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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Degradation Of Emerging Contaminants By Advanced Oxidation Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes And Continuous Ozone Injection, Emily N. Miller Jun 2019

Degradation Of Emerging Contaminants By Advanced Oxidation Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes And Continuous Ozone Injection, Emily N. Miller

Master's Theses and Project Reports

With a growing population and continuous accumulation of pollutants, water resources worldwide are quickly being depleted. Drastic improvements need to be made in both water conservation and treatment. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed to go above and beyond the capabilities of traditional wastewater treatment facilities to eliminate emerging contaminants from our water systems. AOPs increase the generation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) in oxidation reactions, which are less selective and more reactive than other oxidants, such as ozone, so they are more effective at degrading persistent compounds. This study explored an AOP that utilizes ozonated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs ...


Fabrication And Modification Of Titania Nanotube Arrays For Harvesting Solar Energy And Drug Delivery Applications, Ahmed El Ruby Abdel Rahman Mohamed Dec 2017

Fabrication And Modification Of Titania Nanotube Arrays For Harvesting Solar Energy And Drug Delivery Applications, Ahmed El Ruby Abdel Rahman Mohamed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The fast diminishing of fossil fuels in the near future, as well as the global warming caused by increasing greenhouse gases have motivated the urgent quest to develop advanced materials as cost-effective photoanodes for solar light harvesting and many other photocatalytic applications. Recently, titania nanotube arrays (TNTAs) fabricated by anodization process has attracted great interest due to their excellent properties such as: high surface area, vertically oriented, highly organized, one-dimensional, nanotubular structure, photoactivity, chemical stability and biocompatibility. This unique combination of excellent properties makes TNTAs an excellent photoanode for solar light harvesting. However, the relatively wide band gap energy of ...


Trihalomethane, Dihaloacetonitrile, And Total N-Nitrosamine Precursor Adsorption By Carbon Nanotubes: The Importance Of Surface Oxides And Pore Volume, Erin Needham May 2017

Trihalomethane, Dihaloacetonitrile, And Total N-Nitrosamine Precursor Adsorption By Carbon Nanotubes: The Importance Of Surface Oxides And Pore Volume, Erin Needham

Theses and Dissertations

As drinking water sources become increasingly impaired, enhanced removal of natural organic matter (NOM) may be required to curb formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) upon chlor(am)ination. While carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can adsorb NOM, their properties for DBP precursor adsorption have not been elucidated. Nine types of CNTs were assessed for trihalomethane (THM), dihaloacetonitrile (DHAN), and total N-nitrosamine (TONO) precursor adsorption. Batch isotherm experiments were completed with lake water and, to simulate an impaired condition, effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Adsorption varied with CNT type and dose, with TONO precursors having the highest percent removals from WWTP ...


Total N-Nitrosamine Precursor Adsorption With Carbon Nanotubes: Elucidating Controlling Physiochemical Properties And Developing A Size-Resolved Precursor Surrogate, Erin Needham May 2017

Total N-Nitrosamine Precursor Adsorption With Carbon Nanotubes: Elucidating Controlling Physiochemical Properties And Developing A Size-Resolved Precursor Surrogate, Erin Needham

Theses and Dissertations

As drinking water sources become increasingly impaired with nutrients and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) – such as trihalomethanes (THMs), dihaloacetonitriles (DHANs), and N-nitrosamines – during water treatment may also increase. N-nitrosamines may comprise the bulk of the chronic toxicity in treated drinking waters despite forming at low ng/L levels. This research seeks to elucidate physicochemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for removal of DBP precursors, with an emphasis on total N-nitrosamines (TONO).

Batch experiments with CNTs were completed to assess adsorption of THM, DHAN, and TONO precursors; physiochemical properties of CNTs were quantified through gas ...


Tunable Nanocomposite Membranes For Water Remediation And Separations, Sebastián Hernández Sierra Jan 2017

Tunable Nanocomposite Membranes For Water Remediation And Separations, Sebastián Hernández Sierra

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Nano-structured material fabrication using functionalized membranes with polyelectrolytes is a promising research field for water pollution, catalytic and mining applications. These responsive polymers react to external stimuli like temperature, pH, radiation, ionic strength or chemical composition. Such nanomaterials provide novel hybrid properties and can also be self-supported in addition to the membranes.

