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Open Access Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Wave Propagation And Imaging In Structured Optical Media, Zun Huang Dec 2016

Wave Propagation And Imaging In Structured Optical Media, Zun Huang

Open Access Dissertations

Structured optical media, usually characterized by periodic patterns of inhomogeneities in bulk materials, provide a new approach to ultimate control of wave propagation with possible practical applications: from distributed feedback lasers by diffraction gratings, to highly nonlinear performance for super-continuum generation, to fiber-optic telecommunications by microstructured photonic crystal fibers, to invisibility cloaking, to super-resolution imaging with metamaterials etc.

In particular, structured optical media allow to manipulate the wave propagation and dispersion. In this thesis, we focus on engineering the propagation phase dispersion by modulating the compositions and dimensions of the periodic elements. By tailoring the dispersion in momentum space, we ...


Carbon Nanotube Thermal Interfaces And Related Applications, Stephen L. Hodson Dec 2016

Carbon Nanotube Thermal Interfaces And Related Applications, Stephen L. Hodson

Open Access Dissertations

The development of thermal interface materials (TIMs) is necessitated by the temperature drop across interfacing materials arising from macro and microscopic irregularities of their surfaces that constricts heat through small contact regions as well as mismatches in their thermal properties. Similar to other types of TIMs, CNT TIMs alleviate the thermal resistance across the interface by thermally bridging two materials together with cylindrical, high-aspect ratio, and nominally vertical conducting elements. Within the community of TIM engineers, the vision driving the development of CNT TIMs was born from measurements that revealed impressively high thermal conductivities of individual CNTs. This vision was ...


Towards Building A Prototype Spin-Logic Device, Ashish Verma Penumatcha Dec 2016

Towards Building A Prototype Spin-Logic Device, Ashish Verma Penumatcha

Open Access Dissertations

Since the late 1980s, several key discoveries, such as Giant and Tunneling Magne- toresistance, and advances in magnetic materials have paved the way for exponentially higher bit-densities in magnetic storage. In particular, the discovery of Spin-Transfer Torque (STT) has allowed information to be written to individual magnets using spin-currents. This has replaced the more traditional Oersted-field control used in field-MRAMs and allowed further scaling of magnetic-memories. A less obvious con- sequence of STT is that it has made possible a logic-technology based on magnets controlled by spin-polarized currents. Charge-coupled Spin Logic (CSL) is one such device proposal that couples a ...


Experimentally Validated 3d Md Model For Afm-Based Tip-Based Nanomanufacturing, Rapeepan Promyoo Dec 2016

Experimentally Validated 3d Md Model For Afm-Based Tip-Based Nanomanufacturing, Rapeepan Promyoo

Open Access Dissertations

In order to control AFM-based TBN to produce precise nano-geometry efficiently, there is a need to conduct a more focused study of the effects of different parameters, such as feed, speed, and depth of cut on the process performance and outcome. This is achieved by experimentally validating a MD simulation model of nanomachining, and using it to conduct parametric studies to guide AFM-based TBN. A 3D MD model with a larger domain size was developed and used to gain a unique insight into the nanoindentation and nanoscratching processes such as the effect of tip speed (e.g. effect of tip ...


Optical Sub-Diffraction Limited Focusing For Confined Heating And Lithography, Luis M. Traverso Dec 2016

Optical Sub-Diffraction Limited Focusing For Confined Heating And Lithography, Luis M. Traverso

Open Access Dissertations

Electronics and nanotechnology is constantly demanding a decrease in size of fabricated nanoscale features. This decrease in size has become much more difficult recently due to the limited resolution of optical systems that are fundamental to many nanofabrication methods. A lot of effort has been made to fabricate devices smaller than the diffraction limit of light. Creating devices that are capable of confining fields by means of interference patterns of propagating wave modes and surface plasmon, has proven successful to confine light into smaller spot sizes.

Zone plate diffraction lenses generate spots with dimensions very close to the diffraction limit ...


