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U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

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Mitigation Of Methane Emissions From Coal Mine Ventilation Air, Peter Carothers, Milind D. Deo Jun 1999

Mitigation Of Methane Emissions From Coal Mine Ventilation Air, Peter Carothers, Milind D. Deo

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

U.S. EPA's coalbed methane outreach program, (CMOP) has prepared a technical assessment of techniques that combust trace amounts of coal mine methane contained in ventilation air. Control of methane emissions from mine ventilation systems has been an elusive goal because of the magnitude of a typical airflow and the very low methane concentrations. One established and cost-effective use feeds the air into a prime mover in lieu of ambient combustion air. This method usually consumes just a fraction of the flow available from each ventilation shaft. The authors evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of two emerging systems ...


The General Characteristics Of Electromagnetic Radiation During Coal Fracture And Its Application In Outburst Prediction, Xue-Qiu He, En-Yuan Wang, Zhentang Liu Jun 1999

The General Characteristics Of Electromagnetic Radiation During Coal Fracture And Its Application In Outburst Prediction, Xue-Qiu He, En-Yuan Wang, Zhentang Liu

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

Coal and methane outburst are catastrophic in coal mining, their prediction is difficult. In this paper, the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) generated during coal or rock deformation and fracturing is measured and analyzed. The results show that EMR truly exists during the fracture of coal or rock (with or without the presence of gas). It follows the Hurst statistical rule, and it basically exhibits gradually enhancing tendency during the process. The EMR strength and frequency are correlated to the coal or rock fracture process. Based on the experimental and theoretical studies, a new method for coal and methane outburst prediction is ...


Scale Tests, In-Situ Measurements And Simulation Of Methane Gas Distribution At Heading Faces, Shinsuke Nakayama, Masamoto Ichinose, Kenichi Uchino, Masahiro Inoue Jun 1999

Scale Tests, In-Situ Measurements And Simulation Of Methane Gas Distribution At Heading Faces, Shinsuke Nakayama, Masamoto Ichinose, Kenichi Uchino, Masahiro Inoue

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

Distributions of methane gas concentration at a heading face with an auxiliary fan were measured in both an actual coal mine and a scale model. As a result, general distribution pattern of methane gas concentration was elucidated and it was found that there exist several areas where gas concentrations tend to rise to dangerous levels. A CFO (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method was also developed and the results of the computation were compared with those obtained in these measurements. It was concluded that the CFD can be used for simulating the distributions of gas concentration that are affected by conditions in ...


A New Laboratory Technique To Estimate Gas Diffusion Characteristics Of Coal, Satya Harpalani, Shaofan Ouyang Jun 1999

A New Laboratory Technique To Estimate Gas Diffusion Characteristics Of Coal, Satya Harpalani, Shaofan Ouyang

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

This paper describes a new experimental technique developed to measure the diffusion coefficient (D) for a coal-methane system using the transient flow mechanism, and examine its dependency on factors that change with continued flow – pressure and gas concentration. Although developed primarily for coalbed methane reservoirs and coal in the gob regions, it also has application in situations where a second gas is injected in coal since it utilizes the principle of counter-diffusion. The results show that there is a continuous decrease in the value of D with decreasing mean concentration of methane in coal. The logarithm of D varies directly ...


Increased Methane Emissions For Mechanical Miners Working In Burnt Coal, A. P. Cook Jun 1999

Increased Methane Emissions For Mechanical Miners Working In Burnt Coal, A. P. Cook

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

An intensive research programme has quantified the methane conditions around mechanical miners in production conditions. Methane seam gas contents show an increase of up to 26 times when mining burnt coal compared with normal increase in emission rates. Coal seam methane contents at the face increased from 1 m3/t to 6m3/t in one section, and from 0.1 m3/t to 2.6 m3/t in another. Emission rates from burnt coal were as high as 300 lit/min as it was mined. These increases in content and emission occur immediately after cutting into ...


