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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Non-Covalent Functionalization Of Graphene Films For Uniform Nanoparticle Deposition Via Atoic Layer Deposition, Ty Seiwert May 2018

Non-Covalent Functionalization Of Graphene Films For Uniform Nanoparticle Deposition Via Atoic Layer Deposition, Ty Seiwert

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Graphene functionalized with platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) has proven to be highly effective as a hydrogen sensor. Deposition methods such as Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be further enhanced by pretreating the graphene with a non-covalent surfactant prior to nanoparticle deposition. In this study, graphene-based sensing devices will be fabricated by ALD deposition. The graphene will be non-covalently functionalized using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic surfactant prior to ALD deposition. The aim of this study is to test the deposition pattern achieved by varying the amount of time that graphene is treated with the SDS surfactant. Initially, ALD deposition ...


Novel Solar Cells Based On Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials And Recycled Lead Components, Xiaoru Guo May 2018

Novel Solar Cells Based On Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials And Recycled Lead Components, Xiaoru Guo

Theses and Dissertations

To meet the rapidly growing demand for energy and reduce the use of dwindling fossil fuels, the efficient utilization of renewable energy is a constant pursuit globally. Because solar cells convert vastly available sunlight into electricity, developing high-performance and low-cost solar cells is a top strategy for future energy supply. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are the most promising choices. In the meantime, highly concentrated sulfuric acids from retired lead-acid batteries become an environmental concern, and lead contamination in drinking water raises concerns in general public. This study addresses both above-mentioned problems by using two-dimensional (2D ...


Synergistic Interactions Of H2 And N2 With Molten Gallium In The Presence Of Plasma, Maria L. Carreon, Daniel F. Jaramillo-Cabanzo, Indira Chaudhuri, Madhu Menon, Mahendra K. Sunkara Dec 2017

Synergistic Interactions Of H2 And N2 With Molten Gallium In The Presence Of Plasma, Maria L. Carreon, Daniel F. Jaramillo-Cabanzo, Indira Chaudhuri, Madhu Menon, Mahendra K. Sunkara

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

The present study examines the interaction of hydrogen and nitrogen plasmas with gallium in an effort to gain insights into the mechanisms behind the synergetic effect of plasma and a catalytic metal. Absorption/desorption experiments were performed, accompanied by theoretical-computational calculations. Experiments were carried out in a plasma-enhanced, Ga-packed, batch reactor and entailed monitoring the change in pressure at different temperatures. The results indicated a rapid adsorption/dissolution of the gas into the molten metal when gallium was exposed to plasma, even at a low temperature of 100 °C. The experimental observations, when hydrogen was used, indicate that gallium acts ...


Novel Design And Synthesis Of Transition Metal Hydroxides And Oxides For Energy Storage Device Applications, Peifeng Li Jan 2016

Novel Design And Synthesis Of Transition Metal Hydroxides And Oxides For Energy Storage Device Applications, Peifeng Li

Wayne State University Theses

Supercapacitors (SCs) and Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are two types of important electrical energy storage devices with high power density and high energy density respectively. However, to satisfy the increasing demand of high-performance energy storage devices, the energy density of SCs and power/energy densities of LIBs have to be further improved. The exploration, research, and development of electrode materials with high-performance for applications in SCs and LIBs are still needed to meet the ever-increasing demand on energy and power densities. Herein, the amorphous Ni-Co-Mo ternary hydroxides nanoflakes for SCs and oxides nanoflakes for LIBs with ultrathin stature, abundant open spaces ...


New Approaches To Chalcogenide Materials For Thermoelectrics: Lead Telluride-Based Nanostructures And Facile Synthesis Of Tetrahedrite And Doped Derivatives, Derak Justin James Jan 2016

New Approaches To Chalcogenide Materials For Thermoelectrics: Lead Telluride-Based Nanostructures And Facile Synthesis Of Tetrahedrite And Doped Derivatives, Derak Justin James

Wayne State University Dissertations

The overall purpose of this work is to address several of the roadblocks to use of thermoelectric materials for generation of electricity, namely inefficient processing of materials and low performance, commonly rated by the figure of merit, ZT=T2/tot. The ZT includes  as the Seebeck coefficient,  as electrical resistivity, T as the average temperature, and tot as total thermal conductivity. tot is the sum of electronic charge carrier (C) and lattice (L) contributions to thermal conductivity. Attempts to increase ZT in the literature to values >1 have focused on decreasing the thermal conductivity via nanostructuring or optimizing the ...


