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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Modal Phonon Transport Across Interfaces By Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulation, Yang Zhong, Tianli Feng, Xiulin Ruan Aug 2017

Modal Phonon Transport Across Interfaces By Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulation, Yang Zhong, Tianli Feng, Xiulin Ruan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Phonons represent the quantization of lattice vibration, responsible for heat transfer in semiconductors and dielectrics. Phonon heat conduction across interfaces is crucially important for the thermal management of real-life devices such as smartphones, electric vehicles, and satellites. Although recent studies have broadly investigated spectral phonon contribution to lattice thermal conductivity, the mechanism of phonon modal transport across interfaces is still not well-understood. Previous models, including the acoustic mismatch model (AMM) and diffuse mismatch model (DMM), only consider elastic process while neglecting inelastic phonon contributions. Herein, we employ spectral Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulation (NEMD) to probe the temperature and heat flux ...


Spectral Phonon Relaxation Time Calculation Tool Based On Molecular Dynamics, Divya Chalise, Tianli Feng, Xiulin Ruan Aug 2017

Spectral Phonon Relaxation Time Calculation Tool Based On Molecular Dynamics, Divya Chalise, Tianli Feng, Xiulin Ruan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Thermal conductivity is an important material property which affects the performance of a wide range of devices from thermoelectrics to nanoelectronics. Information about phonon vibration modes and phonon relaxation time gives significant insight into understanding and engineering material’s thermal conductivity. Although different theoretical models have been developed for studying phonon modes and relaxation time, extensive knowledge of lattice dynamics and molecular dynamics is required to compute phonon modal frequencies and relaxation times. Therefore, a computational tool which can take simple inputs to calculate phonon mode frequencies and relaxation time will be beneficial. Through this research work, such computational tool ...


Carbon Nanotube Thermal Interfaces And Related Applications, Stephen L. Hodson Dec 2016

Carbon Nanotube Thermal Interfaces And Related Applications, Stephen L. Hodson

Open Access Dissertations

The development of thermal interface materials (TIMs) is necessitated by the temperature drop across interfacing materials arising from macro and microscopic irregularities of their surfaces that constricts heat through small contact regions as well as mismatches in their thermal properties. Similar to other types of TIMs, CNT TIMs alleviate the thermal resistance across the interface by thermally bridging two materials together with cylindrical, high-aspect ratio, and nominally vertical conducting elements. Within the community of TIM engineers, the vision driving the development of CNT TIMs was born from measurements that revealed impressively high thermal conductivities of individual CNTs. This vision was ...


Experimentally Validated 3d Md Model For Afm-Based Tip-Based Nanomanufacturing, Rapeepan Promyoo Dec 2016

Experimentally Validated 3d Md Model For Afm-Based Tip-Based Nanomanufacturing, Rapeepan Promyoo

Open Access Dissertations

In order to control AFM-based TBN to produce precise nano-geometry efficiently, there is a need to conduct a more focused study of the effects of different parameters, such as feed, speed, and depth of cut on the process performance and outcome. This is achieved by experimentally validating a MD simulation model of nanomachining, and using it to conduct parametric studies to guide AFM-based TBN. A 3D MD model with a larger domain size was developed and used to gain a unique insight into the nanoindentation and nanoscratching processes such as the effect of tip speed (e.g. effect of tip ...


Optical Sub-Diffraction Limited Focusing For Confined Heating And Lithography, Luis M. Traverso Dec 2016

Optical Sub-Diffraction Limited Focusing For Confined Heating And Lithography, Luis M. Traverso

Open Access Dissertations

Electronics and nanotechnology is constantly demanding a decrease in size of fabricated nanoscale features. This decrease in size has become much more difficult recently due to the limited resolution of optical systems that are fundamental to many nanofabrication methods. A lot of effort has been made to fabricate devices smaller than the diffraction limit of light. Creating devices that are capable of confining fields by means of interference patterns of propagating wave modes and surface plasmon, has proven successful to confine light into smaller spot sizes.

Zone plate diffraction lenses generate spots with dimensions very close to the diffraction limit ...