Flammable Gas Emissions In South African Gold And Platinum Mines Review Of Incidents And Accidents, A. P. Cook, C. F. Meyer, K. Balt Jun 1999

Flammable Gas Emissions In South African Gold And Platinum Mines Review Of Incidents And Accidents, A. P. Cook, C. F. Meyer, K. Balt

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

Flammable gas emissions are relatively common and widespread across the South African gold and platinum mines, but a general lack of awareness has lead to an increase in flammable gas related accidents and fatalities over the last ten years. The gas is usually a mixture of hydrocarbons C1 to C4 with hydrogen, each in varying quantities, with methane and hydrogen predominant. The three most common causes leading to gas accidents are changes to the ventilation, lack of testing for gas, and contraband, with gas ignitions caused by contraband and illegal tampering with caplamps. Development work accounts for 70 percent of ...


Recovery Of Methane From The Abandoned Golden Eagle Mine Property, Kenton L. Hupp, Carol Bibler, Raymond C. Pilcher Jun 1999

Recovery Of Methane From The Abandoned Golden Eagle Mine Property, Kenton L. Hupp, Carol Bibler, Raymond C. Pilcher

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

The abandoned Golden Eagle underground coal mine in Colorado contains gassy coals from which Stroud Oil Properties, Inc. (Stroud) has been recovering gas since 1996. The mine closed permanently in 1996, and during its operation drained methane from gob and ventilation boreholes. Stroud currently produces about 1.8 million cubic feet of near pipeline quality gas per day from six of these boreholes. Although the project has proven successful, gas recovery has been challenging because of low bottom hole pressure and variable borehole performance. Wellhead compressors are required to boost gas pressure for delivery to the main plant. Connecting additional ...


Methane Drainage At The Minerales Monclova Mines In The Sabinas Coal Basin, Coahuila, Mexico, Daniel J. Brunner, Jose Ruben Ponce Jun 1999

Methane Drainage At The Minerales Monclova Mines In The Sabinas Coal Basin, Coahuila, Mexico, Daniel J. Brunner, Jose Ruben Ponce

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

Minerales Monclova S.A. De C.V. (MIMOSA) operates five underground longwall mines in the Gassy Los Olmos Coals of the Sabinas Basin in the state of Coahuila in Northern Mexico. Because of high in-situ gas contents and high cleat and natural fracture permeability, MIMOSA has had to incorporate a system of methane drainage in advance of mining in order to safely and cost effectively exploit their reserves. In the early 1990s Resource Enterprises (REI) conducted reservoir characterization tests, numerical simulations, and Coal Mine Methane (CMM) production tests at a nearby mine property in the same basin. Using this information ...


Gob Well Flaring: Design And Impact Analysis, Daniel J. Brunner, Karl Schultz Jun 1999

Gob Well Flaring: Design And Impact Analysis, Daniel J. Brunner, Karl Schultz

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

Currently, over 30 U.S. Coal Mining operations employ a system of degasification to assist in reducing the emission of methane into their mine ventilation systems. All of these mines use vertical gob wells. This is an effective gob de gasification technique for U.S. longwall coal mining operations, particularly when prime movers apply suction to the wellheads (active gas extraction). In most cases mine operators discharge gas recovered from gob wells directly to the atmosphere. This practice poses safety and environmental concerns, and wastes a potential resource. In the U.S. there are no standards for equipping actively extracted ...


Economic Analysis Of Coalbed Methane Drainage Systems For Room-And-Pillar Operations, Yanbei Wang, Jan M. Mutmansky Jun 1999

Economic Analysis Of Coalbed Methane Drainage Systems For Room-And-Pillar Operations, Yanbei Wang, Jan M. Mutmansky

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

The analysis of the economics of methane drainage operations in traditional room-and-pillar coal mining operations is the primary emphasis of this presentation. The paper analyzes the economic effects of ventilation costs versus drainage costs as a means of handling the methane in a hypothetical room-and-pillar operation. However, the effects of downtime savings due to methane reduction in the air stream and the impacts of marketing the methane are also studied. Comparisons are then made with the economics of drainage in longwall mining.


