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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Improved Gas Sensing Performance Of Ald Azo 3-D Coated Zno Nanorods, P. Lin, X. Chen, K. Zhang, H. Baumgart Dec 2018

Improved Gas Sensing Performance Of Ald Azo 3-D Coated Zno Nanorods, P. Lin, X. Chen, K. Zhang, H. Baumgart

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper reports an enhancement on the sensing performance of ZnO nanorod ethanol sensors with a new approach by utilizing nested coatings of Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) thin films by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technology. ZnO nanorods were grown by the hydrothermal method with the ZnO seed layer synthesized on Silicon wafers by ALD. To enhance the sensing performance of ZnO nanorod ethanol sensors, multiple coated AZO thin film 3-D coatings were deposited on the surface of the intrinsic ZnO nanorods by ALD.To investigate the sensing performance of the ZnO nanorods sensor for the detection of ethanol vapor, a ...


No2- And No3- Enhance Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induced Cancer Cell Death By Generation Of Onoo-, Dehui Xu, Qingjie Cui, Yujing Xu, Zhijie Liu, Zeyu Chen, Wenjie Xia, Hao Zhang, Dingxin Liu, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong Oct 2018

No2- And No3- Enhance Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induced Cancer Cell Death By Generation Of Onoo-, Dehui Xu, Qingjie Cui, Yujing Xu, Zhijie Liu, Zeyu Chen, Wenjie Xia, Hao Zhang, Dingxin Liu, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a rapidly developed technology that has been widely applied in biomedicine especially in cancer treatment. Due to the generation of various active species in plasma, CAP could induce various tumor cells death and showed a promising potential in cancer therapy. To enhance the biological effects of gas plasma, changing the discharging parameters is the most commonly used method, yet increasing discharging power will lead to a higher possibility of simultaneously damage surrounding tissues. In this study, by adding nontoxic concentration of additional nitrite and nitrate in the medium, we found that anti-tumor effect of CAP ...


Editorial For The Special Issue On Micro/Nano-Chip Electrokinetics, Volume Ii, Xiangchun Xuan, Shizhi Qian Aug 2018

Editorial For The Special Issue On Micro/Nano-Chip Electrokinetics, Volume Ii, Xiangchun Xuan, Shizhi Qian

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

There has been a rapidly increasing interest in the use of micro/nanofluidics to develop various point-of-care technologies for global health [1,2]. Electrokinetics is often the method of choice in these micro/nano-chips for an accurate transport and manipulation of fluids and samples [3,4]. This special issue in Micromachines is the continuation of our successful first volume on Micro/Nano-Chip Electrokinetics [5]. It consists of 22 contributions, which cover multiple aspects of electrokinetics related phenomena for various chemical and biological applications. We divide these papers into three primary categories and summarize them briefly below.


Electroosmotic Flow Of Viscoelastic Fluid In A Nanoslit, Lanju Mei, Hongna Zhang, Hongxia Meng, Shizhi Qian Mar 2018

Electroosmotic Flow Of Viscoelastic Fluid In A Nanoslit, Lanju Mei, Hongna Zhang, Hongxia Meng, Shizhi Qian

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

The electroosmotic flow (EOF) of viscoelastic fluid in a long nanoslit is numerically studied to investigate the rheological property effect of Linear Phan-Thien-Tanner (LPTT) fluid on the fully developed EOF. The non-linear Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations governing the electric potential and the ionic concentration distribution within the channel are adopted to take into account the effect of the electrical double layer (EDL), including the EDL overlap. When the EDL is not overlapped, the velocity profiles for both Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids are plug-like and increase sharply near the charged wall. The velocity profile resembles that of pressure-driven flow when the EDL is ...


