials to supply nutrient elements and protect plants from pest and diseases has significantly increased. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most consumed vegetables in the world and United State is one of its largest producers globally generating billions of dollars annually in revenue.. Tomato plants are affected worldwide by Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici. There is growing concern about excessive use of conventional pesticides in controlling Fusarium and other diseases in tomato ...


Opto-Thermal Characterization Of Plasmon And Coupled Lattice Resonances In 2-D Metamaterial Arrays, Vinith Bejugam Aug 2018

Opto-Thermal Characterization Of Plasmon And Coupled Lattice Resonances In 2-D Metamaterial Arrays, Vinith Bejugam

Theses and Dissertations

Growing population and climate change inevitably requires longstanding dependency on sustainable sources of energy that are conducive to ecological balance, economies of scale and reduction of waste heat. Plasmonic-photonic systems are at the forefront of offering a promising path towards efficient light harvesting for enhanced optoelectronics, sensing, and chemical separations. Two-dimensional (2-D) metamaterial arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles arranged in polymer lattices developed herein support thermoplasmonic heating at off-resonances (near infrared, NIR) in addition to regular plasmonic resonances (visible), which extends their applicability compared to random dispersions. Especially, thermal responses of 2-D arrays at coupled lattice resonance (CLR) wavelengths were comparable ...


Novel Solar Cells Based On Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials And Recycled Lead Components, Xiaoru Guo May 2018

Novel Solar Cells Based On Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials And Recycled Lead Components, Xiaoru Guo

Theses and Dissertations

To meet the rapidly growing demand for energy and reduce the use of dwindling fossil fuels, the efficient utilization of renewable energy is a constant pursuit globally. Because solar cells convert vastly available sunlight into electricity, developing high-performance and low-cost solar cells is a top strategy for future energy supply. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are the most promising choices. In the meantime, highly concentrated sulfuric acids from retired lead-acid batteries become an environmental concern, and lead contamination in drinking water raises concerns in general public. This study addresses both above-mentioned problems by using two-dimensional (2D ...


Non-Covalent Functionalization Of Graphene Films For Uniform Nanoparticle Deposition Via Atoic Layer Deposition, Ty Seiwert May 2018

Non-Covalent Functionalization Of Graphene Films For Uniform Nanoparticle Deposition Via Atoic Layer Deposition, Ty Seiwert

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Graphene functionalized with platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) has proven to be highly effective as a hydrogen sensor. Deposition methods such as Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be further enhanced by pretreating the graphene with a non-covalent surfactant prior to nanoparticle deposition. In this study, graphene-based sensing devices will be fabricated by ALD deposition. The graphene will be non-covalently functionalized using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic surfactant prior to ALD deposition. The aim of this study is to test the deposition pattern achieved by varying the amount of time that graphene is treated with the SDS surfactant. Initially, ALD deposition ...


Fabrication And Modification Of Titania Nanotube Arrays For Harvesting Solar Energy And Drug Delivery Applications, Ahmed El Ruby Abdel Rahman Mohamed Dec 2017

Fabrication And Modification Of Titania Nanotube Arrays For Harvesting Solar Energy And Drug Delivery Applications, Ahmed El Ruby Abdel Rahman Mohamed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The fast diminishing of fossil fuels in the near future, as well as the global warming caused by increasing greenhouse gases have motivated the urgent quest to develop advanced materials as cost-effective photoanodes for solar light harvesting and many other photocatalytic applications. Recently, titania nanotube arrays (TNTAs) fabricated by anodization process has attracted great interest due to their excellent properties such as: high surface area, vertically oriented, highly organized, one-dimensional, nanotubular structure, photoactivity, chemical stability and biocompatibility. This unique combination of excellent properties makes TNTAs an excellent photoanode for solar light harvesting. However, the relatively wide band gap energy of ...