Polyelectrolytes (as hydrogels) have pH responsiveness. The hydrogel moieties gain or lose protons based on the pH, displaying swelling properties. These responsive materials can be exploited to synthesize metal nanoparticles in situ using their functional groups, or to immobilize other polyelectrolytes and biomolecules. Due to their properties, these ...


Hydraulic And Electrokinetic Delivery Of Remediants For In-Situ Remediation, Ahmed I. A. Chowdhury Sep 2016

Hydraulic And Electrokinetic Delivery Of Remediants For In-Situ Remediation, Ahmed I. A. Chowdhury

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) has shown promising mobility and in-situ reactivity with chlorinated volatile organic compounds when injected into saturated porous media. The current study evaluated nZVI mobility and subsequent reactivity with in-situ contaminants in a variably saturated porous media. The nZVI particles, synthesized onsite at subzero temperatures, demonstrated complete trichloroethene (TCE) degradation within the target area. Furthermore, a three dimensional finite difference model (CompSim) was utilized to investigate nZVI mobility in variably saturated zones. Model predicted well head data were in very good agreement with field observations. Simulation results showed that the injected slurry migrated radially outward from ...


The Experiment And Analysis Of Active Mechanisms For Enhancing Heat And Mass Transfer In Sorption Fluids, Ziqi Shen Jul 2016

The Experiment And Analysis Of Active Mechanisms For Enhancing Heat And Mass Transfer In Sorption Fluids, Ziqi Shen

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

This project was funded by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE RP-1462). It is a three years’ research, including the literature review, labs construction, experiments and data analysis.

In this thesis, first of all, we conducted literature review of mechanism motion influence on heat and mass transfer and additive effect in absorption chiller. This part helps us understand the basic idea of how mechanism motion affects the heat and mass transfer of sorption fluids and gives us reference on how to select the experiment instrument and the experiment operation range.

In the second part, the instrument selection ...


Protein-Targeted Corona Phase Molecular Recognition, Gili Bisker, Juyao Dong, Hoyoung D. Park, Nicole M. Iverson, Jiyoung Ahn, Justin T. Nelson, Markita P. Landry, Sebastian Kruss, Michael S. Strano Jan 2016

Protein-Targeted Corona Phase Molecular Recognition, Gili Bisker, Juyao Dong, Hoyoung D. Park, Nicole M. Iverson, Jiyoung Ahn, Justin T. Nelson, Markita P. Landry, Sebastian Kruss, Michael S. Strano

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Corona phase molecular recognition (CoPhMoRe) uses a heteropolymer adsorbed onto and templated by a nanoparticle surface to recognize a specific target analyte. This method has not yet been extended to macromolecular analytes, including proteins. Herein we develop a variant of a CoPhMoRe screening procedure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and use it against a panel of human blood proteins, revealing a specific corona phase that recognizes fibrinogen with high selectivity. In response to fibrinogen binding, SWCNT fluorescence decreases by >80% at saturation. Sequential binding of the three fibrinogen nodules is suggested by selective fluorescence quenching by isolated sub-domains and validated ...


Label-Free Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy-Linked Immunosensor Assay (Slisa) For Environmental Surveillance, Vinay Bhardwaj Oct 2015

Label-Free Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy-Linked Immunosensor Assay (Slisa) For Environmental Surveillance, Vinay Bhardwaj

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The contamination of the environment, accidental or intentional, in particular with chemical toxins such as industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents has increased public fear. There is a critical requirement for the continuous detection of toxins present at very low levels in the environment. Indeed, some ultra-sensitive analytical techniques already exist, for example chromatography and mass spectroscopy, which are approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the detection of toxins. However, these techniques are limited to the detection of known toxins. Cellular expression of genomic and proteomic biomarkers in response to toxins allows monitoring of known as well as ...


