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Articles 31 - 57 of 57

Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Nanostructured Aluminum Oxide (Nao): Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging And Sensing, Xiang Li Jul 2014

Nanostructured Aluminum Oxide (Nao): Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging And Sensing, Xiang Li

Doctoral Dissertations

A new fluorescence enhancement technical platform based on nanostructured aluminum oxide (NAO) has been discovered. Experiments reveal that this new platform can enhance the fluorescence signals up to two or three orders of magnitude compared to a traditional glass substrate platform. In order to realize a large-scale arrayed fluorescence biosensing platform for high throughput applications, a rapid and cost-effective process has been developed to fabricate the micropatterned NAO of a variety of shapes. An optical characterization technology, by introducing UV light irradiance, has been found for the first time to determine if the NAO has been formed from Al and ...


Thermoelectric Elisa For Quantification Of 8ohdg In A Microfluidic Device, Gergana Nestorova Jul 2014

Thermoelectric Elisa For Quantification Of 8ohdg In A Microfluidic Device, Gergana Nestorova

Doctoral Dissertations

This research demonstrates the feasibility of a novel method for performing thermoelectric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microfluidic device. The feasibility of the thermoelectric ELISA is demonstrated by measuring the concentration of 8-hydroxy 2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) in urine samples from amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. The detection method is based on formation of a complex between 8OHdG and anti-8OHdG capture antibody conjugated to biotin. The complex is immobilized over the measuring junctions of a thermopile via biotin streptavidin interaction. The concentration of the analyte is determined by using enzyme linked secondary IgG antibody specific to the primary one. The ...


Hybrid Nanomaterial And Its Applications: Ir Sensing And Energy Harvesting, Yi-Hsuan Tseng Jul 2014

Hybrid Nanomaterial And Its Applications: Ir Sensing And Energy Harvesting, Yi-Hsuan Tseng

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, a hybrid nanomaterial, single-wall carbon nanotubes-copper sulfide nanoparticles (SWNTs-CuS NPs), was synthesized and its properties were analyzed. Due to its unique optical and thermal properties, the hybrid nanomaterial exhibited great potential for infrared (IR) sensing and energy harvesting.

The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with the non-covalent bond technique to functionalize the surface of the SWNTs and bind the CuS nanoparticles on the surface of the SWNTs. For testing and analyzing the hybrid nanomaterial, SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles were formed as a thin film structure using the vacuum filtration method. Two conductive wires were bound on the ends of the ...


Micro And Nano Technology Platforms: From Cell Viability Monitoring To Fet Based Biosensing, Pushparaj D. Pathak Jul 2014

Micro And Nano Technology Platforms: From Cell Viability Monitoring To Fet Based Biosensing, Pushparaj D. Pathak

Doctoral Dissertations

Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that combines science and engineering to design, synthesize, characterize and explore applications for materials and devices whose smallest functional organization in at least one dimension is on the nanometer scale. Nanotechnology is undergoing an explosive development and the extent of potential application is vast and widely diverse. In the field of human health care, nanotechnology is helping to develop novel materials and structures, which have made it possible to miniaturize many of the tools used in conventional assays. Smart biochips constructed out of these novel materials and structures are now capable of performing limited in ...


Study And Development Of Sulfated Zirconia Based Proton Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes, Brittany Wilson Kemp Apr 2014

Study And Development Of Sulfated Zirconia Based Proton Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes, Brittany Wilson Kemp

Doctoral Dissertations

With the increasing consumption of energy, fuel cells are among the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels, provided some technical challenges are overcome. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been investigated and improvements have been made, but the problem with Nafion®, the main membrane for PEMFCs, has not been solved. Nafion® restricts the membranes from operating at higher temperatures, thus preventing them from working in small electronics. The problem is to develop a novel fuel cell membrane that performs comparably to Nafion® in PEMFCs.

The membranes were fabricated by applying sulfated zirconia, via template wetting, to porous alumina membranes ...


Selected Durability Studies Of Geopolymer Concrete With Respect To Carbonation, Elevated Temperature, And Microbial Induced Corrosion, Mohammad Sufian Badar Apr 2014

Selected Durability Studies Of Geopolymer Concrete With Respect To Carbonation, Elevated Temperature, And Microbial Induced Corrosion, Mohammad Sufian Badar

Doctoral Dissertations

This thesis reports a comprehensive study related to the experimental evaluation of carbonation in reinforced geopolymer concrete, the evaluation of geopolymer concretes at elevated temperature, and the resistance of geopolymer concrete to microbial induced corrosion (MIC).