Lignin-Based Li-Ion Anode Materials Synthesized From Low-Cost Renewable Resources, Nicholas William Mcnutt Aug 2016

Lignin-Based Li-Ion Anode Materials Synthesized From Low-Cost Renewable Resources, Nicholas William Mcnutt

Doctoral Dissertations

In today’s world, the demand for novel methods of energy storage is increasing rapidly, particularly with the rise of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and the personal consumption and storage of solar energy. While other technologies have arguably improved at a rate that is exponential in accordance with Moore’s law, battery technology has lagged behind largely due to the difficulty in devising new electric storage systems that are simultaneously high performing, inexpensive, and safe.

In order to tackle these challenges, novel Li-ion battery anodes have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that are made from lignin, a ...


Doped Tio2 Nanowires For Applications In Dye Sensitized Solar Cells And Sacrifical Hydrogen Production, Qasem Alsharari Apr 2016

Doped Tio2 Nanowires For Applications In Dye Sensitized Solar Cells And Sacrifical Hydrogen Production, Qasem Alsharari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis explores the synthesis of metal oxide 1-D nanowires using a sol-gel method in supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2), as an environmental friendly enabling solvent. Porous nanowires were synthesized and their performance was tested in dye sensitized solar cell and sacrifical hydrogen production. Titanium isopropoxide (TIP) was used as a precursor for titania synthesis while copper, bismuth and indium were examined as dopants, respectively. The sol-gel reactions were catalyzed by acetic acid in CO2 at a temperature of 60 °C and pressure of 5000 psi. It was observed that acetic acid/monomer ratio > 4 produced nanowires while a ...


Novel Design And Synthesis Of Transition Metal Hydroxides And Oxides For Energy Storage Device Applications, Peifeng Li Jan 2016

Novel Design And Synthesis Of Transition Metal Hydroxides And Oxides For Energy Storage Device Applications, Peifeng Li

Wayne State University Theses

Supercapacitors (SCs) and Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are two types of important electrical energy storage devices with high power density and high energy density respectively. However, to satisfy the increasing demand of high-performance energy storage devices, the energy density of SCs and power/energy densities of LIBs have to be further improved. The exploration, research, and development of electrode materials with high-performance for applications in SCs and LIBs are still needed to meet the ever-increasing demand on energy and power densities. Herein, the amorphous Ni-Co-Mo ternary hydroxides nanoflakes for SCs and oxides nanoflakes for LIBs with ultrathin stature, abundant open spaces ...


Single Particle-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Technology Development For Metallic Nanoparticle Characterization In Complex Matrices, Yongbo Dan Jan 2016

Single Particle-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Technology Development For Metallic Nanoparticle Characterization In Complex Matrices, Yongbo Dan

Doctoral Dissertations

"As the rapid growing of nanotechnology, the release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into the environment is inevitable. After entering the real environment, ENPs tend to react with different components of the ecosystem (e.g. water, soil, air, plants) and make their characterization difficult. Analyzing ENPs in these complex matrices still remains as a grand challenge. ENPs characterization is normally the first step of risk assessment. Current analytical techniques have shown some limitations in revealing the unique characteristics of ENPs in complex matrices and reliable analytical techniques are in urgent need. Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) is an ...


Novel Design And Synthesis Of Structured Iron Oxides For Battery Applications, Jian Zhu Jan 2016

Novel Design And Synthesis Of Structured Iron Oxides For Battery Applications, Jian Zhu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are currently the dominant powder source for personal computers and portable electronics. LIBs also play important roles in larger-scale applications, including electric drive vehicles (EVs, HEVs) and grid-energy storage. To meet the increasing demand for energy storage, it is very urgent and crucial to develop next-generation LIBs using alternative electrode materials. For example, carbon is still exclusively used as anode materials in current LIBs. However, the theoretical capacity of graphite (372 mA h g–1 based on LiC6) has almost been achieved, and it becomes one of the bottlenecks to further increase the energy density of LIBs ...


Tracking Silver, Gold, And Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Through Drinking Water Systems By Single Particle - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry, Ariel Renee Donovan Jan 2016

Tracking Silver, Gold, And Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Through Drinking Water Systems By Single Particle - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry, Ariel Renee Donovan

Masters Theses

"Single particle (SP)-ICP-MS methods were developed to characterize and quantify Ti-containing, titanium dioxide, silver, and gold NP concentration, size, size distribution and dissolved metal element concentration in surface water and treated drinking water. The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatments (including lime softening, alum coagulation, filtration, and disinfection) to remove NPs from surface water was evaluated using six-gang stirrer jar test simulations. Six-gang stirrers were used to simulate drinking water treatments including lime softening, alum coagulation, powdered activated carbon sorption, filtration, and disinfection by free chlorine. Lime softening effectively removed most nanoparticles added. Source and drinking waters from three ...