Application Of 3d Printing Technology In Porous Anode Fabrication For Enhanced Power Output Of Microbial Fuel Cells, Bin Bian Sep 2015

Application Of 3d Printing Technology In Porous Anode Fabrication For Enhanced Power Output Of Microbial Fuel Cells, Bin Bian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are widely researched for application in wastewater treatment. However, the current anodes used in MFCs often suffer from high fabrication cost and uncontrollable pore sizes. In this thesis, three-dimensional printing technique was utilized to fabricate anodes with different micro pore sizes for MFCs. Copper coating and carbonization were applied to the printed polymer anodes to increase the conductivity and specific surface area. Voltages of MFCs with various anodes were measured as well as other electrochemical tests such as linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. 3D copper porous anode produced higher maximum voltages and power densities ...


Field Scale Application Of Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron: Mobility, Contaminant Degradation, And Impact On Microbial Communities, Chris M.D. Kocur Aug 2015

Field Scale Application Of Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron: Mobility, Contaminant Degradation, And Impact On Microbial Communities, Chris M.D. Kocur

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis began by verifying that nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) synthesis methods could be scaled up and implemented at the field scale in a safe manner. This led to successful demonstration of nZVI injection and mobility under constant head gravity injection into a contaminated utility corridor in Sarnia, Ontario. Where field studies have fallen short in the past was linking the somewhat qualitative field geochemical parameters to other evidence of nZVI transport. Definitive nZVI detection was elusive in previous field studies due to the highly reactive nature of the particles caused by their high surface area. nZVI was detected ...


Novel Engineered Nanomaterials For Water Remediation And Gas Adsorption: Graphene Oxide And Carbon Nanotubes Decorated With Metal-Organic Frameworks And Magnetic Nanoparticles, Vahid Jabbari Jan 2015

Novel Engineered Nanomaterials For Water Remediation And Gas Adsorption: Graphene Oxide And Carbon Nanotubes Decorated With Metal-Organic Frameworks And Magnetic Nanoparticles, Vahid Jabbari

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In the current study, a series of novel magnetic and non-magnetic hybrid nanocomposites based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of M3(BTC)2 (M: Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd), graphene oxide (GrO), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were developed via a green, simple and versatile solvothermal method at which GrO and CNT were used as platform to grow the MOFs and Fe3O4 MNPs over them. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, IR, Raman, TGA, and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. Morphological analysis confirmed successful growth of nano-size Fe3O4 MNPs and M3(BTC)2 MOFs ...


Novel Nanostructured Materials For Solar Fuel Production And Advanced Rechargeable Batteries, Cunyu Zhao Dec 2014

Novel Nanostructured Materials For Solar Fuel Production And Advanced Rechargeable Batteries, Cunyu Zhao

Theses and Dissertations

Non-renewable fossil fuels are the major sources to meet the energy, electricity and transportation demands of today's world. The over consumption of fossil fuels will lead to the increasing energy crisis and disastrous effects such as air pollution, global warming etc.

The primary greenhouse gas is CO2 mainly emits from the combustion of fossil fuels. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 using sunlight as the energy input is a promising way to reduce CO2 level in the atmosphere and in the meantime produce alternative fuels such as CO, methane, methanol, etc. Among the various photocatalyst materials reported, nanomaterial TiO2 is the ...


Transport Properties Of Nano-Silica Contained Self-Consolidating Concrete, Borhan Moradi Aug 2014

Transport Properties Of Nano-Silica Contained Self-Consolidating Concrete, Borhan Moradi

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In this research study, transport properties of various self-consolidating concretes (SCCs) containing nano-particles (SiO2) were investigated. Nano-silica replaced a portion of the cementitious materials at different replacement levels ranging from 1.5 to 7.5% by weight. For the purpose of this investigation, flow, bulk, and transport properties of SCCs were studied. The investigated transport properties were absorption, water penetration, rapid chloride permeability, capillary absorption, rapid migration, and chloride diffusion. Transport properties of nano-silica SCCs were also compared to those of equivalent silica fume (micro silica) contained concretes, as well as those of control mixture (concrete without nano or micro ...


Biodiesel Production From Waste Trying Oils Over Lime Catalysts, João F. Gomes Jan 2013

Biodiesel Production From Waste Trying Oils Over Lime Catalysts, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

No abstract provided.


