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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Lab-On-A-Chip Nucleic-Acid Analysis Towards Point-Of-Care Applications, Varun Lingaiah Kopparthy Oct 2016

Lab-On-A-Chip Nucleic-Acid Analysis Towards Point-Of-Care Applications, Varun Lingaiah Kopparthy

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent infectious disease outbreaks, such as Ebola in 2013, highlight the need for fast and accurate diagnostic tools to combat the global spread of the disease. Detection and identification of the disease-causing viruses and bacteria at the genetic level is required for accurate diagnosis of the disease. Nucleic acid analysis systems have shown promise in identifying diseases such as HIV, anthrax, and Ebola in the past. Conventional nucleic acid analysis systems are still time consuming, and are not suitable for point-ofcare applications. Miniaturized nucleic acid systems has shown great promise for rapid analysis, but they have not been commercialized due ...


Generalized Partial Directed Coherence And Centrality Measures In Brain Networks For Epileptogenic Focus Localization, Joshua Aaron Adkinson Oct 2016

Generalized Partial Directed Coherence And Centrality Measures In Brain Networks For Epileptogenic Focus Localization, Joshua Aaron Adkinson

Doctoral Dissertations

Accurate epileptogenic focus localization is required prior to surgical resection of brain tissue for treatment of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy, a clinical need that is partially fulfilled to date through a subjective, and at times inconclusive, evaluation of the recorded electroencephalogram (EEG). Using brain connectivity analysis, patterns of causal interactions between brain regions were derived from multichannel EEG of 127 seizures in nine patients with focal, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The statistically significant directed interactions in the reconstructed brain networks were estimated from three second intracranial multi-electrode EEG segments using the Generalized Partial Directed Coherence (GPDC) and validated ...


Potential Applications For Halloysite Nanotubes Based Drug Delivery Systems, Lin Sun Oct 2016

Potential Applications For Halloysite Nanotubes Based Drug Delivery Systems, Lin Sun

Doctoral Dissertations

Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a drug in the body. The purpose is to enhance the drug efficacy and to reduce side reactions, which can significantly improve treatment outcomes. Halloysite is a naturally occurred alumino-silicate clay with a tubular structure. It is a biocompatible material with a big surface area which can be used for attachment of targeted molecules. Besides, loaded molecules can present a sustained release manner in solution. These properties make halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) a good option for drug delivery.

In this study, a drug delivery system was built based on halloysite ...


Nano Clay-Enhanced Calcium Phosphate Cements And Hydrogels For Biomedical Applications, Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka Jul 2016

Nano Clay-Enhanced Calcium Phosphate Cements And Hydrogels For Biomedical Applications, Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka

Doctoral Dissertations

Biomaterials are used as templates for drug delivery, scaffolds in tissue engineering, grafts in surgeries, and support for tissue regeneration. Novel biomaterial composites are needed to meet multifaceted requirements of compatibility, ease of fabrication and controlled drug delivery. Currently used biomaterials in orthopedics surgeries suffer limitations in toxicity and preventing infections. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) used as bone cement suffers from limitations of thermal necrosis and monomer toxicity calls for development of better cementing biomaterials. A biodegradable/bioresorbable cement with good mechanical properties is needed to address this short coming. Metal implants used in fixing fractures or total joint replacement needs ...


Three-Dimensional Printing And Nanotechnology For Enhanced Implantable Materials, Karthik Kumar Tappa Jul 2016

Three-Dimensional Printing And Nanotechnology For Enhanced Implantable Materials, Karthik Kumar Tappa

Doctoral Dissertations

Orthopedic and oro-maxillofacial implants have revolutionized treatment of bone diseases and fractures. Currently available metallic implants have been in clinical use for more than 40 years and have proved medically efficacious. However, several drawbacks remain, such as excessive stiffness, accumulation of metal ions in surrounding tissue, growth restriction, required removal/revision surgery, inability to carry drugs, and susceptibility to infection. The need for additional revision surgery increases financial costs and prolongs recovery time for patients. These metallic implants are bulk manufactured and often do not meet patient's requirements. A surgeon must machine (cut, weld, trim or drill holes) them ...


Studies On The Electrical Transport Properties Of Carbon Nanotube Composites, Taylor Warren Tarlton Jul 2016

Studies On The Electrical Transport Properties Of Carbon Nanotube Composites, Taylor Warren Tarlton

Doctoral Dissertations

This work presents a probabilistic approach to model the electrical transport properties of carbon nanotube composite materials. A pseudo-random generation method is presented with the ability to generate 3-D samples with a variety of different configurations. Periodic boundary conditions are employed in the directions perpendicular to transport to minimize edge effects. Simulations produce values for drift velocity, carrier mobility, and conductivity in samples that account for geometrical features resembling those found in the lab. All results show an excellent agreement to the well-known power law characteristic of percolation processes, which is used to compare across simulations. The effect of sample ...


Clay Nanotube Composites For Antibacterial Nanostructured Coatings, Christen J. Boyer Apr 2016

Clay Nanotube Composites For Antibacterial Nanostructured Coatings, Christen J. Boyer

Doctoral Dissertations

A surging demand for the development of new antimicrobial nanomaterials exists due to the frequency of medical device-associated infections and the transfer of pathogens from highly touched objects. Naturally occurring halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) have shown to be ideal particles for polymer reinforcement, time-release drug delivery, nano-reactor synthesis, and as substrate material for nanostructured coatings.