Novel Design And Synthesis Of Structured Iron Oxides For Battery Applications, Jian Zhu Jan 2016

Novel Design And Synthesis Of Structured Iron Oxides For Battery Applications, Jian Zhu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are currently the dominant powder source for personal computers and portable electronics. LIBs also play important roles in larger-scale applications, including electric drive vehicles (EVs, HEVs) and grid-energy storage. To meet the increasing demand for energy storage, it is very urgent and crucial to develop next-generation LIBs using alternative electrode materials. For example, carbon is still exclusively used as anode materials in current LIBs. However, the theoretical capacity of graphite (372 mA h g–1 based on LiC6) has almost been achieved, and it becomes one of the bottlenecks to further increase the energy density of LIBs ...


Synthesis Of Palladium And Palladium-Copper Nanostructures As Electrocatalysts, Haibin Wu Jul 2015

Synthesis Of Palladium And Palladium-Copper Nanostructures As Electrocatalysts, Haibin Wu

Theses and Dissertations

Pd and its alloys are alternatives of Pt as promising catalysts and electrocatalysts for many reactions. Size controlled synthesis of nanoparticles remains a major research subject, since smaller size particles show better catalytic performance. In this work, we developed a modified chemical wet method to prepare Pd and Pd-Cu nanostructures with uniform small size. Different sizes and shapes of Pd nanostructures were successfully synthesized by using the two reducing agents (i.e., L-ascorbyl-6-palmitate or phenylphosphinic acid). The reducing agents play a role to control the final morphologies and sizes of particles. The use of L-ascorbyl-6-palmitate favors to form irregular branch ...


Solar Cell Temperature Dependent Efficiency And Very High Temperature Efficiency Limits, John Robert Wilcox Oct 2013

Solar Cell Temperature Dependent Efficiency And Very High Temperature Efficiency Limits, John Robert Wilcox

Open Access Dissertations

Clean renewable solar energy is and will continue to be a critically important source of electrical energy. Solar energy has the potential of meeting all of the world's energy needs, and has seen substantial growth in recent years. Solar cells can convert sun light directly into electrical energy, and much progress has been made in making them less expensive and more efficient. Solar cells are often characterized and modeled at 25 °C, which is significantly lower than their peak operating temperature. In some thermal concentrating systems, solar cells operate above 300 °C. Since increasing the temperature drastically affects the ...


Accurate Prediction Of Spectral Phonon Relaxation Time And Thermal Conductivity Of Intrinsic And Perturbed Materials, Tianli Feng Jan 2013

Accurate Prediction Of Spectral Phonon Relaxation Time And Thermal Conductivity Of Intrinsic And Perturbed Materials, Tianli Feng

Open Access Theses

The prediction of spectral phonon relaxation time, mean-free-path, and thermal conductivity can provide significant insights into the thermal conductivity of bulk and nanomaterials, which are important for thermal management and thermoelectric applications. We perform frequency-domain normal mode analysis (NMA) on pure bulk argon and pure bulk germanium. Spectral phonon properties, including the phonon dispersion, relaxation time, mean free path, and thermal conductivity of argon and germanium at different temperatures have been calculated. We find the dependence of phonon relaxation time τ on frequency ω and temperature T vary from ~ω-1.3 to ~ω-1.8 and ~T-0.8 ...


Application And Characterization Of Self-Assembled Monolayers In Hybrid Electronic Systems, Michael Enoch Celesin Jan 2013

Application And Characterization Of Self-Assembled Monolayers In Hybrid Electronic Systems, Michael Enoch Celesin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this study, we explore ultra-thin insulators of organic and inorganic composition and their potential role as high-speed rectifiers. Typical applications for these structures include IR sensing, chemical detection, high speed logic circuits, and MEMS enhancements. While there are many elements in the functional group required to create a rectifying antenna (rectenna), the primary thrust of this work is on the rectifier element itself.

To achieve these research goals, a very good understanding of quantum tunneling was required to model the underlying phenomenon of charge conduction. The development of a multi-variable optimization routine for tunneling prediction was required. MATLAB was ...