Monitoring Exposure To Airborne Ultrafine Particles In Lisbon, Portugal, João F. Gomes Jan 2012

Monitoring Exposure To Airborne Ultrafine Particles In Lisbon, Portugal, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

No abstract provided.


Comparison Of Deposited Surface Area Of Airborne Ultrafine Particles Generated From Two Welding Processes, João F. Gomes Jan 2012

Comparison Of Deposited Surface Area Of Airborne Ultrafine Particles Generated From Two Welding Processes, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

No abstract provided.


Determination Of Airborne Nanoparticles From Welding Operations, João F. Gomes Dec 2011

Determination Of Airborne Nanoparticles From Welding Operations, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

The aim of this study is to assess the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in welding processes (tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal active gas (MAG) of carbon steel and friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminium) in terms of deposited area in pulmonary alveolar tract using a Nanoparticle Surface Area Monitor (NSAM) analyzer. The obtained results showed the dependence from process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles compared to background levels. Data indicated that the process that resulted in the lowest levels of alveolar deposited surface area (ADSA) was FSW, followed by TIG and ...


Exposure To Airborne Ultrafine Particles From Cooking In Portuguese Homes, João F. Gomes Dec 2011

Exposure To Airborne Ultrafine Particles From Cooking In Portuguese Homes, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

No abstract provided.


Assessment Of Exposure To Airborne Ultrafine Particles In The Urban Environment Of Lisbon, Portugal, João F. Gomes Dec 2011

Assessment Of Exposure To Airborne Ultrafine Particles In The Urban Environment Of Lisbon, Portugal, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

The aim of this study was the assessment of exposure to ultrafine in the urban environment of Lisbon, Portugal, due to automobile traffic, and consisted of the determination of deposited alveolar surface area in an avenue leading to the town center during late spring. This study revealed differentiated patterns for weekdays and weekends, which could be related with the fluxes of automobile traffic. During a typical week, ultrafine particles alveolar deposited surface area varied between 35.0 and 89.2 mm2/cm3, which is comparable with levels reported for other towns such in Germany and the United States. These measurements ...


Study On The Use Of Mgal Hydrotalcites As Solid Heterogeneous Catalysts For Biodiesel Production, João F. Gomes Dec 2011

Study On The Use Of Mgal Hydrotalcites As Solid Heterogeneous Catalysts For Biodiesel Production, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

This paper, reports experimental work on the use of new heterogeneous solid basic catalysts for biodiesel production: double oxides of Mg and Al, produced by calcination, at high temperature, of MgAl lamellar structures, the hydrotalcites (HT). The most suitable catalyst system studied are hydrotalcite Mg:Al 2:1 calcinated at 507 ºC and 700 ºC, leading to higher values of FAME also in the second reaction stage. One of the prepared catalysts resulted in 97.1 % Fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) in the 1st reaction step, 92.2 % FAME in the 2nd reaction step and 34 % FAME in the 3rd ...


Notice On A Case Study On The Utilization Of Wind Energy Potential On A Remote And Isolated Small Wastewater Treatment Plant, João F. Gomes Aug 2011

Notice On A Case Study On The Utilization Of Wind Energy Potential On A Remote And Isolated Small Wastewater Treatment Plant, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

Small wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are frequently located, by necessity, in remote and isolated sites, which increases the difficulty of its energy supply. Some of them are located near the seaside, in environmental sensible zones, and due to tourism activity of these sites, seasonal effects related with population size fluctuation can occur, which can originate certain inefficiencies concerning WWTP design and energy supply. The objective of this paper is to describe a step by step procedure for evaluation of the wind potential of sites that are dependent of in-situ energy generation, as well as, a case study on the utilization ...


