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Wayne State University Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Chalcogenide Nanocrystal Assembly: Controlling Heterogeneity And Modulating Heterointerfaces, Jessica Davis Davis Jan 2017

Chalcogenide Nanocrystal Assembly: Controlling Heterogeneity And Modulating Heterointerfaces, Jessica Davis Davis

Wayne State University Dissertations

This dissertation work is focused on developing methods to facilitate charge transport in heterostructured materials that comprise a nanoscale component. Multicomponent semiconductor materials were prepared by (1) spin coating of discrete nanomaterials onto porous silicon (pSi) or (2) self-assembly. Spin-coating of colloidal quantum dot (QD) PbS solutions was employed to create prototype PbS QD based radiation detection devices using porous silicon (pSi) as an n-type support and charge transport material. These devices were initially tested as a photodetector to ascertain the possibility of their use in high energy radiation detection. Short chain thiolate ligands (4-fluorothiophenolate) and anion passivation at the ...


An Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Traumatic Brain Injury Caused By Blast In The Open Field, Ke Feng Jan 2017

An Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Traumatic Brain Injury Caused By Blast In The Open Field, Ke Feng

Wayne State University Dissertations

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a signature wound of modern warfare. The current incomplete understanding of its injury mechanism impedes the development of strategies for effective protection of bTBI. Despite a considerable amount of experimental animal studies focused on the evaluation of brain neurotrauma caused by blast exposure, there is very limited knowledge on the biomechanical responses of the gyrenecephalic brain subjected to primary free-field blast waves imposed in vivo, and the correlation analysis between the biomechanical responses and its injury outcomes. Such information is crucial to the development of injury criteria of bTBI.

This study aims to evaluate ...


Development Of Nanostructured Austempered Ductile Cast Iron, Saranya Panneerselvam Jan 2017

Development Of Nanostructured Austempered Ductile Cast Iron, Saranya Panneerselvam

Wayne State University Dissertations

Austempered Ductile Cast Iron is emerging as an important engineering materials in recent years because of its excellent combination of mechanical properties such as high strength with good ductility, good fatigue strength and fracture toughness together with excellent wear resistance. These combinations of properties are achieved by the microstructure consisting of acicular ferrite and high carbon austenite. Refining of the ausferritic microstructure will further enhance the mechanical properties of ADI and the presence of proeutectoid ferrite in the microstructure will considerably improve the ductility of the material.

Thus, the focus of this investigation was to develop nanostructured austempered ductile cast ...


An Analysis Of Plasticity In The Rat Respiratory System Following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury And The Application Of Nanotechnology To Induce Or Enhance Recovery Of Diaphragm Function, Janelle Lorien Walker Jan 2016

An Analysis Of Plasticity In The Rat Respiratory System Following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury And The Application Of Nanotechnology To Induce Or Enhance Recovery Of Diaphragm Function, Janelle Lorien Walker

Wayne State University Dissertations

Second cervical segment spinal cord hemisection (C2Hx) results in ipsilateral hemidiaphragm paralysis. However, the intact latent crossed phrenic pathway can restore function spontaneously over time or immediately following drug administration.

WGA bound fluorochromes were administered to identify nuclei associated with diaphragm function in both the acute and chronic C2Hx models. WGA is unique in that it undergoes receptor mediated endocytosis and is transsynaptically transported across select physiologically active synapses. Comparison of labeling in the acutely injured to the chronically injured rat provided an anatomical map of spinal and supraspinal injury induced synaptic plasticity. The plasticity occurs over time in the ...


New Approaches To Chalcogenide Materials For Thermoelectrics: Lead Telluride-Based Nanostructures And Facile Synthesis Of Tetrahedrite And Doped Derivatives, Derak Justin James Jan 2016

New Approaches To Chalcogenide Materials For Thermoelectrics: Lead Telluride-Based Nanostructures And Facile Synthesis Of Tetrahedrite And Doped Derivatives, Derak Justin James

Wayne State University Dissertations

The overall purpose of this work is to address several of the roadblocks to use of thermoelectric materials for generation of electricity, namely inefficient processing of materials and low performance, commonly rated by the figure of merit, ZT=T2/tot. The ZT includes  as the Seebeck coefficient,  as electrical resistivity, T as the average temperature, and tot as total thermal conductivity. tot is the sum of electronic charge carrier (C) and lattice (L) contributions to thermal conductivity. Attempts to increase ZT in the literature to values >1 have focused on decreasing the thermal conductivity via nanostructuring or optimizing the ...