Carbonation: Reinforced concretes, made of geopolymer, prepared from two class F fly ashes and one class C fly ash, were subjected to accelerated carbonation treatment for a period of 450 days. Electrochemical, microstructure and pore structure examinations were performed to evaluate the effect of corrosion caused due to carbonation. GPC specimens prepared from class F fly ash exhibited lower corrosion rates by a factor ...


Micro Solar Thermal Energy Development And Use For Mems Power Applications, Emmanuel Ogbonnaya Oct 2013

Micro Solar Thermal Energy Development And Use For Mems Power Applications, Emmanuel Ogbonnaya

Doctoral Dissertations

Increasing focus on alternative energy sources has produced significant progress across a wide variety of research areas. One particular area of interest has been solar energy. The sun represents sustainable and renewable energy source capable of meeting present energy needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs. Energy from the sun can be utilized in multiple ways. Direct rise in modern power generation typically involves either photovoltaic systems or large-scale solar thermal energy installations. While large-scale solar thermal energy generation is well advanced, there has been comparatively little research on smaller scale thermal energy collection and application ...


The Effect Of Network Transitions On Spontaneous Activity And Sycnhrony In Devloping Neural Networks, Jude P. J. Savarraj Apr 2013

The Effect Of Network Transitions On Spontaneous Activity And Sycnhrony In Devloping Neural Networks, Jude P. J. Savarraj

Doctoral Dissertations

Connectivity patterns of developing neural circuits and the effects of its dynamics on network behavior, particularly the emergence of spontaneous activity and synchrony, are not clear. We attempt to quantify anatomical connectivity patterns of rat cortical cultures during different stages of development. By culturing the networks on dishes embedded with micro electrode arrays, we simultaneously record electrical activity from multiple regions of the developing network and monitor its electrical behavior, particularly its tendency to fire spontaneously and to synchronize under certain conditions. We investigate possible correlations between changes in the network connectivity patterns and spontaneous electrical activity and synchrony. Cocultures ...


Intrinsic Mode Function Synchronization Measures For The Anticipation Of Seizures In Epilpsy, Daniel William Moller Apr 2013

Intrinsic Mode Function Synchronization Measures For The Anticipation Of Seizures In Epilpsy, Daniel William Moller

Doctoral Dissertations

Epileptic seizures affect as many as 50 million people and often occur without warning or apparent provocation. We explore the applicability of noise-assisted Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) for patient-specific seizure anticipation synchronization measures as applied to the EEMD intrinsic mode function (IMF) output. Intracranial EEG data were obtained from pre-surgical monitoring at the Epilepsy Center of the University Hospital of Freiburg. Data from twenty patients were analyzed. For each recorded channel, non-overlapping time windows were submitted to the EEMD algorithm, producing twelve levels of IMFs. IMF synchronization measures (mean and maximum coherence, mean and maximum cross-correlation, correlation coefficient and ...


Ultrasonication Assisted Layer-By-Layer Technology For The Preparation Of Multi-Functional Anticancer Drugs Paclitaxel And Lapatinib, Xingcai Zhang Jan 2013

Ultrasonication Assisted Layer-By-Layer Technology For The Preparation Of Multi-Functional Anticancer Drugs Paclitaxel And Lapatinib, Xingcai Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, ultrasonication assisted Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technology for the preparation of multifunctional poorly water-soluble anticancer drug nanoparticles, paclitaxel and lapatinib, has been developed. Many FDA approved drugs are very low soluble in water; therefore, it is very difficult to load and control their release and targeting efficiently, which greatly confines their application. The development of this method will pave the way for the development and application of those low soluble anticancer drugs.

In the first part of this dissertation, the first approach for powerful ultrasonication, the top-down approach (sonicating bulk drug crystals in polyelectrolyte solution), was successfully applied for ...


Multi-Scale Characterization Of Nanostructured Sodium Aluminum Hydride, Shathabish Narasegowda Jan 2013

Multi-Scale Characterization Of Nanostructured Sodium Aluminum Hydride, Shathabish Narasegowda

Doctoral Dissertations

Complex metal hydrides are the most promising candidate materials for onboard hydrogen storage. The practicality of this class of materials is counter-poised on three critical attributes: reversible hydrogen storage capacity, high hydrogen uptake/release kinetics, and favorable hydrogen uptake/release thermodynamics. While a majority of modern metallic hydrides that are being considered are those that meet the criteria of high theoretical storage capacity, the challenges lie in addressing poor kinetics, thermodynamics, and reversibility. One emerging strategy to resolve these issues is via nanostructuring or nano-confinement of complex hydrides. By down-sizing and scaffolding them to retain their nano-dimensions, these materials are ...