Optimal Control-Based Inverse Determination Of Electrode Distribution For Electroosmotic Micromixer, Yuan Li, Yongbo Deng, Zhenyu Liu, Teng Zhou, Yihui Wu, Shizhi Qian Aug 2017

Optimal Control-Based Inverse Determination Of Electrode Distribution For Electroosmotic Micromixer, Yuan Li, Yongbo Deng, Zhenyu Liu, Teng Zhou, Yihui Wu, Shizhi Qian

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper presents an optimal control-based inverse method used to determine the distribution of the electrodes for the electroosmotic micromixers with external driven flow from the inlet. Based on the optimal control method, one Dirichlet boundary control problem is constructed to inversely find the optimal distribution of the electrodes on the sidewalls of electroosmotic micromixers and achieve the acceptable mixing performance. After solving the boundary control problem, results are also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method; the step-shaped distribution of the external electric potential imposed on the sidewalls is obtained, and the electrodes with an interlaced arrangement ...


The Efficacy Of Programming Energy Controlled Switching In Resistive Random Access Memory (Rram), David Malien Nminibapiel Jul 2017

The Efficacy Of Programming Energy Controlled Switching In Resistive Random Access Memory (Rram), David Malien Nminibapiel

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Current state-of-the-art memory technologies such as FLASH, Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) and Dynamic RAM (DRAM) are based on charge storage. The semiconductor industry has relied on cell miniaturization to increase the performance and density of memory technology, while simultaneously decreasing the cost per bit. However, this approach is not sustainable because the charge-storage mechanism is reaching a fundamental scaling limit. Although stack engineering and 3D integration solutions can delay this limit, alternate strategies based on non-charge storage mechanisms for memory have been introduced and are being actively pursued.

Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) has emerged as one of the ...


Editorial For The Special Issue On Micro/Nano-Chip Electrokinetics, Xiangchun Xuan, Shizhi Qian May 2017

Editorial For The Special Issue On Micro/Nano-Chip Electrokinetics, Xiangchun Xuan, Shizhi Qian

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Micro/nanofluidics-based lab-on-a-chip devices have found extensive applications in the analysis of chemical and biological samples over the past two decades. Electrokinetics is the method of choice in these micro/nano-chips for transporting, manipulating and sensing various analyte species (e.g., ions, molecules, fluids and particles, etc.) [1,2]. This Special Issue in Micromachines is aimed to provide the recent development in the field of Micro/Nano-Chip Electrokinetics. It consists of 15 papers, which cover both fundamentals and applications, original research and reviews


Characterization And Analysis Of Real-Time Capillary Convective Pcr Toward Commercialization, Xianbo Qiu, Shiyin Zhang, Lanju Mei, Di Wu, Ke Li, Shengxiang Ge, Xiangzhong Ye, Ningshao Xia, Michael G. Mauk Mar 2017

Characterization And Analysis Of Real-Time Capillary Convective Pcr Toward Commercialization, Xianbo Qiu, Shiyin Zhang, Lanju Mei, Di Wu, Ke Li, Shengxiang Ge, Xiangzhong Ye, Ningshao Xia, Michael G. Mauk

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Almost all the reported capillary convective polymerase chain reaction (CCPCR) systems to date are still limited to research use stemming from unresolved issues related to repeatability, reliability, convenience, and sensitivity. To move CCPCR technology forward toward commercialization, a couple of critical strategies and innovations are discussed here. First, single- and dual-end heating strategies are analyzed and compared between each other. Especially, different solutions for dual-end heating are proposed and discussed, and the heat transfer and fluid flow inside the capillary tube with an optimized dual-end heating strategy are analyzed and modeled. Second, real-time CCPCR is implemented with light-emitting diode and ...