New Approaches To Chalcogenide Materials For Thermoelectrics: Lead Telluride-Based Nanostructures And Facile Synthesis Of Tetrahedrite And Doped Derivatives, Derak Justin James Jan 2016

New Approaches To Chalcogenide Materials For Thermoelectrics: Lead Telluride-Based Nanostructures And Facile Synthesis Of Tetrahedrite And Doped Derivatives, Derak Justin James

Wayne State University Dissertations

The overall purpose of this work is to address several of the roadblocks to use of thermoelectric materials for generation of electricity, namely inefficient processing of materials and low performance, commonly rated by the figure of merit, ZT=T2/tot. The ZT includes  as the Seebeck coefficient,  as electrical resistivity, T as the average temperature, and tot as total thermal conductivity. tot is the sum of electronic charge carrier (C) and lattice (L) contributions to thermal conductivity. Attempts to increase ZT in the literature to values >1 have focused on decreasing the thermal conductivity via nanostructuring or optimizing the ...


Field Scale Application Of Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron: Mobility, Contaminant Degradation, And Impact On Microbial Communities, Chris M.D. Kocur Aug 2015

Field Scale Application Of Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron: Mobility, Contaminant Degradation, And Impact On Microbial Communities, Chris M.D. Kocur

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis began by verifying that nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) synthesis methods could be scaled up and implemented at the field scale in a safe manner. This led to successful demonstration of nZVI injection and mobility under constant head gravity injection into a contaminated utility corridor in Sarnia, Ontario. Where field studies have fallen short in the past was linking the somewhat qualitative field geochemical parameters to other evidence of nZVI transport. Definitive nZVI detection was elusive in previous field studies due to the highly reactive nature of the particles caused by their high surface area. nZVI was detected ...


Synthesis Of Palladium And Palladium-Copper Nanostructures As Electrocatalysts, Haibin Wu Jul 2015

Synthesis Of Palladium And Palladium-Copper Nanostructures As Electrocatalysts, Haibin Wu

Theses and Dissertations

Pd and its alloys are alternatives of Pt as promising catalysts and electrocatalysts for many reactions. Size controlled synthesis of nanoparticles remains a major research subject, since smaller size particles show better catalytic performance. In this work, we developed a modified chemical wet method to prepare Pd and Pd-Cu nanostructures with uniform small size. Different sizes and shapes of Pd nanostructures were successfully synthesized by using the two reducing agents (i.e., L-ascorbyl-6-palmitate or phenylphosphinic acid). The reducing agents play a role to control the final morphologies and sizes of particles. The use of L-ascorbyl-6-palmitate favors to form irregular branch ...


Addressing Public Health Risks Of Persistent Pollutants Through Nutritional Modulation And Biomimetic Nanocomposite Remediation Platforms, Bradley J. Newsome Jan 2014

Addressing Public Health Risks Of Persistent Pollutants Through Nutritional Modulation And Biomimetic Nanocomposite Remediation Platforms, Bradley J. Newsome

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Due to their relative chemical stability and ubiquity in the environment, chlorinated organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose significant health risks and enduring remediation challenges. Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) provide a novel platform for sensing/remediation of these toxicants, in addition to the growing use of NPs in many industrial and biomedical applications, but there remains concern for their potential long-term health effects. Research highlighted herein also represents a transdisciplinary approach to address human health challenges associated with exposure to PCBs and NPs. The objectives of this dissertation research are two-fold, 1) to develop effective methods for capture/sensing ...