Electrocatalysis In Li-S Batteries, Hesham I. Al Salem Jan 2016

Electrocatalysis In Li-S Batteries, Hesham I. Al Salem

Wayne State University Dissertations

Stabilizing polysulfide-shuttle process while ensuring high sulfur loading holds the key to realize high theoretical energy density (2500 Wh/kg) of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Though several carbon based porous materials have been used as host structures for sulfur and its intermediate polysulfides, the week adsorption of polysulfides on carbon surface and its poor reaction kinetics limits them from practical application. Here, we preset a novel ‘electcatalysis’ approach to stabilize polysulfide shuttle process and also enhance its red-ox kinetics. As a proof of concept, we have studied in-detail using conventional electrocatalyst i.e Pt/graphene composite, further the same extended to ...


Optimization Of Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides Based Field- Effect- Transistors Via Contact Engineering, Meeghage Madusanka Perera Jan 2016

Optimization Of Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides Based Field- Effect- Transistors Via Contact Engineering, Meeghage Madusanka Perera

Wayne State University Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Optimization of Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides based Field- Effect-Transistors via contact engineering

by

Meeghage M Perera

September , 2016

Advisor : Dr. Zhixian Zhou

Major: Physics (Condensed mater physics/nano-electronics)

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

Layered transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDs) have demonstrated a wide range of remarkable properties for applications in next generation nano-electronics. These systems have displayed many “graphene-like” properties including a relatively high carrier mobility, mechanical flexibility, chemical and thermal stability, and moreover offer the significant advantage of a substantial band gap. However, the fabrication of high performance field-effect transistors (FETs) of TMDs is challenging mainly due to the formation of a ...


Novel Design And Synthesis Of Structured Iron Oxides For Battery Applications, Jian Zhu Jan 2016

Novel Design And Synthesis Of Structured Iron Oxides For Battery Applications, Jian Zhu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are currently the dominant powder source for personal computers and portable electronics. LIBs also play important roles in larger-scale applications, including electric drive vehicles (EVs, HEVs) and grid-energy storage. To meet the increasing demand for energy storage, it is very urgent and crucial to develop next-generation LIBs using alternative electrode materials. For example, carbon is still exclusively used as anode materials in current LIBs. However, the theoretical capacity of graphite (372 mA h g–1 based on LiC6) has almost been achieved, and it becomes one of the bottlenecks to further increase the energy density of LIBs ...


Substrate Effects And Dielectric Integration In 2d Electronics, Bhim Prasad Chamlagain Jan 2016

Substrate Effects And Dielectric Integration In 2d Electronics, Bhim Prasad Chamlagain

Wayne State University Dissertations

The ultra-thin body of monolayer (and few-layer) two dimensional (2D) semiconducting materials such as transitional metal dichalconiges (TMDs), black phosphorous (BP) has demonstrated tremendous beneficial physical, transport, and optical properties for a wide range of applications. Because of their ultrathin bodies, the properties of 2D materials are highly sensitive to environmental effects. Particularly, the performance of 2D semiconductor electronic devices is strongly dependent on the substrate/dielectric properties, extrinsic impurities and absorbates. In this work, we systematically studied the transport properties of mechanically exfoliated few layer TMD field-effect transistors (FETs) consistently fabricated on various substrates including SiO2,Parylene –C, Al2O3 ...


Dual Delivery Systems Based On Polyamine Analog Benspm As Prodrug And Gene Delivery Vectors, Yu Zhu Jan 2014

Dual Delivery Systems Based On Polyamine Analog Benspm As Prodrug And Gene Delivery Vectors, Yu Zhu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Combination drug and gene therapy shows promise in cancer treatment. However, the success of such strategy requires careful selection of the therapeutic agents, as well as development of efficient delivery vectors. BENSpm (N1, N11-bisethylnorspermine), a polyamine analogue targeting the intracellular polyamine pathway, draws our special attention because of the following reasons: (1) polyamine pathway is frequently dysregulated in cancer; (2) BENSpm exhibits multiple functions to interfere with the polyamine pathway, such as to up-regulate polyamine metabolism enzymes and down-regulate polyamine biosynthesis enzymes. Therefore BENSpm depletes all natural polyamines and leads to apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in a wide range ...


Dendrimer Based Nanotherapeutics For Ocular Drug Delivery, Siva Pramodh Kambhampati Jan 2014

Dendrimer Based Nanotherapeutics For Ocular Drug Delivery, Siva Pramodh Kambhampati

Wayne State University Dissertations

PAMAM dendrimers are a class of well-defined, hyperbranched polymeric nanocarriers that are being investigated for ocular drug and gene delivery. Their favorable properties such as small size, multivalency and water solubility can provide significant opportunities for many biologically unstable drugs and allows potentially favorable ocular biodistribution. This work exploits hydroxyl terminated dendrimers (G4-OH) as drug/gene delivery vehicles that can target retinal microglia and pigment epithelium via systemic delivery with improved efficacy at much lower concentrations without any side effects.