Light Soaking Phenomena In Organic-Inorganic Mixed Halide Perovskite Single Crystals, Hye Ryung Byun, Dae Young Park, Hye Min Oh, Gon Namkoong, Mun Seok Jeong Jan 2017

Light Soaking Phenomena In Organic-Inorganic Mixed Halide Perovskite Single Crystals, Hye Ryung Byun, Dae Young Park, Hye Min Oh, Gon Namkoong, Mun Seok Jeong

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Recently, organic inorganic mixed halide perovskite (MAPbX3; MA = CH3NH3+, X = Cl-, Br-, or I-) single crystals with low defect densities have been highlighted as candidate materials for high-efficiency photovoltaics and optoelectronics. Here we report the optical and structural investigations of mixed halide perovskite (MAPbBr3-xIx) single crystals. Mixed halide perovskite single crystals showed strong light soaking phenomena with light illumination conditions that were correlated to the trapping and detrapping events from defect sites. By systematic investigation with optical analysis, we found that the pseudocubic phase of mixed halide perovskites generates light soaking phenomena. These ...


Dynamic Transition Of Vortices Into Phase Slips And Generation Of Vortex-Antivortex Pairs In Thin Film Josephson Junctions Under Dc And Ac Currents, Ahmad Sheikhzada, Alex Gurevich Jan 2017

Dynamic Transition Of Vortices Into Phase Slips And Generation Of Vortex-Antivortex Pairs In Thin Film Josephson Junctions Under Dc And Ac Currents, Ahmad Sheikhzada, Alex Gurevich

Physics Faculty Publications

We present theoretical and numerical investigations of vortices driven by strong dc and ac currents in long Josephson junctions described by a nonlinear integro-differential equation which takes into account nonlocal electrodynamics of films, vortex bremsstrahlung, and Cherenkov radiation amplified by the attraction of vortices to the edges of the junction. This work focuses on the dynamics of vortices in Josephson junctions in thin films where the effects of Josephson nonlocality are essential but London screening is negligible. We obtained an exact solution for a vortex driven by an arbitrary time-dependent current in an overdamped junction where the vortex turns into ...


An Examination Of The Indentation Size Effect In Fcc Metals And Alloys From A Kinetics Based Perspective Using Nanoindentation, David Earl Stegall Oct 2016

An Examination Of The Indentation Size Effect In Fcc Metals And Alloys From A Kinetics Based Perspective Using Nanoindentation, David Earl Stegall

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The indentation size effect (ISE) in metals is described as the rise in hardness with decreasing depth of indentation and contradicts conventional plasticity behavior. The goal of this dissertation is to further examine the fundamental dislocation mechanisms that may be contributing to the so-called indentation size effect. In this work, we examined several metals and alloys including 99.999% Aluminum (SFE ~200 mJ/m2), 99.95% Nickel (SFE ~125 mJ/m2), 99.95% Silver (SFE ~22 mJ/m2), and three alloys, alpha brass 70/30 (SFE >10 mJ/m2), 70/30 nickel copper (SFE ...


Synthesis, Morphological Control, Dispersion Stabilization And In Situ Self-Assembly Of Noble Metal Nanostructures Using Multidentate Resorcinarene Surfactants, Sangbum Han Apr 2016

Synthesis, Morphological Control, Dispersion Stabilization And In Situ Self-Assembly Of Noble Metal Nanostructures Using Multidentate Resorcinarene Surfactants, Sangbum Han

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

In this dissertation, a detailed investigation on the influence of various macrocyclic resorcinarene surfactants in determining the morphology, stabilization and self-assembly of mono- and bi- metallic nanoparticles was undertaken. Chapter 2 describes the influence of resorcinarene surfactants functionalized with amine- and thiol- headgroups in determining the morphology of monometallic Pt nanoparticles synthesized via the Brust-Schiffrin reaction. We found that while resorcinarene benzylthiol can lead to the formation of highly branched Pt nanostructures, resorcinarene amine can lead to the formation of anisotropic crystalline Pt nanoparticles. Further, we have evaluated the influence of resorcinarene ligands in determining the catalytic activity of these ...