Solar Cell Temperature Dependent Efficiency And Very High Temperature Efficiency Limits, John Robert Wilcox Oct 2013

Solar Cell Temperature Dependent Efficiency And Very High Temperature Efficiency Limits, John Robert Wilcox

Open Access Dissertations

Clean renewable solar energy is and will continue to be a critically important source of electrical energy. Solar energy has the potential of meeting all of the world's energy needs, and has seen substantial growth in recent years. Solar cells can convert sun light directly into electrical energy, and much progress has been made in making them less expensive and more efficient. Solar cells are often characterized and modeled at 25 °C, which is significantly lower than their peak operating temperature. In some thermal concentrating systems, solar cells operate above 300 °C. Since increasing the temperature drastically affects the ...


Approaches To Mitigate Metal Catalyst Deactivation In Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Fuel Electrodes, Lawrence Adijanto Jan 2013

Approaches To Mitigate Metal Catalyst Deactivation In Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Fuel Electrodes, Lawrence Adijanto

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

While Ni/YSZ cermets have been used successfully in SOFCs, they also have several limitations, thus motivating the use of highly conductive ceramics to replace the Ni components in SOFC anodes. Ceramic electrodes are promising for use in SOFC anodes because they are expected to be less susceptible to sintering and coking, be redox stable, and be more tolerant of impurities like sulfur. In this thesis, for catalytic studies, the infiltration procedure has been used to form composites which have greatly simplified the search for the best ceramics for anode applications.

In the development of ceramic fuel electrodes for SOFC ...


Accurate Prediction Of Spectral Phonon Relaxation Time And Thermal Conductivity Of Intrinsic And Perturbed Materials, Tianli Feng Jan 2013

Accurate Prediction Of Spectral Phonon Relaxation Time And Thermal Conductivity Of Intrinsic And Perturbed Materials, Tianli Feng

Open Access Theses

The prediction of spectral phonon relaxation time, mean-free-path, and thermal conductivity can provide significant insights into the thermal conductivity of bulk and nanomaterials, which are important for thermal management and thermoelectric applications. We perform frequency-domain normal mode analysis (NMA) on pure bulk argon and pure bulk germanium. Spectral phonon properties, including the phonon dispersion, relaxation time, mean free path, and thermal conductivity of argon and germanium at different temperatures have been calculated. We find the dependence of phonon relaxation time τ on frequency ω and temperature T vary from ~ω-1.3 to ~ω-1.8 and ~T-0.8 ...


Templated Synthesis Of Nickel Nanoparticles: Toward Heterostructured Nanocomposites For Efficient Hydrogen Storage, Nicholas Nelson Jan 2013

Templated Synthesis Of Nickel Nanoparticles: Toward Heterostructured Nanocomposites For Efficient Hydrogen Storage, Nicholas Nelson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The world is currently facing an energy and environmental crisis for which new technologies are needed. Development of cost-competitive materials for catalysis and hydrogen storage on-board motor vehicles is crucial to lead subsequent generations into a more sustainable and energy independent future. This thesis presents work toward the scalable synthesis of bimetallic heterostructures that can enable hydrogen to compete with carbonaceous fuels by meeting the necessary gravimetric and volumetric energy densities and by enhancing hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics near ambient temperatures and pressures. Utilizing the well-known phenomenon of hydrogen spillover, these bimetallic heterostructures could work by lowering the activation energy ...


Application And Characterization Of Self-Assembled Monolayers In Hybrid Electronic Systems, Michael Enoch Celesin Jan 2013

Application And Characterization Of Self-Assembled Monolayers In Hybrid Electronic Systems, Michael Enoch Celesin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this study, we explore ultra-thin insulators of organic and inorganic composition and their potential role as high-speed rectifiers. Typical applications for these structures include IR sensing, chemical detection, high speed logic circuits, and MEMS enhancements. While there are many elements in the functional group required to create a rectifying antenna (rectenna), the primary thrust of this work is on the rectifier element itself.

To achieve these research goals, a very good understanding of quantum tunneling was required to model the underlying phenomenon of charge conduction. The development of a multi-variable optimization routine for tunneling prediction was required. MATLAB was ...


Towards Sustainable Development Of Nanomanufacturing, Sasikumar Ramdas Naidu May 2012

Towards Sustainable Development Of Nanomanufacturing, Sasikumar Ramdas Naidu

Doctoral Dissertations

"Sustainability" is a buzz word these days not just among regulatory agencies but even with corporations, as evident by the release of annual sustainability report by a large number of firms. Companies are starting to portray profit making along with corporate environmental responsibility.