Oscillator-Based Neuronal Modeling For Seizure Progression Investigation And Seizure Control Strategy, Wu Chen Oct 2012

Oscillator-Based Neuronal Modeling For Seizure Progression Investigation And Seizure Control Strategy, Wu Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

The coupled oscillator model has previously been used for the simulation of neuronal activities in in vitro rat hippocampal slice seizure data and the evaluation of seizure suppression algorithms. Each model unit can be described as either an oscillator which can generate action potential spike trains without inputs, or a threshold-based unit. With the change of only one parameter, each unit can either be an oscillator or a threshold-based spiking unit. This would eliminate the need for a new set of equations for each type of unit. Previous analysis has suggested that long kernel duration and imbalance of inhibitory feedback ...


Exploitation And Exploration Of Pcr In Microfluidic Systems With Gradient Temperature Environments, Ilija Pjescic Oct 2012

Exploitation And Exploration Of Pcr In Microfluidic Systems With Gradient Temperature Environments, Ilija Pjescic

Doctoral Dissertations

The main goal of the work was to establish a wholesome picture off all relevant processes for a sample-in, answer out genetic system and to integrate the whole process on a one step device from sample collection to final result. The genetic analysis process consists of ideally three steps: sample preparation, chemical reaction, and analysis. Each of the steps is different and requires a specific environment, where sample preparation might use additives, they might later interfere with the reaction itself or lead to misleading results in the analysis phase. It was found to be quite a challenging process to synchronize ...


A Nanostructured Fabry-Perot Interferometer For Label-Free Biodetection, Tianhua Zhang Jul 2012

A Nanostructured Fabry-Perot Interferometer For Label-Free Biodetection, Tianhua Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

A polymer nanostructured Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) based biosensor has been developed, fabricated, and tested. Different from a conventional FPI, this nanostructured FPI has a layer of Au-coated nanopores inside its cavity. The Au-coated nanostructure layer offers significant enhancement of optical transducing signals due to the localized surface Plasmon resonance (L-SPR) effect. Compared to a traditional FPI for label-free biosensing applications, the polymer nanostructured FPI based biosensor offers increased sensing surface area, extended penetration depth of the excitation light, and amplification of optical transducing signals. Using a nanostructured FPI, measurements taken had great improvements in free spectral range (FSR), finesse, and ...


Nanowire Giant Magnetoresistance Thin Films For Magnetic Sensors, Bryan Cox Jul 2012

Nanowire Giant Magnetoresistance Thin Films For Magnetic Sensors, Bryan Cox

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation details a novel method to fabricate magnetic sensors using nanowire giant magnetoresistance (GMR) thin films. In 1988, Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg both independently discovered a new physical phenomenon called GMR. GMR is a quantum mechanical effect found in thin film materials that are composed of alternating nanoscale ferromagnetic and non-magnetic conductive layers. When a GMR material is in the presence of a magnetic field, a change in electrical resistance is observed. The GMR effect has been utilized to produce magnetic sensors that have been used in a variety of applications, such as computer hard drive read heads ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Hybrid Energy Harvesting Microdevices, Zhongcheng Gong Apr 2012

Fabrication And Characterization Of Hybrid Energy Harvesting Microdevices, Zhongcheng Gong

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, a hybrid energy harvesting system based on a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and carbon nanotube film (CNF) cantilever structure has been designed, fabricated and studied. It has the ability to harvest light and thermal radiation energy from ambient energy and convert them to electricity.

The proposed micro-scale energy harvesting device consists of a composite cantilever beam (SU-8/CNF/Pt/PZT/Pt) which is fixed on a silicon based anchor and two electrode pads for wire bonding. The CNF acts as an antenna to receive radiation energy and convert it to heat energy and then transfer to the ...


Basic Capillary Microfluidic Chip And Highly Sensitive Optical Detector For Point Of Care Application, Mingjin Yao Apr 2012

Basic Capillary Microfluidic Chip And Highly Sensitive Optical Detector For Point Of Care Application, Mingjin Yao

Doctoral Dissertations

A cost-effective and highly sensitive portable diagnostic device is needed to enable much more widespread monitoring of health conditions in disease prevention, detection, and control. Miniaturized and easy-to-operate devices can reduce the inherent costs and inefficiencies associated with healthcare testing in central laboratories. Hence, clinicians are beginning to use point of care (POC) testing and flexible clinical chemistry testing devices which are beneficial for the patient.