Evolution Of Moiré Profiles From Van Der Waals Superstructures Of Boron Nitride Nanosheets, Yunlong Liao, Wei Cao, John W. Connell, Zhongfang Chen, Yi Lin Jan 2016

Evolution Of Moiré Profiles From Van Der Waals Superstructures Of Boron Nitride Nanosheets, Yunlong Liao, Wei Cao, John W. Connell, Zhongfang Chen, Yi Lin

Applied Research Center Publications

Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) superstructures, or vdW solids, are formed by the precise restacking of 2D nanosheet lattices, which can lead to unique physical and electronic properties that are not available in the parent nanosheets. Moiré patterns formed by the crystalline mismatch between adjacent nanosheets are the most direct features for vdW superstructures under microscopic imaging. In this article, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of hexagonal Moiré patterns with unusually large micrometer-sized lateral areas (up to similar to 1μm2 and periodicities (up to similar to 50 nm) from restacking of liquid exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs ...


Uv Light-Induced Aggregation Of Titania Submicron Particles, Can Zhou, Yashar Bashirzadeh, Timothy A. Bernadowsky Jr., Xiaoyu Zhang Jan 2016

Uv Light-Induced Aggregation Of Titania Submicron Particles, Can Zhou, Yashar Bashirzadeh, Timothy A. Bernadowsky Jr., Xiaoyu Zhang

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

In this study, aggregation of TiO2 (rutile and anatase) submicron particles in deionized (DI) water under ultra-violet (UV) light irradiation was investigated. While no aggregation was observed in the dark, rutile and anatase submicron particles started aggregating upon application of UV light and ceased aggregation in about 2 and 8.4 h, respectively. It has been demonstrated that UV light directly mitigated the particle mobility of TiO2, resulting in a neutralization effect of the Zeta potential. It was also observed that rutile particles aggregated much faster than anatase particles under UV radiation, indicating that the Zeta potential of ...


Electrokinetic Phenomena In Pencil Lead-Based Microfluidics, Yashar Bashirzadeh, Venkat Maruthamuthu, Shizhi Qian Jan 2016

Electrokinetic Phenomena In Pencil Lead-Based Microfluidics, Yashar Bashirzadeh, Venkat Maruthamuthu, Shizhi Qian

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Fabrication of microchannels and associated electrodes to generate electrokinetic phenomena often involves costly materials and considerable effort. In this study, we used graphite pencil-leads as low cost, disposable 3D electrodes to investigate various electrokinetic phenomena in straight cylindrical microchannels, which were themselves fabricated by using a graphite rod as the microchannel mold. Individual pencil-leads were employed as the micro-electrodes arranged along the side walls of the microchannel. Efficient electrokinetic phenomena provided by the 3D electrodes, including alternating current electroosmosis (ACEO), induced-charge electroosmosis (ICEO), and dielectrophoresis (DEP), were demonstrated by the introduced pencil-lead based microfluidic devices. The electrokinetic phenomena were characterized ...


Energy Harvesting-Aware Design For Wireless Nanonetworks, Shahram Mohrehkesh Jul 2015

Energy Harvesting-Aware Design For Wireless Nanonetworks, Shahram Mohrehkesh

Computer Science Theses & Dissertations

Nanotechnology advancement promises to enable a new era of computing and communication devices by shifting micro scale chip design to nano scale chip design. Nanonetworks are envisioned as artifacts of nanotechnology in the domain of networking and communication. These networks will consist of nodes of nanometer to micrometer in size, with a communication range up to 1 meter. These nodes could be used in various biomedical, industrial, and environmental monitoring applications, where a nanoscale level of sensing, monitoring, control and communication is required. The special characteristics of nanonetworks require the revisiting of network design. More specifically, nanoscale limitations, new paradigms ...


Nano Scale Mechanical Analysis Of Biomaterials Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Diganta Dutta Jul 2015

Nano Scale Mechanical Analysis Of Biomaterials Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Diganta Dutta

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a probe-based microscope that uses nanoscale and structural imaging where high resolution is desired. AFM has also been used in mechanical, electrical, and thermal engineering applications. This unique technique provides vital local material properties like the modulus of elasticity, hardness, surface potential, Hamaker constant, and the surface charge density from force versus displacement curve. Therefore, AFM was used to measure both the diameter and mechanical properties of the collagen nanostraws in human costal cartilage. Human costal cartilage forms a bridge between the sternum and bony ribs. The chest wall of some humans is deformed ...