Liquid Metal Particle Popping: Nanoscale To Macroscale, Trevor R. Lear Dec 2016

Liquid Metal Particle Popping: Nanoscale To Macroscale, Trevor R. Lear

Open Access Theses

Liquid metal nanoparticles can be used to produce stretchable electronic devices. Understanding the mechanical properties of liquid metal nanoparticles is crucial to optimizing their use in various applications, especially printing of flexible, stretchable electronics. Smaller nanoparticles are desired for high-resolution printing and compatibility with existing scalable manufacturing methods; however, they contain less liquid metal and are more difficult to rupture than larger particles, making them less desirable for post-processing functionality. This study investigates the mechanics of liquid metal particle rupture as a function of particle size. We employ compression of particle films to characterize the composition of the particle core ...


Influence Of Imperfections On Carbon Nanotube Properties, Marino Brcic, Marko Canadija, Josip Brnic Oct 2016

Influence Of Imperfections On Carbon Nanotube Properties, Marino Brcic, Marko Canadija, Josip Brnic

The 8th International Conference on Physical and Numerical Simulation of Materials Processing

No abstract provided.


Modeling Of A Roll-To-Roll Plasma Cvd System For Graphene, Yudong Chen, Majed A. Alrefae, Anurag Kumar, Timothy S. Fisher Aug 2016

Modeling Of A Roll-To-Roll Plasma Cvd System For Graphene, Yudong Chen, Majed A. Alrefae, Anurag Kumar, Timothy S. Fisher

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Graphene is a 2D carbon material that has extraordinary physical properties relevant to many industrial applications such as electronics, oxidation barrier and biosensors. Roll-to-roll plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been developed to manufacture graphene at large scale. In a plasma CVD chamber, graphene is grown on a copper foil as it passes through a high-temperature plasma region. The temperatures of the gas and the copper foil play important roles in the growth of graphene. Consequently, there is a need to understand the temperature and gas velocity distributions in the system. The heat generated in the plasma creates a thermal ...


Laser Direct Written Silicon Nanowires For Electronic And Sensing Applications, Woongsik Nam Aug 2016

Laser Direct Written Silicon Nanowires For Electronic And Sensing Applications, Woongsik Nam

Open Access Dissertations

Silicon nanowires are promising building blocks for high-performance electronics and chemical/biological sensing devices due to their ultra-small body and high surface-to-volume ratios. However, the lack of the ability to assemble and position nanowires in a highly controlled manner still remains an obstacle to fully exploiting the substantial potential of nanowires. Here we demonstrate a one-step method to synthesize intrinsic and doped silicon nanowires for device applications. Sub-diffraction limited nanowires as thin as 60 nm are synthesized using laser direct writing in combination with chemical vapor deposition, which has the advantages of in-situ doping, catalyst-free growth, and precise control of ...


Ultra-Thin Boron Nitride Films By Pulsed Laser Deposition: Plasma Diagnostics, Synthesis, And Device Transport, Nicholas Robert Glavin Apr 2016

Ultra-Thin Boron Nitride Films By Pulsed Laser Deposition: Plasma Diagnostics, Synthesis, And Device Transport, Nicholas Robert Glavin

Open Access Dissertations

This work describes, for the first time, a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique for growth of large area, stoichiometric ultra-thin hexagonal and amorphous boron nitride for next generation 2D material electronics. The growth of boron nitride, in this case, is driven by the high kinetic energies and chemical reactivities of the condensing species formed from physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes, which can facilitate growth over large areas and at reduced substrate temperatures. The use of optical emission spectroscopy during plasma growth provides insight into chemistry, kinetic energies, time of flight data, and spatial distributions within a PVD plasma plume ablated ...