Two different drugs Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) conjugated to G4-OH dendrimers showed tailorable sustained release in physiological ...


Precursors And Processes For The Growth Of Metallic First Row Transition Metal Films By Atomic Layer Deposition, Lakmal Charidu Kalutarage Jan 2014

Precursors And Processes For The Growth Of Metallic First Row Transition Metal Films By Atomic Layer Deposition, Lakmal Charidu Kalutarage

Wayne State University Dissertations

As a result of the continuous miniaturization of microelectronics devices, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has gained much attention in the recent years. ALD allows the deposition of ultra-thin conformal films with accurate thickness control due to the self-limiting growth mechanism. The microelectronics industry requires the growth of metallic first row transition metal films by ALD. Due to the positive electrochemical potentials, the ALD growth of noble metal thin films has been well developed in the past. By contrast, the ALD growth of first row transition metal films remains poorly documented. The reasons for this scarcity include the lack of suitable ...


Development And Application Of Biomimetic Electrospun Nanofibers In Total Joint Replacement, Wei Song Jan 2014

Development And Application Of Biomimetic Electrospun Nanofibers In Total Joint Replacement, Wei Song

Wayne State University Dissertations

Failure of osseointegration (direct anchorage of an implant by bone formation at the bone-implant surface) and implant infection (such as that caused by Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus) are the two main causes of implant failure and loosening. There is a critical need for orthopedic implants that promote rapid osseointegration and prevent bacterial colonization, particularly when placed in bone compromised by disease or physiology of the patients. A better understanding of the key factors that influence cell fate decisions at the bone-implant interface is required. Our study is to develop a class of "bone-like" nanofibers (NFs) that promote osseointegration while preventing ...


The Application Of Graphene Films In Biosensing And Electrowetting, Xuebin Tan Jan 2014

The Application Of Graphene Films In Biosensing And Electrowetting, Xuebin Tan

Wayne State University Dissertations

In recent years, graphene has been found to possess extraordinary electronic, optical, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Graphene is optically transparent and mechanically flexible, and has high electron mobility and conductivity. In this thesis, we propose to investigate graphene's properties in the detection of biomolecules as well as the manipulation of biological samples. Graphene without defects has high charge carrier mobility and surface areas, which is ideal for biosensors. However, literature shows a lot of variations in the measurements using graphene biosensors. In addition, the surface functionalization of graphene in order to enhance the specificity has not been fully investigated ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Transition Metal Arsenide Nanocrystals And The Metastability And Magneto-Structural Phase Transition Behavior Of Mnas Nanocrystals, Yanhua Zhang Jan 2013

Synthesis And Characterization Of Transition Metal Arsenide Nanocrystals And The Metastability And Magneto-Structural Phase Transition Behavior Of Mnas Nanocrystals, Yanhua Zhang

Wayne State University Dissertations

This dissertation study focuses on (1) probing the magneto-structural phase transformation in nanoscale MnAs; (2) evaluation of the size-dependent phase stability of type-B MnAs (prepared by rapid injection); and (3) developing a general synthetic method for transition metal arsenide nanoparticles.

Discrete MnAs nanoparticles that adopt different structures at room temperature (type-A, α-structure and type-B, β-structure) have been prepared by the solution-phase arrested precipitation method. Atomic pair distribution and Rietveld refinement were employed on synchrotron data to explore the structural transitions of the bulk and nanoparticle samples, and these results were compared to AC magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples. The ...


Metal Chalcogenide Nanoparticle Gel Networks: Their Formation Mechanism And Application For Novel Material Generation And Heavy Metal Remediation Via Cation Exchange Reactions, Irina Ramona Pala Jan 2012

Metal Chalcogenide Nanoparticle Gel Networks: Their Formation Mechanism And Application For Novel Material Generation And Heavy Metal Remediation Via Cation Exchange Reactions, Irina Ramona Pala

Wayne State University Dissertations

METAL CHALCOGENIDE NANOPARTICLE GEL NETWORKS: THEIR FROMATION MECHANISM AND APPLICATION FOR NOVEL MATERIAL GENERATION AND HEAVY METAL REMEDIATION VIA CATION EXCHANGE REACTIONS

by

IRINA R. PALA

February 2012

Advisor: Dr. Stephanie L. Brock

Major: Chemistry

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

The dissertation research is focused on (1) uncovering the mechanism of metal chalcogenide nanoparticle gel formation; (2) extending the cation exchange reaction protocol to zinc sulfide gel networks, with the goal of accessing new aerogel chemistries and understanding the factors that drive the process; and (3) conducting a quantitative analysis of the ability of ZnS aerogels to remove heavy metal ions ...