Nanophotonics For Dark Materials, Filters, And Optical Magnetism, Mengren Man Aug 2016

Nanophotonics For Dark Materials, Filters, And Optical Magnetism, Mengren Man

Open Access Dissertations

Research on nanophotonic structures for three application areas is described, a near perfect optical absorber based on a graphene/dielectric stack, an ultraviolet bandpass filter formed with an aluminum/dielectric stack, and structures exhibiting homogenizable magnetic properties at infrared frequencies. The graphene stack can be treated as a effective, homogenized medium that can be designed to reflect little light and absorb an astoundingly high amount per unit thickness, making it an ideal dark material and providing a new avenue for photonic devices based on two-dimensional materials. Another material stack arrangement with thin layers of metal and insulator forms a multi-cavity ...


Physical Properties, Evaporation And Combustion Characteristics Of Nanofluid-Type Fuels, Saad Tanvir Aug 2016

Physical Properties, Evaporation And Combustion Characteristics Of Nanofluid-Type Fuels, Saad Tanvir

Open Access Dissertations

Nanofluids are liquids with stable suspension of nanoparticles. Limited studies in the past have shown that both energetic and catalytic nanoparticles once mixed with traditional liquid fuels can be advantageous in combustion applications, e.g., increased energy density and shortened ignition delay. Contradictions in existing literature, scarcity of experimental data and lack of understanding on how the added nanoparticles affect the physical properties as well as combustion characteristics of the resulting fuel motivated us to launch a detailed experimental and theoretical investigation.

The surface tension of ethanol and n-decane based nanofluid fuels containing suspended nanoparticles were measured using the pendant ...


Laser Direct Written Silicon Nanowires For Electronic And Sensing Applications, Woongsik Nam Aug 2016

Laser Direct Written Silicon Nanowires For Electronic And Sensing Applications, Woongsik Nam

Open Access Dissertations

Silicon nanowires are promising building blocks for high-performance electronics and chemical/biological sensing devices due to their ultra-small body and high surface-to-volume ratios. However, the lack of the ability to assemble and position nanowires in a highly controlled manner still remains an obstacle to fully exploiting the substantial potential of nanowires. Here we demonstrate a one-step method to synthesize intrinsic and doped silicon nanowires for device applications. Sub-diffraction limited nanowires as thin as 60 nm are synthesized using laser direct writing in combination with chemical vapor deposition, which has the advantages of in-situ doping, catalyst-free growth, and precise control of ...


Ultra-Thin Boron Nitride Films By Pulsed Laser Deposition: Plasma Diagnostics, Synthesis, And Device Transport, Nicholas Robert Glavin Apr 2016

Ultra-Thin Boron Nitride Films By Pulsed Laser Deposition: Plasma Diagnostics, Synthesis, And Device Transport, Nicholas Robert Glavin

Open Access Dissertations

This work describes, for the first time, a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique for growth of large area, stoichiometric ultra-thin hexagonal and amorphous boron nitride for next generation 2D material electronics. The growth of boron nitride, in this case, is driven by the high kinetic energies and chemical reactivities of the condensing species formed from physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes, which can facilitate growth over large areas and at reduced substrate temperatures. The use of optical emission spectroscopy during plasma growth provides insight into chemistry, kinetic energies, time of flight data, and spatial distributions within a PVD plasma plume ablated ...


Tailoring Optical And Plasmon Resonances In Core-Shell And Core-Multishell Nanowires, Sarath Ramadurgam Jan 2016

Tailoring Optical And Plasmon Resonances In Core-Shell And Core-Multishell Nanowires, Sarath Ramadurgam

Open Access Dissertations

Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are sub-wavelength structures which exhibit strong optical (Mie) resonances in the visible range. In addition to such optical resonances, the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in metal and semiconductor (or dielectric) based core-shell (CS) and core-multishell (CMS) NWs can be tailored to achieve novel negative-index metamaterials (NIM), extreme absorbers, invisibility cloaks and sensors. Particularly, in this dissertation, the versatility of CS and CMS NWs for the design of negative-index metamaterials in the visible range and, plasmonic light harvesting in ultrathin photocatalyst layers for water splitting are studied.

Utilizing the LSPR in the metal layer and the magnetic ...