Design Of Methane Drainage Systems To Reduce Mine Ventilation Requirements, Michael D. Zuber, Charles M. Boyer Ii, Denise L. Delozier Jun 1999

Design Of Methane Drainage Systems To Reduce Mine Ventilation Requirements, Michael D. Zuber, Charles M. Boyer Ii, Denise L. Delozier

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

There are numerous proven methods to drain methane from coal seams in coal mines. These systems include vertical wells drilled ahead of mining, horizontal boreholes, gob wells, and others. However, these drainage systems are not typically applied properly to optimize gas recovery and minimize the cost of ventilation to the mine. This lack of optimization generally occurs due to the large up-front costs associated with the drainage systems and the lack of knowledge regarding the drainage technology. This results in the mine having a "reactive" response to methane drainage issues as opposed to a "pro-active" plan for handling methane drainage ...


Ventilating The Box Cut Of A Two-Pass 40-Ft Extended Cut, Edward D. Thimons, Charles D. Taylor, Jeanne A. Zimmer Jun 1999

Ventilating The Box Cut Of A Two-Pass 40-Ft Extended Cut, Edward D. Thimons, Charles D. Taylor, Jeanne A. Zimmer

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

On a continuous miner coal face methane concentrations are affected by the quantity of fresh intake air reaching the face. When mining the box cut on a 12.2-m (40-ft) two-pass extended cut face, the continuous miner is always at the point of deepest penetration, and operation of the machine-mounted dust scrubber and water spray system improve the flow of fresh air to the end of the box cut. However, when the continuous miner leaves the box cut to begin cutting the 40-ft slab, little is known about how much ventilation air reaches the end of the box cut. The ...


Methane Ignitions On Roof Bolters In Underground Coal Mines, John E. Urosek, William J. Francart Jun 1999

Methane Ignitions On Roof Bolters In Underground Coal Mines, John E. Urosek, William J. Francart

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

Although not as frequent in nature as ignitions on continuous miner or longwall faces, ignitions of methane on roof bolters have caused serious injuries to underground coal miners. After reviewing the accident reports for all roof bolter ignitions from 1981 to 1998, a summary of the forty-one accidents has been developed. Of interest in the database is the ignition source, method of face ventilation, local velocity, methane liberation, size of the methane body ignited, and the duration of the flame. Three example ignitions are included.


Comparison Of Methane Concentrations At A Simulated Coal Mine Face During Bolting, Charles D. Taylor, Edward D. Thimons, Jeanne A. Zimmer Jun 1999

Comparison Of Methane Concentrations At A Simulated Coal Mine Face During Bolting, Charles D. Taylor, Edward D. Thimons, Jeanne A. Zimmer

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

Strategies for monitoring methane levels during roof bolting in an extended cut entry were evaluated. Testing was conducted at the Pittsburgh Research Laboratory's methane test gallery. Operating conditions were varied and methane releases at the face and drill holes were simulated. Methane readings were taken at the face, and at locations outby the face. Results show that, when the major source of methane was at the drill holes, the highest methane readings were at locations on or 6.1 m (20 ft) inby the bolting machine. Methods for selecting better outby sampling locations, when the majority of the methane ...


A Proposed New Method To Determine The Effectiveness Of In-Heading Methane Control, F. J. Van Zyl Jun 1999

A Proposed New Method To Determine The Effectiveness Of In-Heading Methane Control, F. J. Van Zyl

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

Various methods have been derived to determine the effectiveness with which ventilation systems clears headings of methane in a bord-and-pillar sections. A problem with applying these methods in underground sections is that the either require the face-area air quantity to be measured, which is virtually impossible in South African collieries, or they were developed for test galleries, making it difficult to use in production sections. Taking this into consideration the methane safety index (MSI) method was developed. The method utilizes methane data recorded around an active continuous miner (CM) and an activity log of cm operations to quantitatively assess methane ...