Polymeric Nanocarriers For The Regional And Systemic Delivery Of Therapeutics To And Through The Lungs, Balaji Bharatwaj Jan 2012

Polymeric Nanocarriers For The Regional And Systemic Delivery Of Therapeutics To And Through The Lungs, Balaji Bharatwaj

Wayne State University Dissertations

The lungs are considered as one of the fastest portals of entry to the bloodstream and oral inhalation (OI) has long been accepted as the preferred mode of administration of therapeutics to the respiratory tract. However, despite its advantages, the lungs have been largely underutilized to target ailments not only of systemic relevance but also several other grave conditions including lung cancer and tuberculosis. Polymeric nanocarriers (PNCs) have several advantages over other drug delivery vehicles including sustained release of moieties, ease of cellular internalization and improved targeting, and hence hold the promise to greatly augment the potential of OI therapies ...


Artificial And Natural Nucleic Acid Self Assembling Systems, Marcus Wood Jan 2011

Artificial And Natural Nucleic Acid Self Assembling Systems, Marcus Wood

Wayne State University Dissertations

Nucleic acids are good candidates for nanomachine construction. They participate in all the processes of life, and so can function as structural building blocks and dynamic catalysts. However, to use nucleic acids as nanomachines, a better understanding of their material properties, how to design structures using them, and their dynamics is needed. We have tried to address these issues, in a small way, with nucleic acid force field development, an attempt at nanostructural design and synthesis using DNA, and a study of the RNA/protein regulatory dynamics of the tryptophan regulatory attenuation protein.


Pamam Dendrimer-Based Therapeutic And Diagnostic Nanodevices, Admira Bosnjakovic Jan 2011

Pamam Dendrimer-Based Therapeutic And Diagnostic Nanodevices, Admira Bosnjakovic

Wayne State University Dissertations

Dendrimers are ideal materials to be used in the emerging field of nanomedicine. Their nanoscale size and high density of functional groups on their peripheries allow them to be used for various biomedical applications. This work exploits dendrimers as drug delivery vehicles and a versatile platform for capturing biomarkers with improved sensitivity and specificity. Hydroxyl terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM-OH) was modified with a linker having amine group at the end and conjugated to two drugs, erythromycin (EM) and allopregnanonolne, respectively and evaluated in vitro. Both drugs were provided with a linker having carboxylic group required for conjugation reaction with ...


Synthetic Levers Enabling Control Of Phase, Size And Morphology In Transition Metal Phosphide Nanoparticles (Fe, Ni), Elayaraja Muthuswamy Jan 2010

Synthetic Levers Enabling Control Of Phase, Size And Morphology In Transition Metal Phosphide Nanoparticles (Fe, Ni), Elayaraja Muthuswamy

Wayne State University Dissertations

ABSTRACT

SYNTHETIC LEVERS ENABLING CONTROL OF PHASE, SIZE AND MORPHOLOGY IN TRANSITION METAL PHOSPHIDE NANOPARTICLES (FE, NI)

by

ELAYARAJA MUTHUSWAMY

May 2011

Advisor:Dr. Stephanie L. Brock

Major: Chemistry

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

This dissertation study focuses on (1) development of a synthetic strategy to control phase in nanoscale iron phosphides; (2) extension of the developed phase control strategy to the nanoscale nickel phosphide system with simultaneous control on size and morphology and (3) illustration of the enhanced reactivity of nanoscale oxide systems.

A synthetic strategy to control phase in nanoscale iron phosphides was developed to prepare phase-pure samples of ...


Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processing Of Nano - Clays And Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites, Mihai Manitiu Jan 2010

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processing Of Nano - Clays And Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites, Mihai Manitiu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Effective dispersion of the fillers in a polymer matrix and improvement of polymer-clay interactions are two key challenges in the field of nanocomposites. A novel processing method that utilizes the unique properties of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) to disperse nano-clay and prepare a series of polymer/clay nanocomposites with enhanced properties was explored.

Significant dispersion was achieved using the scCO2 process with Cloisite 10A without the presence of an organic phase as evident by the absence of the diffraction peak in WAXD and the presence of individual tactoids that lost their parallel registry. The expanded flexible structure of the scCO2 ...