3d Printing Nanostructured Thermoelectric Device, Qianru Jia, Collier Miers, Amy Marconnet Aug 2015

3d Printing Nanostructured Thermoelectric Device, Qianru Jia, Collier Miers, Amy Marconnet

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Thermoelectric materials convert thermal energy to electrical energy and vice versa. Thermoelectrics have attracted much attention and research efforts due to the possibility solving electronic cooling problems and reducing energy consumption through waste heat recovery. The efficiency of a thermoelectric material is determined by the dimensionless figure of merit ZT, which depends on both thermal and electrical properties. Researchers have worked for several decades to improve the ZT, but there had been little progress until nanomaterials and nanofabrication became widely available. Nanotechnology makes the ZT enhancement attainable by disconnecting the linkage between thermal and electrical transport. Printing customized, flexible thermoelectric ...


Fracture Mechanics-Based Simulation Of Pv Module Delamination, Dominic I. Jarecki, Johanna B. Palsdottir, Peter Bermel, Marisol Koslowski Aug 2015

Fracture Mechanics-Based Simulation Of Pv Module Delamination, Dominic I. Jarecki, Johanna B. Palsdottir, Peter Bermel, Marisol Koslowski

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Photovoltaic (PV) cells are rapidly growing as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas. However, greater adoption has also reduced government subsidies, placing the onus of making solar panels economically competitive on innovative research. While multiple methods have been considered for reducing costs, with each reduction in cost comes the associated peril of reduction in quality and useful lifetime. Several problems considered solved have now resurfaced as potential failure mechanisms with the introduction of cheaper PV cell technologies. However, to remain economically viable, PV modules will not only have to become cheaper, they will have ...


Development Of A Shape Memory Polymer Soft Microgripper, Marshall Tatro, David J. Cappelleri, Wuming Jing Aug 2015

Development Of A Shape Memory Polymer Soft Microgripper, Marshall Tatro, David J. Cappelleri, Wuming Jing

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The ability to control microrobots by means of magnetic fields has become of increasing interest to researchers. These robots’ ability to reach places tethered microrobots otherwise could not leads to many possible applications in the body, such as delivering drugs to targeted locations and performing biopsies. This study shows the use of shape memory polymer (SMP) to wirelessly actuate a microgripper to be used by a controllable microrobot to achieve these functions. Many smart materials were analyzed in order to find the material that most effectively would accomplish wirelessly gripping, manipulating, and releasing a microobject. Multiple microgripper designs were designed ...


Freezing-Induced Deformation Of Biomaterials In Cryomedicine, Altug Ozcelikkale Apr 2015

Freezing-Induced Deformation Of Biomaterials In Cryomedicine, Altug Ozcelikkale

Open Access Dissertations

Cryomedicine utilizes low temperature treatments of biological proteins, cells and tissues for cryopreservation, materials processing and cryotherapy. Lack of proper understanding of cryodamage that occurs during these applications remains to be the primary bottleneck for development of successful tissue cryopreservation and cryosurgery procedures. An engineering approach based on a view of biological systems as functional biomaterials can help identify, predict and control the primary cryodamage mechanisms by developing an understanding of underlying freezing-induced biophysical processes. In particular, freezing constitutes the main structural/mechanical origin of cryodamage and results in significant deformation of biomaterials at multiple length scales. Understanding of these ...


Modeling And Analysis Of A Resonant Nanosystem, Scott L. Calvert Apr 2015

Modeling And Analysis Of A Resonant Nanosystem, Scott L. Calvert

Open Access Theses

The majority of investigations into nanoelectromechanical resonators focus on a single area of the resonator's function. This focus varies from the development of a model for a beam's vibration, to the modeling of electrostatic forces, to a qualitative explanation of experimentally-obtained currents. Despite these efforts, there remains a gap between these works, and the level of sophistication needed to truly design nanoresonant systems for efficient commercial use. Towards this end, a comprehensive system model for both a nanobeam resonator and its related experimental setup is proposed. Furthermore, a simulation arrangement is suggested as a method for facilitating the ...