Methane Concentration At Heading Faces With Auxiliary Ventilation, Shinji Tomita, Kenichi Uchino, Masahiro Inoue Jun 1999

Methane Concentration At Heading Faces With Auxiliary Ventilation, Shinji Tomita, Kenichi Uchino, Masahiro Inoue

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

Three-dimensional airflow velocities at a heading face by a forcing or exhausting auxiliary ventilation system were measured in an actual size model gallery and in an actual mine. There were several stagnated regions near the roof comer, which might have danger of methane accumulation. Airflow velocities by an exhausting system were much smaller than that by a forcing system. The airflow and methane concentrations by a forcing, exhausting, or combined system were examined using a visualization technique by laser light in a reduced scale model. Water was used instead of air and very fine bubbles generated by electrolysis were employed ...


Evaluation Of A Continuous Miner Half-Curtain Dust Control System In A South African Underground Coal Mine, Bharath K. Belle, J. J. L. Du Plessis Jun 1999

Evaluation Of A Continuous Miner Half-Curtain Dust Control System In A South African Underground Coal Mine, Bharath K. Belle, J. J. L. Du Plessis

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

The issues of public health and safety in the mining industry have been dealt with around the world through the intervention of governments. In 1997 the South African Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) sent out a directive to reduce the dust concentration level to /m3 at the operator's position for the sampling period. The reasons for the difficulty with compliance are: long headings up to 35m, inherently high dust generation rates of coal, and the increased use of highly mechanized equipment. A project was formulated under SIMRAC auspices with the title of "Underground Mechanical Miner Environmental Control ...


Dust Control At Yucca Mountain Project, Fred Kissell, Romeo Jurani, Ralph Dresel, Charles Reaux Jun 1999

Dust Control At Yucca Mountain Project, Fred Kissell, Romeo Jurani, Ralph Dresel, Charles Reaux

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

This report describes actions taken to control silica dust at the Yucca Mountain Exploratory Studies Facility, a tunnel located in Southern Nevada that is part of a scientific program to determine site suitability for a potential nuclear waste repository. The rock is a volcanic tuff containing significant percentages of both quartz and cristobalite. Water use for dust control was limited because of scientific test requirements, and this limitation made dust control a difficult task. Results are reported for two drifts, called the Main Loop Drift and the Cross Drift. In the Main Loop Drift, dust surveys and tracer gas tests ...


Control Of Silica Dust In Slate Milling Operations, Karl T. Ahlen, Robert A. Haney, Joseph M. Denk Jun 1999

Control Of Silica Dust In Slate Milling Operations, Karl T. Ahlen, Robert A. Haney, Joseph M. Denk

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) conducted a study to assess the present state of technology used for controlling employees' respirable silica-bearing dust exposures during dimension slate milling operations. For this study, twelve slate milling operations were visited and various measurements were taken and observations made. These measurements and observations included exhaust and room airflow, types of enclosures, water usage, and building volumes for each of the milling processes. These mills usually employed between five and twenty people. From the study, general guidelines were developed from the best practices observed and can be used at the various sawing, splitting ...


Effectiveness Of Cabs For Dust And Silica Control On Mobile Mining Equipment, Joseph J. Garcia, Ronald E. Gresh, Mary Beth Gareis, Robert A. Haney Jun 1999

Effectiveness Of Cabs For Dust And Silica Control On Mobile Mining Equipment, Joseph J. Garcia, Ronald E. Gresh, Mary Beth Gareis, Robert A. Haney

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of cabs for controlling silica dust exposure during operation of mobile mining equipment. This study focused on bulldozers, front -end loaders and haul trucks, was conducted at surface coal mining operations and underground metal and nonmetal mining operations. Each piece of equipment tested was equipped with a cab. The vehicles sampled were from a range of manufacturers having different types of filter media and air intake configurations. The purpose of this study was to determine the reduction of dust and silica exposure that could be ...