Templated Synthesis Of Nickel Nanoparticles: Toward Heterostructured Nanocomposites For Efficient Hydrogen Storage, Nicholas Nelson Jan 2013

Templated Synthesis Of Nickel Nanoparticles: Toward Heterostructured Nanocomposites For Efficient Hydrogen Storage, Nicholas Nelson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The world is currently facing an energy and environmental crisis for which new technologies are needed. Development of cost-competitive materials for catalysis and hydrogen storage on-board motor vehicles is crucial to lead subsequent generations into a more sustainable and energy independent future. This thesis presents work toward the scalable synthesis of bimetallic heterostructures that can enable hydrogen to compete with carbonaceous fuels by meeting the necessary gravimetric and volumetric energy densities and by enhancing hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics near ambient temperatures and pressures. Utilizing the well-known phenomenon of hydrogen spillover, these bimetallic heterostructures could work by lowering the activation energy ...


Approaches To Mitigate Metal Catalyst Deactivation In Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Fuel Electrodes, Lawrence Adijanto Jan 2013

Approaches To Mitigate Metal Catalyst Deactivation In Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Fuel Electrodes, Lawrence Adijanto

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

While Ni/YSZ cermets have been used successfully in SOFCs, they also have several limitations, thus motivating the use of highly conductive ceramics to replace the Ni components in SOFC anodes. Ceramic electrodes are promising for use in SOFC anodes because they are expected to be less susceptible to sintering and coking, be redox stable, and be more tolerant of impurities like sulfur. In this thesis, for catalytic studies, the infiltration procedure has been used to form composites which have greatly simplified the search for the best ceramics for anode applications.

In the development of ceramic fuel electrodes for SOFC ...


Microscopic And Spectroscopic Analysis Of Wo3 And Ti-Doped Wo3 Thin Films, Young Taek Yun Jan 2012

Microscopic And Spectroscopic Analysis Of Wo3 And Ti-Doped Wo3 Thin Films, Young Taek Yun

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Tungsten oxide (WO3) has been a subject of high interest for its unique properties, and recently for its importance in different types of industrial applications which ranges from non-emissive displays, optical, microelectronic, catalytic/photocatalytic, humidity, temperature, gas, and biosensor devices. In this study, WO3 and Ti doped thin films were prepared using radio frequency magnetron reactive sputtering at different substrate temperatures ranging from room temperature to 500 ºC in increments of 100 ºC. After forming a hypothesis based on knowledge of established WO3 properties, we attempt in this work to investigate how the doping influences the roughness and the mean ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Nanocomposites For Electrochemical Capacitors, Farah Alvi Jan 2012

Synthesis And Characterization Of Nanocomposites For Electrochemical Capacitors, Farah Alvi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Presently there are deep concerns over the environmental consequences and the consumption of non-renewable energy sources, with the accelerated greenhouse effect, triggered enormous interest in the use of renewable energy sources e.g., solar, hydropower, wind and geothermal. However the intermittent nature of harvesting renewable energy sources has recently gained considerable attention in the alternative reliable, cost effective, and environmentally friendly energy storage devices. The supercapacitor and lithium ion batteries are considered more efficient electrical energy storage devices than conventional energy storage systems.

Both devices have many useful and important applications; they could be an excellent source for high power ...


Development Of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials For Renewable Energy, S.M. Sarif Masud Jan 2010

Development Of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials For Renewable Energy, S.M. Sarif Masud

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Several new wide band gap semiconductor nanocomposite photocatalytic materials have been synthesized from HTiNbO5 and HNb3O8 for solar energy conversion. As a source of renewable energy, the materials are being tested to produce hydrogen fuel from water via photolysis. The materials have high surface areas, are macroporous, and have flatband potentials suitable for reducing water to create hydrogen. Under visible or ultra violet light, the materials were found to be very promising as hydrogen evolving photocatalysts. As part of the synthesis of the composites, the catalysts also exhibited excellent catalytic activity under UV light for reducing ionic platinum and gold ...


Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das Jan 2008

Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced transmutation systems require structural materials that are able to withstand high neutron fluxes, high thermal cycling, and high resistance to chemical corrosion. The current candidate materials for such structures are ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels due to their strong resistance to swelling, good microstructural stability under irradiation, and the retention of adequate ductility at typical reactor operating temperatures.

In parallel, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) has emerged as a potential spallation target material for efficient production of neutrons, as well as a coolant in the accelerator system. While LBE has excellent properties as a nuclear coolant, it is also highly corrosive to ...


Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das Jan 2007

Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced transmutation systems require structural materials that are able to withstand high neutron fluxes, high thermal cycling, and high resistance to chemical corrosion. The current candidate materials for such structures are ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels due to their strong resistance to swelling, good microstructural stability under irradiation, and the retention of adequate ductility at typical reactor operating temperatures.

In parallel, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) has emerged as a potential spallation target material for efficient production of neutrons, as well as a coolant in the accelerator system. While LBE has excellent properties as a nuclear coolant, it is also highly corrosive to ...


Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance: Quarterly Report (April 2006), Biswajit Das Jan 2006

Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance: Quarterly Report (April 2006), Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

As reported in the last quarterly report, synthesis of Cr nanowires was found to be problematic in terms of uniform coverage. Hence Ni was identified as the alternative metal to form the nanowires. The purpose of the metal nanowires is to provide structural integrity to the nanoporous alumina, as well as a second defense mechanism against corrosion by oxidizing in case the top alumina layer is compromised. Nickel was selected due to its established electrochemical synthesis procedure. While Ni can provide very good structural integrity to the porous alumina, one potential problem is its higher dissolution rate in LBE. However ...


Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das Jan 2006

Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced transmutation systems require structural materials that are able to withstand high neutron fluxes, high thermal cycling, and high resistance to chemical corrosion. The current candidate materials for such structures are ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels due to their strong resistance to swelling, good microstructural stability under irradiation, and the retention of adequate ductility at typical reactor operating temperatures.

In parallel, lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) has emerged as a potential spallation target material for efficient production of neutrons, as well as a coolant in the accelerator system. While LBE has excellent properties as a nuclear coolant, it is also highly corrosive ...


Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance, Biswajit Das Jan 2005

Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

In the last quarter, a specialized sample holder was developed for the anodization of alumina on steel. In addition, it was determined that oxalic acid was the most appropriate acid for the anodization of these structures. The steel samples obtained from LANL were first cut into a number of pieces, each measuring 11mm x 8mm x 1.6mm, to allow multiple experiments. Special care was taken to ensure that the cutting process did not damage the samples. After investigation of several techniques, including laser cutting, the samples were cut using EDM wires. The cut steel pieces did not show any ...


Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance: Quaterly Report, Biswajit Das Jan 2005

Corrosion Barrier Development For Lbe Corrosion Resistance: Quaterly Report, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

With the demonstration of formation of nanoporous alumina on steel and its good adhesion to substrate under thermal cycling, the next project task was to synthesize Chromium nanowires inside the alumina pores. During the previous quarter, a specialized sample holder was developed towards this goal. Various techniques for the deposition of Chromium were investigated and electro-deposition was determined to be the most suitable approach due to the large aspect ratio of the pores. A challenge in using electro-deposition for porous alumina is the potential sealing of the pores in aqueous solutions at higher temperatures. To avoid this problem, a search ...


Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das Jan 2005

Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Advanced transmutation systems require structural materials that are able to withstand high neutron fluxes, high thermal cycling, and high resistance to chemical corrosion. The current candidate materials for such structures are ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels due to their strong resistance to swelling, good microstructural stability under irradiation, and the retention of adequate ductility at typical reactor operating temperatures.

In parallel, lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) has emerged as a potential spallation target material for efficient production of neutrons, as well as a coolant in the accelerator system. While LBE has excellent properties as a nuclear coolant, it is also highly corrosive ...


Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das May 2004

Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The objective of this project is to develop a novel nanostructure based coating technology that will provide significantly improved corrosion resistance for steel in LBE at elevated temperatures (500 - 600oC), as well as provide long-term reliability under thermal cycling. The nanostructure based coatings will consist of a layer of nanoporous alumina with the pores filled with an oxidizing metal such as Cr, followed by a capping layer of alumina. Alumina, which is a robust anti-corrosion material, provides corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. The Cr serves two purposes: (1) it acts as a solid filler material for the pores ...


Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications: Quaterly Report, Biswajit Das Jan 2004

Development Of Nanostructure Based Corrosion-Barrier Coatings On Steel For Transmutation Applications: Quaterly Report, Biswajit Das

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

During the past quarter, this project employed one graduate student and two undergraduate student researchers and made the following accomplishments :

• Acquisition of steel samples for experiments

• Design and fabrication of specialized anodization apparatus to accommodate steel samples

• Investigation of adhesiveness of aluminum on steel

• Investigation of effects of anodizing acids on steel to identify most appropriate acid and a suitable barrier material