Granular Matter: Microstructural Evolution And Mechanical Response, Aashish Ghimire, Ishan Srivastava, Timothy S. Fisher Aug 2014

Granular Matter: Microstructural Evolution And Mechanical Response, Aashish Ghimire, Ishan Srivastava, Timothy S. Fisher

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Heterogeneous (nano) composites, manufactured by the densification of variously sized grains, represent an important and ubiquitous class of technologically relevant materials. Typical grain sizes in such materials range from macroscopic to a few nanometers. The morphology exhibited by such disordered materials is complex and intricately connected with its thermal and electrical transport properties. It is important to quantify the geometric features of these materials and simulate the fabrication process. Additionally, granular materials exhibit complex structural and mechanical properties that crucially govern their reliability during industrial use. In this work, we simulate the densification of soft deformable grains from a low-density ...


Thermal Properties Of Soft Nanomaterials: Thermal Measurement Design, Yu Han, Meng Pan, Amy Marconnet, Collier Miers Aug 2014

Thermal Properties Of Soft Nanomaterials: Thermal Measurement Design, Yu Han, Meng Pan, Amy Marconnet, Collier Miers

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Soft materials like hydrogels have multiple tunable material properties because of their unique structures. Due to the ability to respond to stimuli like temperature or chemical environment, they have numerous applications in different fields like delivering drugs inside the human body and other medical uses. Details of the thermal transport mechanisms, as well as the overall thermal properties, are critical for a variety of applications. Multi-property measurements elucidate the underlying transport mechanisms in the soft materials. This research demonstrates a new methodology of measuring thermal properties of soft materials. This work uses the 3w method [1,2] for measuring the ...


Thermal Properties Of Soft Nanomaterials: Materials Synthesis And Fabrication, Meng Pan, Collier Miers, Amy Marconnet, Yu Han Aug 2014

Thermal Properties Of Soft Nanomaterials: Materials Synthesis And Fabrication, Meng Pan, Collier Miers, Amy Marconnet, Yu Han

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The properties of soft nanomaterials are hard to measure exactly due to their mechanical properties and unstable shape. In particular, hydrogels are a class of cross-linked polymers that can absorb large quantities of water changing their shape under the influence of various conditions such as humidity, temperature, and pH. This research addresses the fabrication of a material that has a significant contrast in properties under different conditions (e.g. temperature, wetting, and pH) and determine the physical mechanisms of heat transfer in this nanomaterial. The hydrogels are made using a several cycles of a freeze-thaw method. The method requires soluble ...


Optical Direct-Write Nanolithography Based On Self-Assembled Resist, Meghana Akella Jul 2014

Optical Direct-Write Nanolithography Based On Self-Assembled Resist, Meghana Akella

Open Access Theses

Holographic display is being developed for next generation mobile phones. However, manufacturing of miniature gratings for the holographic projectors cost a few thousand dollars today, not making the concept practical for commercial purposes. In this thesis, we discuss the feasibility of self-assembled nanoparticles to manufacture holographic gratings cost-effectively and at the nanoscale. Using our approach, the gratings can be manufactured at the scale of 20nm and the cost per chip is expected to cost a few dollars.^ In this thesis, a hydrophobic SAM was used to modify the surface of silicon. Direct-write UV laser lithography was used for photothermal patterning ...


Particle Deposition On Superhydrophobic Surfaces By Sessile Droplet Evaporation, Mercy G. Dicuangco Apr 2014

Particle Deposition On Superhydrophobic Surfaces By Sessile Droplet Evaporation, Mercy G. Dicuangco

Open Access Theses

Prediction and active control of the spatial distribution of particulate deposits obtained from sessile droplet evaporation is essential in ink-jet printing, nanostructure assembly, biotechnology, and other applications that require localized deposits. In recent years, sessile droplet evaporation on bio-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces has become an attractive method for depositing materials on a site-specific, localized region, but is less explored compared to evaporative deposition on hydrophilic surfaces. It is therefore of interest to understand particle deposition during droplet evaporation on superhydrophobic surfaces to enable accurate prediction and tunable control of localized deposits on such surfaces. The purpose of the present work is ...