In our work, a low-cost and simple autonomous microfluidic device for biochemical detection was developed. The pumpless capillary system with capillary stop valves and trigger valves is fabricated on a silicon (Si) wafer and ...


Introducing Porous Silicon As A Sacrificial Material To Obtain Cavities In Substrate Of Soi Wafers And A Getter Material For Mems Devices, Wajihuddin Mohammad Oct 2011

Introducing Porous Silicon As A Sacrificial Material To Obtain Cavities In Substrate Of Soi Wafers And A Getter Material For Mems Devices, Wajihuddin Mohammad

Doctoral Dissertations

Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonators have been a subject of research for more than four decades. The reason is the huge potential they possess for frequency applications. The use of a MEMS resonator as the timing element has an experimental history and huge progress has been made in this direction. Vacuum encapsulated MEMS resonators are required for high precision frequency control. Hence, a device with a high quality factor and durability is needed. In this effort, a new process for producing a cavity in the substrate of Silicon on insulator (SOI) MEMS devices and augmenting it with a getter using porous ...


Role Of Ammonia In The Activiation Of Methanol Dehydrogenase/Cytochrome C(L) Enzyme, Ancy Kunjumon Oct 2011

Role Of Ammonia In The Activiation Of Methanol Dehydrogenase/Cytochrome C(L) Enzyme, Ancy Kunjumon

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent advancement in enzyme catalysis has opened ways to design efficient biocatalysts, bio-sensors and bio-fuel cells. An in-depth knowledge about the mechanism of the reaction taking place within the enzymes is of great importance to achieve these goals. In this dissertation, various computation methods are applied to investigate the mechanism behind enzyme catalysis in the presence of compounds called activators.

Methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) is a well-known bio-catalyst that can oxidize excess of methanol from the environment to formaldehyde. The enzyme works well within the bacterial environment, but under in vitro, it loses activity. Ammonia is used as an activator to ...


Passive Micromixers And Organic Electrochemical Transistors For Biosensor Applications, Senaka Krishna Kanakamedala Oct 2011

Passive Micromixers And Organic Electrochemical Transistors For Biosensor Applications, Senaka Krishna Kanakamedala

Doctoral Dissertations

Fluid handling at the microscale has greatly affected different fields such as biomedical, pharmaceutical, biochemical engineering and environmental monitoring due to its reduced reagent consumption, portability, high throughput, lower hardware cost and shorter analysis time compared to large devices. The challenges associated with mixing of fluids in microscale enabled us in designing, simulating, fabricating and characterizing various micromixers on silicon and flexible polyester substrates. The mixing efficiency was evaluated by injecting the fluids through the two inlets and collecting the sample at outlet. The images collected from the microscope were analyzed, and the absorbance of the color product at the ...


Nanofabrication Of Halloysite-Pcl Composite Scaffolds And Functionalization Of Titanium For Tissue Regeneration, Shraddha Parshottambhai Patel Jul 2011

Nanofabrication Of Halloysite-Pcl Composite Scaffolds And Functionalization Of Titanium For Tissue Regeneration, Shraddha Parshottambhai Patel

Doctoral Dissertations

Major medical needs may be achieved through regenerative medicine. Nanotechnology has triggered a research revolution in many important areas such as the biomedical sciences and bioengineering at the molecular level which has grown significantly due to the availability of new analytical applications and tools based on nanotechnology. Clinical conditions and diseases being targeted by nanotechnology research include burns, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, implant failure, improved wound healing, birth defects, osteoporosis and congestive heart defects. Therapeutic use of growth factors and drugs to stimulate the production and/or function of endogenous cells represents a key area of regenerative medicine ...


A Modeling And Simulation Framework For Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment, James Phillips Apr 2011

A Modeling And Simulation Framework For Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment, James Phillips

Doctoral Dissertations

The focus of this research is to model and provide a simulation framework for the packing of differently sized spheres within a hard boundary. The novel contributions of this dissertation are the cylinders of influence (COI) method and sectoring method implementations. The impetus for this research stems from modeling electrokinetic nanoparticle (EN) treatment, which packs concrete pores with differently sized nanoparticles. We show an improved speed of the simulation compared to previously published results of EN treatment simulation while obtaining similar porosity reduction results. We mainly focused on readily, commercially available particle sizes of 2 nm and 20 nm particles ...