Maximum Screening Fields Of Superconducting Multilayer Structures, Alex Gurevich Jan 2015

Maximum Screening Fields Of Superconducting Multilayer Structures, Alex Gurevich

Physics Faculty Publications

It is shown that a multilayer comprised of alternating thin superconducting and insulating layers on a thick substrate can fully screen the applied magnetic field exceeding the superheating fields Hsof both the superconducting layers and the substrate, the maximum Meissner field is achieved at an optimum multilayer thickness. For instance, a dirty layer of thickness ~0.1μm at the Nb surface could increase Hs similar or equal to 240 mT of a clean Nb up to Hs similar or equal to 290 mT. Optimized multilayers of Nb3Sn, NbN, some of the iron pnictides, or ...


Viscoelastic Effects On Electrokinetic Particle Focusing In A Constricted Microchannel, Xinyu Lu, John Dubose, Sang Woo Joo, Shizhi Qian, Xiangchun Xuan Jan 2015

Viscoelastic Effects On Electrokinetic Particle Focusing In A Constricted Microchannel, Xinyu Lu, John Dubose, Sang Woo Joo, Shizhi Qian, Xiangchun Xuan

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Focusing suspended particles in a fluid into a single file is often necessary prior to continuous-flow detection, analysis, and separation. Electrokinetic particle focusing has been demonstrated in constricted microchannels by the use of the constriction-induced dielectrophoresis. However, previous studies on this subject have been limited to Newtonian fluids only. We report in this paper an experimental investigation of the viscoelastic effects on electrokinetic particle focusing in non-Newtonian polyethylene oxide solutions through a constricted microchannel. The width of the focused particle stream is found NOT to decrease with the increase in DC electric field, which is different from that in Newtonian ...


Ablation Of Myocardial Tissue With Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Fei Xie, Frency Varghese, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Jonathan Philpott, Christian Zemlin Jan 2015

Ablation Of Myocardial Tissue With Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Fei Xie, Frency Varghese, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Jonathan Philpott, Christian Zemlin

Bioelectrics Publications

Background

Ablation of cardiac tissue is an essential tool for the treatment of arrhythmias, particularly of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ventricular tachycardia. Current ablation technologies suffer from substantial recurrence rates, thermal side effects, and long procedure times. We demonstrate that ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) can potentially overcome these limitations.

Methods

We used optical mapping to monitor electrical activity in Langendorff-perfused New Zealand rabbit hearts (n = 12). We repeatedly inserted two shock electrodes, spaced 2–4 mm apart, into the ventricles (through the entire wall) and applied nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) (5–20 kV/cm, 350 ...


Enhancing The Insulation Of Wide-Range Spectrum In The Pva/N Thin Film By Doping Zno Nanowires, Yu-Chen Lin, Ching-Hsiang Vhen, Liang-Yih Chen, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Shizhi Qian Jan 2014

Enhancing The Insulation Of Wide-Range Spectrum In The Pva/N Thin Film By Doping Zno Nanowires, Yu-Chen Lin, Ching-Hsiang Vhen, Liang-Yih Chen, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Shizhi Qian

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

In this study, polyvinyl alcohol/nitrogen (PVA/N) hybrid thin films doped with sharp-sword ZnO nanowires with insulating effect and wide-range spectrum are demonstrated for the first time. PVA/N doped ZnO nanocomposites were developed by blending PVA and N-doped ZnO nanowires in water at room temperature. Measurements from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, and photoluminescence emission (PL) spectra of the products show that nitrogen is successfully doped into the ZnO wurtzite crystal lattice. In addition, the refractive index of PVA/N doped ZnO hybrid thin films can be controlled by varying the doped ...