Growth Of Low Disorder Gaas/Algaas Heterostructures By Molecular Beam Epitaxy For The Study Of Correlated Electron Phases In Two Dimensions, John D. Watson Apr 2015

Growth Of Low Disorder Gaas/Algaas Heterostructures By Molecular Beam Epitaxy For The Study Of Correlated Electron Phases In Two Dimensions, John D. Watson

Open Access Dissertations

The unparalleled quality of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy has enabled a wide range of experiments probing interaction effects in two-dimensional electron and hole gases. This dissertation presents work aimed at further understanding the key material-related issues currently limiting the quality of these 2D systems, particularly in relation to the fractional quantum Hall effect in the 2nd Landau level and spin-based implementations of quantum computation.^ The manuscript begins with a theoretical introduction to the quantum Hall effect which outlines the experimental conditions necessary to study the physics of interest and motivates the use of the semiconductor ...


Investigations Of Carbon Nanotube Catalyst Morphology And Behavior With Transmission Electron Microscopy, Sammy M. Saber Apr 2015

Investigations Of Carbon Nanotube Catalyst Morphology And Behavior With Transmission Electron Microscopy, Sammy M. Saber

Open Access Dissertations

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are materials with significant potential applications due to their desirable mechanical and electronic properties, which can both vary based on their structure. Electronic applications for CNTs are still few and not widely available, mainly due to the difficulty in the control of fabrication. Carbon nanotubes are grown in batches, but despite many years of research from their first discovery in 1991, there are still many unanswered questions regarding how to control the structure of CNTs. This work attempts to bridge some of the gap between question and answer by focusing on the catalyst particle used in common ...


Freezing-Induced Deformation Of Biomaterials In Cryomedicine, Altug Ozcelikkale Apr 2015

Freezing-Induced Deformation Of Biomaterials In Cryomedicine, Altug Ozcelikkale

Open Access Dissertations

Cryomedicine utilizes low temperature treatments of biological proteins, cells and tissues for cryopreservation, materials processing and cryotherapy. Lack of proper understanding of cryodamage that occurs during these applications remains to be the primary bottleneck for development of successful tissue cryopreservation and cryosurgery procedures. An engineering approach based on a view of biological systems as functional biomaterials can help identify, predict and control the primary cryodamage mechanisms by developing an understanding of underlying freezing-induced biophysical processes. In particular, freezing constitutes the main structural/mechanical origin of cryodamage and results in significant deformation of biomaterials at multiple length scales. Understanding of these ...


Novel Techniques For Quasi Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication Of Transformation Optics Devices, Paul R. West Jan 2015

Novel Techniques For Quasi Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication Of Transformation Optics Devices, Paul R. West

Open Access Dissertations

Current nanofabrication is almost exclusively limited to top-down, two-dimensional techniques. As technology moves more deeply into the nano-scale regime, fabrication of new devices with quasi three-dimensional geometries shows great potential. One excellent example of an emerging field that requires this type of non-conformal 3D fabrication technique is the field of Transformation Optics. This field involves transforming and manipulating the optical space through which light propagates. Arbitrarily manipulating the optical space requires advanced fabrication techniques, which are not possible with current two-dimensional fabrication technologies. One step toward quasi three-dimensional nanofabrication involves employing angled deposition allowing new growth mechanisms, and enabling a ...


Nano-Engineered Polymers In Drug Delivery: Potential Approaches For Attenuation Of Secondary Injury After Spinal Cord Trauma, Wen Gao Oct 2014

Nano-Engineered Polymers In Drug Delivery: Potential Approaches For Attenuation Of Secondary Injury After Spinal Cord Trauma, Wen Gao

Open Access Dissertations

Secondary injury elicits a complex series of pathophysiological events after the primary spinal cord trauma and even after its implantation treatment for neural functional recovery. These secondary injuries include an up-regulation of glial cells associated reactive oxygen species, nitrogen species, and reactive astrogliosis, and they can result in various levels of cellular and tissue damage. The inhibition of them has been proved to lead to functional recovery of the spinal cord. In this study, we concentrated on developing polymers and nano-techniques based drug delivery strategies to eliminate these secondary injuries. ^ To maintain and improve the performance of the implants during ...