Thin Electrical Double Layer Simulation Of Micro-Electrochemical Supercapacitors, Kaitlyn Fisher, Guoping Xiong, Timothy S. Fisher Oct 2013

Thin Electrical Double Layer Simulation Of Micro-Electrochemical Supercapacitors, Kaitlyn Fisher, Guoping Xiong, Timothy S. Fisher

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The deteriorating state of the environment has drawn many people to hybrid electric vehicles. Electrochemical micro-supercapacitors are of interest in this field because of their high power density relative to other micro-power sources. However, little is known about how the properties of the electrolyte used affect the performance of such devices. The first step of this investigation was to use thermoreflectance microscopy to measure the temperature change of the electrodes while charging and discharging supercapacitor samples. The components of these samples were graphitic petal electrodes with a Ti/Au covering (for enhanced light reflectance) on a SiO2 base, with ...


Phase-Field Dislocation Dynamics Code Optimization, Jaime A. Perez, Marisol Koslowski Oct 2013

Phase-Field Dislocation Dynamics Code Optimization, Jaime A. Perez, Marisol Koslowski

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The importance of the study of nanocrystalline materials has gained a huge amount of attention these years due to its extraordinary mechanical, electrical and chemical properties. One significant way to progress in this field is by simulating the behavior of the particles in nano scale, which is not only a need but a challenge due to massive interactions that occur there. The phase-field dislocation dynamics (PFDD) method has been successfully employed in the modeling of plastic deformation, creep and grain boundary sliding. In PFDD, the plastic strain and the energy are functions of phase fields that obey a set of ...


Dna Based Carbon Nanotube Porphyrin Nanohybrids Molecular Recognization And Regeneration, Molly M. Riccitelli, Hanyu Zhang, Jong Hyun Choi Oct 2013

Dna Based Carbon Nanotube Porphyrin Nanohybrids Molecular Recognization And Regeneration, Molly M. Riccitelli, Hanyu Zhang, Jong Hyun Choi

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In the search to improve solar cells, scientists are exploring new materials that will provide better current transfer. One material that has emerged as a strong contender is the single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). Current DNA-SWNT based films combined with chromophores have poor operational lifetimes compared to commercial solar cells. Once exposed to light the chromophore begins to degrade, eventually rendering the solar cell unusable. To solve this problem, we used a method involving multiple steps. First we found which DNA sequences formed structures around the SWNT that could hold the most chromophores by using a spectrophotometer to test the ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Nucleic Acid-Functionalized Nanomaterials, Brianna S. Carroll, Jong Hyun Choi Oct 2013

Synthesis And Characterization Of Nucleic Acid-Functionalized Nanomaterials, Brianna S. Carroll, Jong Hyun Choi

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Motor proteins such as kinesin move along microtubules in order to transport cellular cargos throughout the cell by obtaining energy from RNA hydrolysis which allows the cell to complete the tasks needed to stay alive. In this work, we developed synthetic molecular motors using DNA enzymes (DNAzyme) and fluorescent nanomaterials which mimic the functions and structures of motor proteins. A DNAzyme-capped CdS nanoparticle and a RNA-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) were used as a walker and a track in the motor platform, respectively. As a walking mechanism, the DNAzyme cleaved the RNA substrates in the presence of metal cations. The ...


Graphene Decorated Substrates And Their Interfacial Characteristics, Anurag Kumar Oct 2013

Graphene Decorated Substrates And Their Interfacial Characteristics, Anurag Kumar

Open Access Dissertations

Carbon nanotubes and graphene have been extensively studied for their excellent properties. As research on carbon expands, two major issues face the scientific community: (i) Expanding the scale of synthesis and (ii) Integration of different carbon structures for improved functionality. While significant advancements have been made in large-scale synthesis, room for improvement remains. As the scale of production increases, issues such as time, cost and energy that may otherwise not be very significant, begin to play greater roles. Thus, in order to effectively transition from laboratory prototypes to industrial products, a synthesis method that can address these issues is strongly ...