Microfluidic Electrical Sorting Of Particles Based On Shape In A Spiral Microchannel, John Dubose, Xinyu Lu, Saurin Patel, Shizhi Qian, Sang Woo Joo Jan 2014

Microfluidic Electrical Sorting Of Particles Based On Shape In A Spiral Microchannel, John Dubose, Xinyu Lu, Saurin Patel, Shizhi Qian, Sang Woo Joo

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Shape is an intrinsic marker of cell cycle, an important factor for identifying a bioparticle, and also a useful indicator of cell state for disease diagnostics. Therefore, shape can be a specific marker in label-free particle and cell separation for various chemical and biological applications. We demonstrate in this work a continuous-flow electrical sorting of spherical and peanut-shaped particles of similar volumes in an asymmetric double-spiral microchannel. It exploits curvature-induced dielectrophoresis to focus particles to a tight stream in the first spiral without any sheath flow and subsequently displace them to shape-dependent flow paths in the second spiral without any ...


An Unexpected Particle Oscillation For Electrophoresis In Viscoelastic Fluids Through A Microchannel Constriction, Xinyu Lu, Saurin Patel, Meng Zhang, Sang Woo Joo, Shizhi Qian, Amod Ogale, Xiangchun Xuan Jan 2014

An Unexpected Particle Oscillation For Electrophoresis In Viscoelastic Fluids Through A Microchannel Constriction, Xinyu Lu, Saurin Patel, Meng Zhang, Sang Woo Joo, Shizhi Qian, Amod Ogale, Xiangchun Xuan

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Electrophoresis plays an important role in many applications, which, however, has so far been extensively studied in Newtonian fluids only. This work presents the first experimental investigation of particle electrophoresis in viscoelastic polyethylene oxide (PEO) solutions through a microchannel constriction under pure DC electric fields. An oscillatory particle motion is observed in the constriction region, which is distinctly different from the particle behavior in a polymer-free Newtonian fluid. This stream-wise particle oscillation continues until a sufficient number of particles form a chain to pass through the constriction completely. It is speculated that such an unexpected particle oscillating phenomenon is a ...


Role Of Surface Chemistry In Nanoscale Electrokinetic Transport, Secuk Atalay Jan 2014

Role Of Surface Chemistry In Nanoscale Electrokinetic Transport, Secuk Atalay

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation work presents the efforts to study the electrofluidics phenomena, with a focus on surface charge properties in nanoscale systems with the potential applications in imaging, energy conversion, ultrafiltration, DNA analysis/sequencing, DNA and protein transport, drug delivery, biological/chemical agent detection and micro/nano chip sensors.

Since the ion or molecular or particle transport and also liquid confinement in nano-structures are strongly dominated by the surface charge properties, in regards of the fundamental understanding of electrofluidics at nanoscale, we have used surface charge chemistry properties based on 2-pK charging mechanism. Using this mechanism, we theoretically and analytically showed ...


Atmospheric Pressure He-Air Plasma Jet: Breakdown Process And Propagation Phenomenon, Asma Begum, Mounir Laroussi, Mohammad Rasel Pervez Jun 2013

Atmospheric Pressure He-Air Plasma Jet: Breakdown Process And Propagation Phenomenon, Asma Begum, Mounir Laroussi, Mohammad Rasel Pervez

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

In this paper He-discharge (plasma jet/bullet) in atmospheric pressure air and its progression phenomenon has been studied experimentally using ICCD camera, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and calibrated dielectric probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse has applied to a plasma pencil to generate discharge in the helium gas channel. The discharge propagation speed was measured from the ICCD images. The axial electric field distribution in the plasma jet is inferred from the optical emission spectroscopic data and from the probe measurement. The correlation between the jet velocities, jet length with the pulse duration is established. It shows that the plasma ...