Structural Characterization Of Multimetallic Nanoparticles, Vineetha Mukundan Oct 2014

Structural Characterization Of Multimetallic Nanoparticles, Vineetha Mukundan

Open Access Dissertations

Bimetallic and trimetallic alloy nanoparticles have enhanced catalytic activities due to their unique structural properties. Using in situ time-resolved synchrotron based x-ray diffraction, we investigated the structural properties of nanoscale catalysts undergoing various heat treatments. Thermal treatment brings about changes in particle size, morphology, dispersion of metals on support, alloying, surface electronic properties, etc. First, the mechanisms of coalescence and grain growth in PtNiCo nanoparticles supported on planar silica on silicon were examined in detail in the temperature range 400-900°C. The sintering process in PtNiCo nanoparticles was found to be accompanied by lattice contraction and L10chemical ...


Dynamic Control Of Plasmonic Resonances With Graphene Based Nanostructures, Naresh Kumar Emani Oct 2014

Dynamic Control Of Plasmonic Resonances With Graphene Based Nanostructures, Naresh Kumar Emani

Open Access Dissertations

Light incident on a metallic structure excites collective oscillations of electrons termed as plasmons. These plasmons are useful in control and manipulation of information in nanoscale dimensions and at high operating frequencies. Hence, the field of plasmonics opens up the possibility of developing nanoscale optoelectronic circuitry for computing and sensing applications. One of the challenges in this effort is the lack of tunable plasmonic resonance. Currently, the resonant wavelength of plasmonic structure is fixed by the material and structural parameters. Post-fabrication dynamic control of a plasmonic resonance is rather limited.^ In this thesis we explore the combination of optoelectrical properties ...


Nano-Modification For High Performance Cement Composites With Cellulose Nanocrystals And Carbon Nanotubes, Yizheng Cao Oct 2014

Nano-Modification For High Performance Cement Composites With Cellulose Nanocrystals And Carbon Nanotubes, Yizheng Cao

Open Access Dissertations

One of the new engineering frontiers is the exploration of infrastructure materials with novel combinations of properties that break traditional paradigms. The goal of this study is to utilize two different nano-fibers, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to modify the nanoscale structures of cement composites and thereby improve the performance at the macro-level. This study also evaluates the mechanism behind the modification, since fiber bridging, the most common reinforcing mechanism for fiber-reinforced composites, cannot be simply applied because CNCs are too short to bridge cracks in cement composites. ^ The mechanical tests show an increase in the flexural strength ...


Silica Nanoparticles As Vehicles For Therapy Delivery In Neurological Injury, Desiree Schenk Oct 2014

Silica Nanoparticles As Vehicles For Therapy Delivery In Neurological Injury, Desiree Schenk

Open Access Dissertations

Acrolein, a very reactive aldehyde, is a culprit in the biochemical cascade after primary, mechanical spinal cord injury (SCI), which leads to the destruction of tissue initially unharmed, referred to as "secondary injury". Additionally, in models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and some clinical research, acrolein levels are significantly increased. This aldehyde overwhelms the natural anti-oxidant system, reacts freely with proteins, and releases during lipid peroxidation (LPO), effectively regenerating its self. Due to its ability to make more copies of itself in the presence of tissue via lipid peroxidation, researchers believe that acrolein plays a role in the increased destruction of ...


Hierarchical Cell Fluid Extracellular Matrix Interaction In Cell Microenvironment, Soham Ghosh Oct 2014

Hierarchical Cell Fluid Extracellular Matrix Interaction In Cell Microenvironment, Soham Ghosh

Open Access Dissertations

Hierarchical structural interactions between components of cell microenvironment, the extracellular matrix (ECM), cytoplasm, nucleus and fluid, are important phenomena that decide cell level physiological process and tissue engineering applications. One of those tissue engineering modalities is freezing of biomaterials, important in a wide variety of biomedical applications including cryopreservation and cryosurgeries. In order to design these applications, freezing-induced changes of the cells and tissues and corresponding biophysical mechanisms need to be well understood. Although the effects of freezing on cells in suspension have been extensively studied, the intracellular mechanics of cells embedded in the extracellular matrix (ECM) during freezing are ...