Study On The Glycerolysis Reaction Of High Free Fatty Acid Oils For Use As Biodiesel Feedstock, João F. Gomes Jan 2011

Study On The Glycerolysis Reaction Of High Free Fatty Acid Oils For Use As Biodiesel Feedstock, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

Biodiesel is the main alternative to fossil diesel and it may be produced from different feedstocks such as semi-refined vegetable oils, waste frying oils or animal fats. However, these feedstocks usually contain significant amounts of free fatty acids (FFA) that make them inadequate for the direct base catalyzed transesterification reaction (where the FFA content should be lower than 4%). The present work describes a possible method for the pre-treatment of oils with high content of FFA (20 to 50%) by esterification with glycerol. In order to reduce the FFA content, the reaction between these FFA and an esterification agent is ...


Design Of A New Test Chamber For Evaluation Of The Toxicity Of Rubber Infill, João F. Gomes Jan 2011

Design Of A New Test Chamber For Evaluation Of The Toxicity Of Rubber Infill, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

A test chamber was projected and built (according to ISO 16000-9 Standard) to simulate atmospheric conditions experienced by rubber infill (when applied in synthetic turf pitches) and measure accurately the airborne emissions of pollutants such as dusts and volatile organic compounds (VOC), as well as pollutants present in leacheates. It should be pointed out that standard ISO 16000-9 is only concerned with the determination of the emission of VOC from building products and furnishing (not specific of synthetic turf materials), while other standards are concerned with the emission of leacheates only. This procedure is to be considered as a technical ...


What Is A Chemical Engineer ?, João F. Gomes Jan 2011

What Is A Chemical Engineer ?, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

No abstract provided.


On The Toxicological Effects Of Airborne Nanoparticles From Welding Processes, João F. Gomes Jan 2011

On The Toxicological Effects Of Airborne Nanoparticles From Welding Processes, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

No abstract provided.


Advances On The Development Of Novel Heterogeneous Catalysts For Transesterification Of Triglycerides In Biodiesel, João F. Gomes Jan 2010

Advances On The Development Of Novel Heterogeneous Catalysts For Transesterification Of Triglycerides In Biodiesel, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

This paper describes experimental work done towards the search for more profitable and sustainable alternatives regarding biodiesel production, using heterogeneous catalysts instead of the conventional homogenous alkaline catalysts, such as NaOH, KOH or sodium methoxide, for the methanolysis reaction. This experimental work is a first stage on the development and optimization of new solid catalysts, able to produce biodiesel from vegetable oils. The heterogeneous catalytic process has many differences from the currently used in industry homogeneous process. The main advantage is that, it requires lower investment costs, since no need for separation steps of methanol/catalyst, biodiesel/catalyst and glycerine ...


Study On The Activity Of New Amine Based Absorbents For Co2 Absorption From Flue Gases, João F. Gomes Jan 2010

Study On The Activity Of New Amine Based Absorbents For Co2 Absorption From Flue Gases, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

The capture of CO2 from flue gases can be done by chemical absorption with aqueous amine solutions like MEA (monoethanolamine). Although this is a proven process, there are still operational problems to overcome [1], namely those resulting from solvent degradation, precipitation, corrosion and foaming. Also, the absorption capacity of the most current amines must be improved in order to obtain a more profitable operation. It has been shown previously that relationships exist between the amine structure and the activity/capacity for CO2 absorption. The introduction of amine substituents at the α-carbon creates a carbamate instability, which causes the hydrolysis to ...


A Simulation Study On The Abatement Of Co2 Emissions By De-Absorption, João F. Gomes Jan 2010

A Simulation Study On The Abatement Of Co2 Emissions By De-Absorption, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

Due to the adverse effect of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion on the earth’s ecosystems, the most cost effective method for CO2 capture is an important area of research. The predominant process for CO2 capture currently employed by industry is chemical absorption in amine solutions. A dynamic model for the de-absorption process was developed with Monoethanolamine (MEA) solution. Henry’s law was used for modeling the vapour phase equilibrium of the CO2, and fugacity ratios calculated by the Peng Robinson equation of state (EOS) were used for H2O, MEA, N2 and O2. Chemical reactions between CO2 and MEA were ...


Studies On The Development Of Novel Heterogeneous Catalysts For Transesterification Of Triglycerides In Biodiesel, João F. Gomes Jan 2010

Studies On The Development Of Novel Heterogeneous Catalysts For Transesterification Of Triglycerides In Biodiesel, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

No abstract provided.