Lowering Respirable Dust Exposures At Mineral Processing Facilities, Andrew B. Cecala, Robert J. Timko, Edward D. Thimons Jun 1999

Lowering Respirable Dust Exposures At Mineral Processing Facilities, Andrew B. Cecala, Robert J. Timko, Edward D. Thimons

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

This article discusses three research projects performed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (formerly the Bureau of Mines), that reduce the respirable dust exposure of plant workers at mineral processing facilities. All three of these projects are very different but they all have the same goal of reducing worker exposure to respirable dust at mineral processing facilities. The first project deals with a total mill ventilation system that reduces dust levels throughout an entire building and lowers the dust exposure of everyone working in the structure. The second project describes a bag and belt cleaner device that ...


Measurements Of Dust Extraction Effectiveness On A Testing Stand, Walenty Frydel, Marcin Steindor Jun 1999

Measurements Of Dust Extraction Effectiveness On A Testing Stand, Walenty Frydel, Marcin Steindor

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

The stand is used to determine characteristics of fans and dust collectors, especially their efficiency at different levels of dustiness of the air being cleaned. Both wet- and dry-dust collectors arc manufactured as experimental installations, prototypes products designed for industrial applications. The design of the research installation has been so elaborated that the installation is characterized by great flexibility in respect of its applicability, enabling both comparison tests and attestation tests to be carried out. The accepted programme of the basic research covers testing of dust collectors of vortex type equipped with rotors featuring axial, diagonal and radial flow as ...


Methods For Dust Removal In Roadway Sections, Walenty Frydel, Marcin Steindor, Robert A. Jankowski Jun 1999

Methods For Dust Removal In Roadway Sections, Walenty Frydel, Marcin Steindor, Robert A. Jankowski

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

Systems for dust extraction in roadway workings subjected to suction or forced ventilation are a combination of dust collecting equipment and facilities designed for ventilating the working. Such a combination of suitable equipment provides safe and effective dust removal and ventilation of a roadway working as well as is determinant of proper cooperation of the equipment a system is composed of. The development of effective dust collectors of wet type which provide safe operation under conditions of great exposure to coal dust and methane explosion hazards as well as of vortex ventubes allowing methane accumulations under the roof to be ...


The Influence Of Coal Physical And Mechanical Properties And Mining Energy Consumption Factor On Airborne Respirable Dust Level, Antoni Koziel, Malgorzata Malec, Ewa Wardas Jun 1999

The Influence Of Coal Physical And Mechanical Properties And Mining Energy Consumption Factor On Airborne Respirable Dust Level, Antoni Koziel, Malgorzata Malec, Ewa Wardas

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

The fact that there are not any explicitly defined relationships describing the influence of physical and mechanical properties of coal and of energy consumption factor on dust level prompted Polish and American investigators to carry out a joint research project within the framework of the U.S.- Poland Maria Sklodowska-Curie Joint Fund II. The paper presents methods used to perform tests under laboratory conditions at the Pittsburgh Research Laboratory as well as under real conditions in the course of coal cutting in polish coal mines. Measuring systems and results of the tests are described. The analysis carried out has provided ...


Considerations For Estimating Remote Operator Dust Exposure Using Fixed-Point Samples On Continuous Mining Sections, Jeffrey M. Listak, Gerrit V. R. Goodman, Robert A. Jankowski Jun 1999

Considerations For Estimating Remote Operator Dust Exposure Using Fixed-Point Samples On Continuous Mining Sections, Jeffrey M. Listak, Gerrit V. R. Goodman, Robert A. Jankowski

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

Respirable dust studies were conducted at several underground coal mining operations to evaluate and compare the dust measurements of fixed-point machine-mounted samples on a continuous miner and personal samples of the remote miner operator. Fixed-point sampling was conducted at the right rear corner of the continuous miner which corresponded to the traditional location of the operator's cab. Although it has been documented that higher concentrations of dust are present at the machine-mounted position, this work sought to determined whether a relationship exists between the concentrations at the fixed-point position and the dust levels experienced at the remote operator position ...