Advanced Iii-V / Si Nano-Scale Transistors And Contacts: Modeling And Analysis, Seung Hyun Park Oct 2014

Advanced Iii-V / Si Nano-Scale Transistors And Contacts: Modeling And Analysis, Seung Hyun Park

Open Access Dissertations

The exponential miniaturization of Si CMOS technology has been a key to the electronics revolution. However, the continuous downscaling of the gate length becomes the biggest challenge to maintain higher speed, lower power, and better electrostatic integrity for each following generation. Hence, novel devices and better channel materials than Si are considered to improve the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) device performance. III-V compound semiconductors and multi-gate structures are being considered as promising candidates in the next CMOS technology. III-V and Si nano-scale transistors in different architectures are investigated (1) to compare the performance between InGaAs of III-V compound semiconductors and ...


Development Of A Static Bioactive Stent Prototype And Dynamic Aneurysm-On-A-Chip(Tm) Model For The Treatment Of Aneurysms, Lisa M. Reece Oct 2014

Development Of A Static Bioactive Stent Prototype And Dynamic Aneurysm-On-A-Chip(Tm) Model For The Treatment Of Aneurysms, Lisa M. Reece

Open Access Dissertations

Aneurysms are pockets of blood that collect outside blood vessel walls forming dilatations and leaving arterial walls very prone to rupture. Current treatments include: (1) clipping, and (2) coil embolization, including stent-assisted coiling. While these procedures can be effective, it would be advantageous to design a biologically active stent, modified with magnetic stent coatings, allowing cells to be manipulated to heal the arterial lining. Further, velocity, pressure, and wall shear stresses aid in the disease development of aneurysmal growth, but the shear force mechanisms effecting wound closure is elusive. Due to these factors, there is a definite need to cultivate ...


Design And Analysis Of Solar Cells By Coupled Electrical - Optical Simulation, Xufeng Wang Oct 2014

Design And Analysis Of Solar Cells By Coupled Electrical - Optical Simulation, Xufeng Wang

Open Access Dissertations

Careful electrical design and optical design are both crucial for achieving high-efficiency solar cells. It is common to link these two aspects serially; the optical design is first done to minimize reflection and maximize light trapping, and then the resulting optical generation rate is input to the electrical simulation. For very high efficiency solar cells that approach the Shockley-Queisser limit, however, electrical and optical transports are tightly coupled in both directions. Photons generated by radiative recombination can be reabsorbed to create additional electron-hole pairs (so-called photon recycling), which decreases losses. A variety of novel photon management schemes are currently being ...


Role Of Group Ii Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 2 (Mglur2) In Appetitive And Consummatory Aspects Of Ethanol Reinforcement, Kyle Allyson Windisch Oct 2014

Role Of Group Ii Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 2 (Mglur2) In Appetitive And Consummatory Aspects Of Ethanol Reinforcement, Kyle Allyson Windisch

Open Access Dissertations

Background: Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) are predominately presynaptically located Gi/o coupled receptors that are highly expressed in the cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus. Previous studies suggest that group II mGluRs are involved in regulating ethanol (EtOH) consumption and seeking following extinction (Backstrom and Hyytia, 2005; Kufahl, et al., 2011). The sipper tube model, which allows for procedural separation of seeking and consumption, was used to further clarify the role of mGluR2/3 in EtOH-seeking and consumption. The non-selective group II mGluR agonist LY379268 (LY37) and selective mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) BINA were used ...


Optical Spectroscopy And Langmuir Probe Diagnostics Of Microwave Plasma In Synthesis Of Graphene-Based Nanomaterials, Alfredo D. Tuesta Oct 2014

Optical Spectroscopy And Langmuir Probe Diagnostics Of Microwave Plasma In Synthesis Of Graphene-Based Nanomaterials, Alfredo D. Tuesta

Open Access Dissertations

Along with the revolutionary discovery and development of carbon nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes and graphitic sheets, has arrived the potential for their application in the fields of medicine, bioscience and engineering due to their exceptional structural, thermal and electrical properties. As roll-to-roll plasma deposition systems begin to provide means for large scale production of these nanodevices, a detailed understanding of the environment responsible for their synthesis is imperative in order to more accurately design and control the growth of carbon nanodevices. To date, the understanding of the chemistry and kinetics that govern the synthesis of carbon nanodevices is only ...