Hybrid Opto-Electrokinetic Technique For Micro/Nanomanipulation: Towards Application Of A Novel Non-Invasive Manipulation Technique In Microbiological Assay, Jae-Sung Kwon Oct 2013

Hybrid Opto-Electrokinetic Technique For Micro/Nanomanipulation: Towards Application Of A Novel Non-Invasive Manipulation Technique In Microbiological Assay, Jae-Sung Kwon

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation explores various physical mechanisms of the Rapid Electrokinetic Patterning (REP) technique suggested for rapid and precise on-chip manipulation of colloids and fluids, and bio-compatibility of the technique for biological applications. REP is a hybrid opto-electrokinetic technique that is driven by the simultaneous application of an AC electric field and a heating source. It can not only effectively transport and manipulate a fluid but also concentrate and pattern particles suspended in the fluid through the combined effect of an electrohydrodynamic flow, electrostatic colloidal interactions and an electrothermal microfluidic flow. These capabilities make REP a promising tool which can provide ...


Strain Energy And Lateral Friction Force Distributions Of Carbon Nanotubes Manipulated Into Shapes By Atomic Force Microscopy, Mark C. Strus, Roya R. Lahiji, Pablo Ares, Vincente Lopez, Arvind Raman, Ron R. Reifenberger Aug 2009

Strain Energy And Lateral Friction Force Distributions Of Carbon Nanotubes Manipulated Into Shapes By Atomic Force Microscopy, Mark C. Strus, Roya R. Lahiji, Pablo Ares, Vincente Lopez, Arvind Raman, Ron R. Reifenberger

Other Nanotechnology Publications

The interplay between local mechanical strain energy and lateral frictional forces determines the shape of carbon nanotubes on substrates. In turn, because of its nanometer-size diameter, the shape of a carbon nanotube strongly influences its local electronic, chemical, and mechanical properties. Few, if any, methods exist for resolving the strain energy and static frictional forces along the length of a deformed nanotube supported on a substrate. We present a method using nonlinear elastic rod theory in which we compute the flexural strain energy and static frictional forces along the length of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) manipulated into various shapes ...


Interfacial Energy Between Carbon Nanotubes And Polymers Measured From Nanoscale Peel Tests In The Atomic Force Microscope, Mark C. Strus, Camilo I. Cano, R. Byron Pipes, Cattien V. Nguyen, Arvind Raman Mar 2009

Interfacial Energy Between Carbon Nanotubes And Polymers Measured From Nanoscale Peel Tests In The Atomic Force Microscope, Mark C. Strus, Camilo I. Cano, R. Byron Pipes, Cattien V. Nguyen, Arvind Raman

Other Nanotechnology Publications

The future development of polymer composite materials with nanotubes or nanoscale fibers requires the ability to understand and improve the interfacial bonding at the nanotube-polymer matrix interface. In recent work [Strus MC, Zalamea L, Raman A, Pipes RB, Nguyen CV, Stach EA. Peeling force spectroscopy: exposing the adhesive nanomechanics of one-dimensional nanostructures. Nano Lett 2008;8(2):544–50], it has been shown that a new mode in the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), peeling force spectroscopy, can be used to understand the adhesive mechanics of carbon nanotubes peeled from a surface. In the present work, we demonstrate how AFM peeling ...


Identification Of Multiple Oscillation States Of Carbon Nanotube Tipped Cantilevers Interacting With Surfaces In Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy, Mark Strus, Arvind Raman Jan 2009

Identification Of Multiple Oscillation States Of Carbon Nanotube Tipped Cantilevers Interacting With Surfaces In Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy, Mark Strus, Arvind Raman

Birck and NCN Publications

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have gained increased interest in dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) as sharp, flexible, conducting, nonreactive tips for high-resolution imaging, oxidation lithography, and electrostatic force microscopy. By means of theory and experiments we lay out a map of several distinct tapping mode AFM oscillation states for CNT tipped AFM cantilevers: namely, noncontact attractive regime oscillation, intermittent contact with CNT slipping or pinning, or permanent contact with the CNT in point or line contact with the surface while the cantilever oscillates with large amplitude. Each state represents fundamentally different origins of CNT-surface interactions, CNT tip-substrate dissipation, and phase contrast ...