Laboratory Evaluation Of Pressure Differential Based Respirable Dust Detector Tube, Jon C. Volkwein, April L. Schoeneman, Steven J. Page Jun 1999

Laboratory Evaluation Of Pressure Differential Based Respirable Dust Detector Tube, Jon C. Volkwein, April L. Schoeneman, Steven J. Page

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

A new type of respirable dust sampler was developed and compared side by side to personal gravimetric samplers in the laboratory. The new sampler correlates filter back pressure with mass accumulation to provide mid-shift and end-of-shift determinations of cumulative exposure. The sampler uses a small low flow rate pump to draw dust through a small detector tube that contains a porous urethane foam respirable classification section and glass fiber filter that collects respirable dust. Six different coal dusts were aerosolized in a laboratory dust chamber and a total of 118 triplicate observations were obtained. For individual coal types, the correlation ...


The Effects Of A Diesel Particulate Filter And Fuel Borne Catalyst On Engine Emissions, Mahé Gangal, Thierry Leprince, John Muter, Brent Rubeli Jun 1999

The Effects Of A Diesel Particulate Filter And Fuel Borne Catalyst On Engine Emissions, Mahé Gangal, Thierry Leprince, John Muter, Brent Rubeli

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

CANMET has been involved in an industry-government program to assess the quality of mine air and to improve the working environment. One aspect of the program is to reduce diesel particulate matter (DPM) generated by heavy-duty diesel vehicles having low exhaust temperature duty cycles. The low exhaust gas temperatures that are common in modem engines lead to insufficient regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF). A study was undertaken in partnership with DCL International to examine additive assisted regeneration. This study uses a cerium based fuel-borne catalyst to complete the regeneration of a DPF. Regeneration of a DPF occurs when the ...


An Integrated Approach To Control Diesel Particulate Matter In Underground Coal Mines, Pramod C. Thakur, Larry D. Patts Jun 1999

An Integrated Approach To Control Diesel Particulate Matter In Underground Coal Mines, Pramod C. Thakur, Larry D. Patts

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

Diesel engines were introduced in European, Asian, and Australian coal mines nearly fifty years ago and more recently in U.S. coal mines. Their use minimizes the risks of mine fires and gas explosions associated with trolley wire haulage. While there is no epidemiological evidence that properly diluted diesel exhaust creates any health hazard, some concern persists about the long-term effects of inhaling diesel particulate matter. Existing control technology has been able to dilute all gaseous components of diesel exhaust to safe levels. Because there is no medically established threshold limit value for diesel particulate matter in U.S. coal ...


Proposed Regulation On Diesel Particulate Matter In Underground Coal Mines, Thomas F. Tomb Jun 1999

Proposed Regulation On Diesel Particulate Matter In Underground Coal Mines, Thomas F. Tomb

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

The Mine Safety and Health Administration published a proposed rule for underground coal mines that use diesel-powered equipment. The proposed rule, published April 9, 1998, would establish new health standards. These new standards would reduce the risks to miners of serious health hazards that are associated with exposure to high concentrations of diesel particulate matter (dpm). The proposed rule would require that mine operators install and maintain high efficiency filtration systems on the most polluting types of diesel-powered equipment. The rule would also require that miners be trained about the hazards of dpm exposure. This paper reviews the requirements of ...


Niosh/Nci Study Of Exposure To Diesel Exhaust In Underground Mines — An Industry Perspective, Christopher J. Pritchard Jun 1999

Niosh/Nci Study Of Exposure To Diesel Exhaust In Underground Mines — An Industry Perspective, Christopher J. Pritchard

U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium

In 1992, the National Institute For Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) initiated a study, funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), to evaluate the health effects, if any, involving underground miners exposure to diesel exhaust. An industry organization, the Methane Awareness Research Group (MARG) already in place to respond to gassy mine related issues, was redirected to work with diesel concerns. In 1995, NIOSH released a draft protocol and feasibility assessment, indicating its intent to initiate s study at 14 underground mines, some of which were operated by MARG members. After considerable debate on the study protocol, in-mine industrial hygiene ...