Graphene Decorated Substrates And Their Interfacial Characteristics, Anurag Kumar Oct 2013

Graphene Decorated Substrates And Their Interfacial Characteristics, Anurag Kumar

Open Access Dissertations

Carbon nanotubes and graphene have been extensively studied for their excellent properties. As research on carbon expands, two major issues face the scientific community: (i) Expanding the scale of synthesis and (ii) Integration of different carbon structures for improved functionality. While significant advancements have been made in large-scale synthesis, room for improvement remains. As the scale of production increases, issues such as time, cost and energy that may otherwise not be very significant, begin to play greater roles. Thus, in order to effectively transition from laboratory prototypes to industrial products, a synthesis method that can address these issues is strongly ...


Development Of A Multiscale Atomistic Code To Investigate Self-Organized Pattern Formation Induced By Ion Irradiation, Zhangcan Yang Oct 2013

Development Of A Multiscale Atomistic Code To Investigate Self-Organized Pattern Formation Induced By Ion Irradiation, Zhangcan Yang

Open Access Dissertations

Various self-organized patterns including ripples and quantum dots can be induced by ion beam sputtering (IBS). For the past decades, the understanding of such phenomenon has been mainly relied on the Bradley-Harper theory that attributes the formation of self-organized patterns to the interplay between roughening by curvature dependence of erosion and smoothening by surface diffusion. Recently, the development of the crater function theory has overturned this erosion-based paradigm to a redistribution-based paradigm. The theory has proved that erosion is irrelevant and negligible in the pattern formation at low and intermediate incidence angles. Despite the success, there are still some questions ...


Multiscale Modeling Of The Hierarchical Structure Of Cellulose Nanocrystals, Fernando Luis Dri Oct 2013

Multiscale Modeling Of The Hierarchical Structure Of Cellulose Nanocrystals, Fernando Luis Dri

Open Access Dissertations

Cellulose constitutes the most abundant renewable polymeric resource available today. It considered an almost inexhaustible source of raw material, and holds great promise in meeting increasing demands for environmentally friendly and biocompatible products. Key future applications are currently under development for the automotive, aerospace and textile industries. When cellulose fibers are subjected to acid hydrolysis, the fibers yield rod-like, highly crystalline residues called cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). These particles show remarkable mechanical and chemical properties (e.g. Young Modulus ~200 GPa) within the range of other synthetically-developed reinforcement materials. Critical to the design of these materials are fundamental material properties, many ...


Non-Silicon Mosfets And Circuits With Atomic Layer Deposited Higher-K Dielectrics, Lin Dong Oct 2013

Non-Silicon Mosfets And Circuits With Atomic Layer Deposited Higher-K Dielectrics, Lin Dong

Open Access Dissertations

The quest for technologies beyond 14nm node complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices has now called for research on higher-k gate dielectrics integration with high mobility channel materials such as III-V semiconductors and germanium. Ternary oxides, such as La2-xYxO3 and LaAlO3, have been considered as strong candidates due to their high dielectric constants and good thermal stability. Meanwhile, the unique abilities of delivering large area uniform thin film, excellent controlling of composition and thickness to an atomic level, which are keys to ultra-scaled devices, have made atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique an excellent choice.

In this thesis, we systematically study the atomic ...


Hybrid Opto-Electrokinetic Technique For Micro/Nanomanipulation: Towards Application Of A Novel Non-Invasive Manipulation Technique In Microbiological Assay, Jae-Sung Kwon Oct 2013

Hybrid Opto-Electrokinetic Technique For Micro/Nanomanipulation: Towards Application Of A Novel Non-Invasive Manipulation Technique In Microbiological Assay, Jae-Sung Kwon

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation explores various physical mechanisms of the Rapid Electrokinetic Patterning (REP) technique suggested for rapid and precise on-chip manipulation of colloids and fluids, and bio-compatibility of the technique for biological applications. REP is a hybrid opto-electrokinetic technique that is driven by the simultaneous application of an AC electric field and a heating source. It can not only effectively transport and manipulate a fluid but also concentrate and pattern particles suspended in the fluid through the combined effect of an electrohydrodynamic flow, electrostatic colloidal interactions and an electrothermal microfluidic flow. These capabilities make REP a promising tool which can provide ...