Nanotechnology and nanomanufacturing which holds a lot of promise for development in a multitude of fields in science and engineering is the new kid on the block and carries a lot of apprehension due to public concern about their potential unwanted side effects that may result in the case of an untoward incident or lack of oversight ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Nanocomposites For Electrochemical Capacitors, Farah Alvi Jan 2012

Synthesis And Characterization Of Nanocomposites For Electrochemical Capacitors, Farah Alvi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Presently there are deep concerns over the environmental consequences and the consumption of non-renewable energy sources, with the accelerated greenhouse effect, triggered enormous interest in the use of renewable energy sources e.g., solar, hydropower, wind and geothermal. However the intermittent nature of harvesting renewable energy sources has recently gained considerable attention in the alternative reliable, cost effective, and environmentally friendly energy storage devices. The supercapacitor and lithium ion batteries are considered more efficient electrical energy storage devices than conventional energy storage systems.

Both devices have many useful and important applications; they could be an excellent source for high power ...


Microscopic And Spectroscopic Analysis Of Wo3 And Ti-Doped Wo3 Thin Films, Young Taek Yun Jan 2012

Microscopic And Spectroscopic Analysis Of Wo3 And Ti-Doped Wo3 Thin Films, Young Taek Yun

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Tungsten oxide (WO3) has been a subject of high interest for its unique properties, and recently for its importance in different types of industrial applications which ranges from non-emissive displays, optical, microelectronic, catalytic/photocatalytic, humidity, temperature, gas, and biosensor devices. In this study, WO3 and Ti doped thin films were prepared using radio frequency magnetron reactive sputtering at different substrate temperatures ranging from room temperature to 500 ºC in increments of 100 ºC. After forming a hypothesis based on knowledge of established WO3 properties, we attempt in this work to investigate how the doping influences the roughness and the mean ...


The Applications And Limitations Of Printable Batteries, Matthew Delmanowski Jun 2010

The Applications And Limitations Of Printable Batteries, Matthew Delmanowski

Graphic Communication

This study focuses on the potential applications for printed batteries and how they could affect the printing industry. It also analyzes the main problems associated with manufacturing this technology and what needs to be done to overcome these issues. To find the answers to these questions, two methods of research were used. The first was through the elite and specialized interviewing of Dr. Scott Williams of Rochester Institute of Technology and Professor Nancy Cullins from Cal Poly. The second form of research was a common, yet useful, method called secondary research. This entailed looking at recent written research papers about ...


Microstructure And Property Evaluation Of Lifepo4 Thin Films For Application In Microbatteries, Jose Marcos Mares Jan 2010

Microstructure And Property Evaluation Of Lifepo4 Thin Films For Application In Microbatteries, Jose Marcos Mares

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The shortage of fossil fuels and the requirements to produce clean, environmental friendly, efficient, and economical energy are the principal problems in the context of energy technology for current and future generations. Therefore, advanced energy storage and conversion capabilities with higher capacity and efficiency are desired. Currently, there is an enormous interest in the development of high energy density rechargeable batteries for use in domestic applications, automotive industries and portable electronic applications. The present research focuses on the development of LiFePO4 thin films for solid-state thin-film microbatteries. The present effort was performed with a specific purpose of understanding the effect ...


Development Of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials For Renewable Energy, S.M. Sarif Masud Jan 2010

Development Of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials For Renewable Energy, S.M. Sarif Masud

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Several new wide band gap semiconductor nanocomposite photocatalytic materials have been synthesized from HTiNbO5 and HNb3O8 for solar energy conversion. As a source of renewable energy, the materials are being tested to produce hydrogen fuel from water via photolysis. The materials have high surface areas, are macroporous, and have flatband potentials suitable for reducing water to create hydrogen. Under visible or ultra violet light, the materials were found to be very promising as hydrogen evolving photocatalysts. As part of the synthesis of the composites, the catalysts also exhibited excellent catalytic activity under UV light for reducing ionic platinum and gold ...