This research demonstrates the feasibility of a novel method for coating HNTs with metals for antibacterial applications. The first ever ability to coat HNTs through electrolysis was developed for customizable and multi-functional antibacterial nanoparticle platforms. HNTs were investigated as substrate for the deposition of copper ...


Tunable Controlled Release Of Molecular Species From Halloysite Nanotubes, Divya Narayan Elumalai Apr 2016

Tunable Controlled Release Of Molecular Species From Halloysite Nanotubes, Divya Narayan Elumalai

Doctoral Dissertations

Encouraged by potential applications in rust coatings, self-healing composites, selective delivery of drugs, and catalysis, the transport of molecular species through Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), specifically the storage and controlled release of these molecules, has attracted strong interest in recent years. HNTs are a naturally occurring biocompatible nanomaterial that are abundantly and readily available. They are alumosilicate based tubular clay nanotubes with an inner lumen of 15 nm and a length of 600-900 nm. The size of the inner lumen of HNTs may be adjusted by etching. The lumen can be loaded with functional agents like antioxidants, anticorrosion agents, flame-retardant agents ...


Enhanced Bioactive Scaffolds For Bone Tissue Regeneration, Sonali Karnik Apr 2016

Enhanced Bioactive Scaffolds For Bone Tissue Regeneration, Sonali Karnik

Doctoral Dissertations

Bone injuries are commonly termed as fractures and they vary in their severity and causes. If the fracture is severe and there is loss of bone, implant surgery is prescribed. The response to the implant depends on the patient's physiology and implant material. Sometimes, the compromised physiology and undesired implant reactions lead to post-surgical complications. [4, 5, 20, 28] Efforts have been directed towards the development of efficient implant materials to tackle the problem of post-surgical implant failure. [ 15, 19, 24, 28, 32]

The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine involves the use of cells to form a ...


Immobilization Of Cellulase For Large Scale Reactors To Reduce Cellulosic Ethanol Cost, Dezhi Zhang Apr 2016

Immobilization Of Cellulase For Large Scale Reactors To Reduce Cellulosic Ethanol Cost, Dezhi Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

Cellulosic ethanol is an alternative renewable energy source. Cellulase used in the production of cellulosic ethanol is very expensive. The difficulty in separating cellulase from the cellulose solution after the hydrolysis process limits the reusability of the cellulase, which highly precludes the scales of this application because of the high cost of the enzyme. Immobilization of cellulase provides a promising approach to allow the enzyme to be recycled, thus reducing the production cost. This research focused on immobilizing cellulase for reuse to reduce the cellulosic ethanol cost.

Four immobilization techniques were explored for the immobilization of cellulase on four different ...


Energy Harvesting Using Photovoltaic And Betavoltaic Devices, Ashish Sharma Apr 2016

Energy Harvesting Using Photovoltaic And Betavoltaic Devices, Ashish Sharma

Doctoral Dissertations

There is an important need for improvement in both cost and efficiency of photovoltaic cells. For improved efficiency, a better understanding of solar cell performance is required. An analytical model of thin-film silicon solar cell, which can provide an intuitive understanding of the effect of illumination on its charge carriers and electric current, is proposed. The separate cases of homogeneous and inhomogeneous charge carrier generation rates across the device are investigated. This model also provides for the study of the charge carrier transport within the quasi-neutral and depletion regions of the device, which is of an importance for thin-film solar ...


Manufacturing Polyacrylonitrile Nanowires And Nanofibers For Sensing And Energy Storage Applications, Juan Chen Apr 2016

Manufacturing Polyacrylonitrile Nanowires And Nanofibers For Sensing And Energy Storage Applications, Juan Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

A novel flow guided assembly approach is presented to well align and accurately position nanowire arrays in pre-defined locations with high throughput and large scale manufacturing capability. In this approach, polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution is first filled in an array of microfluidic channels. Then a gas flow is introduced to blow out most solutions while pushing a little leftover against the channel wall to assemble into polymer nanowires. In this way, highly-ordered nanowires are conveniently aligned in the flow direction and patterned along both sides of the microchannels. In this study, we demonstrated this flow-guided assembly process by ...


Size Specific Transfection To Mammalian Cells By Micropillar Array Electroporation, Yingbo Zu Jan 2016

Size Specific Transfection To Mammalian Cells By Micropillar Array Electroporation, Yingbo Zu

Doctoral Dissertations

Electroporation serves as a promising non-viral gene delivery approach, while its current configurations carry drawbacks associated with high-voltage electrical pulses and heterogeneous treatment on individual cells. Here, we developed a new micropillar array electroporation (MAE) platform to advance the delivery of plasmid DNA and RNA to mammalian cells. By introducing well-patterned micropillar array on the electrode surface, the number of pillars each cell faces varies with its cell membrane surface area, despite their large population and random locations. In this way, cell size specific electroporation is conveniently done and contributed to a 2.5~3 fold increase on plasmid DNA ...


Impedance Characterization Of Ysz Based Nox Sensors, Ling Cui Jan 2016

Impedance Characterization Of Ysz Based Nox Sensors, Ling Cui

Doctoral Dissertations

Yttria-stabilized zirconia has been utilized as an electrolyte of SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) studies for years. It is also preferred as the electrolyte for solid state electrochemical sensor which is able to measure nitrogen oxides in the exhaust system. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy method yields the change in impedance which is caused by an electron exchange of NO x gases at the sensing electrodes. From the EIS data, the fractional change in the phase angle is calculated for detecting sensor sensitivity.

Considering the fabrication of a sensor, several variables have been investigated which include the choice of electrolyte processing, sensing ...