Surface Morphology Of Platelet Adhesion Influenced By Activators, Inhibitors And Shear Stress, Melanie Groan Watson Oct 2010

Surface Morphology Of Platelet Adhesion Influenced By Activators, Inhibitors And Shear Stress, Melanie Groan Watson

Doctoral Dissertations

Platelet activation involves multiple events, one of which is the generation and release of nitric oxide (NO), a platelet aggregation inhibitor. Platelets simultaneously send and receive various agents that promote a positive and negative feedback control system during hemostasis. Although the purpose of platelet-derived NO is not fully understood, NO is known to inhibit platelet recruitment. NO's relatively large diffusion coefficient allows it to diffuse more rapidly than platelet agonists. It may thus be able to inhibit recruitment of platelets near the periphery of a growing thrombus before agonists have substantially accumulated in those regions.

Results from two studies ...


Halloysite Clay Nanotubes For Controlled Delivery Of Chemically Active Agents, Elshard Abdullayev Oct 2010

Halloysite Clay Nanotubes For Controlled Delivery Of Chemically Active Agents, Elshard Abdullayev

Doctoral Dissertations

In this work we explored the capabilities of halloysite nanotubes as capsules for encapsulation and controlled delivery of the chemically and biologically active substances. Halloysite is a two-layered aluminosilicate which has a predominantly hollow tubular structure in the submicron range and is chemically similar to kaolinite [1, 2].

In the first section of this work, we analyzed the structure of the halloysite nanotubes as well as its capability to encapsulate and deliver biologically and chemically active agents, similarities and differences between release characteristics of different agents and how these differences relate with their chemical structure. Models were used to describe ...


An Improved Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembly Technique To Generate Biointerfaces For Platelet Adhesion Studies: Dynamic Lbl, Juan Manuel Lopez Oct 2010

An Improved Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembly Technique To Generate Biointerfaces For Platelet Adhesion Studies: Dynamic Lbl, Juan Manuel Lopez

Doctoral Dissertations

Layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL) is a technique that generates engineered nano-scale films, coatings, and particles. These nanoscale films have recently been used in multiple biomedical applications. Concurrently, microfabrication methods and advances in microfluidics are being developed and combined to create "Lab-on-a-Chip" technologies. The potential to perform complex biological assays in vitro as a first-line screening technique before moving on to animal models has made the concept of lab on a chip a valuable research tool.

Prior studies in the Biofluids Laboratory at Louisiana Tech have used layer-by-layer and in vitro biological assays to study thrombogenesis in a controlled, repeatable, engineered environment ...


Analysis Of Conjugated Polymer Nanotubules Formed By Template Wetting Nanofabrication, Steven D. Bearden Jr. Apr 2010

Analysis Of Conjugated Polymer Nanotubules Formed By Template Wetting Nanofabrication, Steven D. Bearden Jr.

Doctoral Dissertations

Semiconducting and optoelectric conjugated polymers have potential in micro and nano-electronic applications. Their widely tunable physical conformations and orientations make these polymers ideal material for engineering small scale devices. The polymers have been incorporated into several electronic devices including light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and field-effect transistors. Widespread adoption of these materials will not be a reality until the issues of poor device performance, short lifespans, and device degradation are resolved.

Nanostructures have been demonstrated to have improvements in molecular ordering and electronic transport. In the work presented here, tubular nanostructures of conjugated polymers fabricated by the template wetting nanofabrication process ...


Multicomponent Patterning Of Nanocomposite Polymer And Nanoparticle Films Using Photolithography And Layer-By-Layer Self -Assembly, Javeed Shaikh Mohammed Apr 2006

Multicomponent Patterning Of Nanocomposite Polymer And Nanoparticle Films Using Photolithography And Layer-By-Layer Self -Assembly, Javeed Shaikh Mohammed

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, the fabrication, characterization, and application examples of 3D multicomponent nanocomposite micropatterns (MNMs) with precise spatial arrangements are described. The ability to produce such small-scale 3D structures with versatility in composition and structure is a new development based on the integration of nanoscale layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly and microscale photolithographic patterning, enabling construction of surfaces with microscale patterns that possess nanotopographies. The techniques used here are analogous to surface micromachining, except that the deposition materials are polymers, biological materials, and colloidal nanoparticles used to produce 3D MNMs. A key feature of the resulting 3D MNMs is that the physical ...