Primary Pathways Of Intracellular Ca2+ Mobilization By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2013

Primary Pathways Of Intracellular Ca2+ Mobilization By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Permeabilization of cell membranous structures by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) triggers transient rise of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which determines multifarious downstream effects. By using fast ratiometric Ca2+ imaging with Fura-2, we quantified the external Ca2+ uptake, compared it with Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and analyzed the interplay of these processes. We utilized CHO cells which lack voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, so that the nsPEF-induced [Ca2+]i changes could be attributed primarily to electroporation. We found that a single 60-ns pulse caused fast [Ca2+]i increase by Ca2 ...


Real-Time In Vivo Imaging Of Size-Dependent Transport And Toxicity Of Gold Nanoparticles In Zebrafish Embryos Using Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Spectroscopy, Lauren M. Browning, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu Jan 2013

Real-Time In Vivo Imaging Of Size-Dependent Transport And Toxicity Of Gold Nanoparticles In Zebrafish Embryos Using Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Spectroscopy, Lauren M. Browning, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) show distinctive plasmonic optical properties and superior photostability, enabling them to serve as photostable multicoloured optical molecular probes and sensors for real-time in vivo imaging. To effectively study biological functions in vivo, it is essential that the NP probes are biocompatible and can be delivered into living organisms non-invasively. In this study, we have synthesized, purified and characterized stable (non-aggregated) gold (Au) NPs (86.2 +/- 10.8 nm). We have developed dark-field single NP plasmonic microscopy and spectroscopy to study their transport into early developing zebrafish embryos (cleavage stage) and their effects on embryonic development ...


Communications And Energy-Harvesting In Nanosensor Networks, Michele C. Weigle Nov 2012

Communications And Energy-Harvesting In Nanosensor Networks, Michele C. Weigle

Computer Science Presentations

PDF of a powerpoint presentation from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Workshop on Biological Computations and Communications in Boston, Massachusetts, November 9, 2012. Also available on Slideshare.


Cell Permeabilization And Inhibition Of Voltage-Gated Ca²+ And Na+ Channel Currents By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Vasyl Nesin, Angela M. Bowman, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2012

Cell Permeabilization And Inhibition Of Voltage-Gated Ca²+ And Na+ Channel Currents By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Vasyl Nesin, Angela M. Bowman, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Previous studies have found that nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) exposure causes long-term permeabilization of the cell plasma membrane. In this study, we utilized the whole-cell patch-clamp method to study the nsPEF effect on currents of voltage-gated (VG) Ca2+ and Na+ channels (ICa and INa) in cultured GH3 and NG108 cells. We found that a single 300 or 600 ns pulse at or above 1.5-2 kV/cm caused prolonged inhibition of ICa and INa. Concurrently, nsPEF increased a non-inactivating leak current (Ileak), presumably due to the formation of nanoelectropores or larger pores in ...


Microfluidic Separation Of Live And Dead Yeast Cells Using Reservoir-Based Dielectrophoresis, Saurin Patel, Daniel Showers, Pallavi Vedantam, Tzuen-Rong Tzeng, Shizhi Qian, Xiangchun Xuan Jan 2012

Microfluidic Separation Of Live And Dead Yeast Cells Using Reservoir-Based Dielectrophoresis, Saurin Patel, Daniel Showers, Pallavi Vedantam, Tzuen-Rong Tzeng, Shizhi Qian, Xiangchun Xuan

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Separating live and dead cells is critical to the diagnosis of early stage diseases and to the efficacy test of drug screening, etc. This work demonstrates a novel microfluidic approach to dielectrophoretic separation of yeast cells by viability. It exploits the cell dielectrophoresis that is induced by the inherent electric field gradient at the reservoir-microchannel junction to selectively trap dead yeast cells and continuously separate them from live ones right inside the reservoir. This approach is therefore termed reservoir-based dielectrophoresis (rDEP). It has unique advantages as compared to existing dielectrophoretic approaches such as the occupation of zero channel space and ...