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Full-Text Articles in Mining Engineering

Landslides Near Enguri Dam (Caucasus, Georgia) And Possible Seismotectonic Effects, Alessandro Tibaldi, Paolo Oppizzi, John S. Gierke, Thomas Oommen, Nino Tsereteli, Zurab Gogoladze Jan 2019

Landslides Near Enguri Dam (Caucasus, Georgia) And Possible Seismotectonic Effects, Alessandro Tibaldi, Paolo Oppizzi, John S. Gierke, Thomas Oommen, Nino Tsereteli, Zurab Gogoladze

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

The Enguri dam and water reservoir, nested in the southwestern Caucasus (Republic of Georgia), are surrounded by steep mountain slopes. At a distance of 2.5 km from the dam, a mountain ridge along the reservoir is affected by active deformations with a double vergence. The western slope, directly facing the reservoir, has deformations that affect a subaerial area of 1.2 km2. The head scarp affects the Jvari–Khaishi–Mestia main road with offsets of man-made features that indicate slip rates of 2–9 cm yr−1. Static, pseudostatic and Newmark analyses, based on field and seismological data ...


Assessment Of Post-Wildfire Debris Flow Occurrence Using Classifier Tree, Priscilla Addison, Thomas Oommen, Qiuying Sha Jan 2019

Assessment Of Post-Wildfire Debris Flow Occurrence Using Classifier Tree, Priscilla Addison, Thomas Oommen, Qiuying Sha

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Besides the dangers of an actively burning wildfire, a plethora of other hazardous consequences can occur afterwards. Debris flows are among the most hazardous of these, being known to cause fatalities and extensive damage to infrastructure. Although debris flows are not exclusive to fire affected areas, a wildfire can increase a location’s susceptibility by stripping its protective covers like vegetation and introducing destabilizing factors such as ash filling soil pores to increase runoff potential. Due to the associated dangers, researchers are developing statistical models to isolate susceptible locations. Existing models predominantly employ the logistic regression algorithm; however, previous studies ...


Monitoring The Impact Of Groundwater Pumping On Infrastructure Using Geographic Information System (Gis) And Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (Psi), Kirsten Deprekel, El Hachemi Bouali, Thomas Oommen Dec 2018

Monitoring The Impact Of Groundwater Pumping On Infrastructure Using Geographic Information System (Gis) And Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (Psi), Kirsten Deprekel, El Hachemi Bouali, Thomas Oommen

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Transportation infrastructure is critical for the advancement of society. Bridges are vital for an efficient transportation network. Bridges across the world undergo variable deformation/displacement due to the Earth’s dynamic processes. This displacement is caused by ground motion, which occurs from many natural and anthropogenic events. Events causing deformation include temperature fluctuation, subsidence, landslides, earthquakes, water/sea level variation, subsurface resource extraction, etc. Continual deformation may cause bridge failure, putting civilians at risk, if not managed properly. Monitoring bridge displacement, large and small, provides evidence of the state and health of the bridge. Traditionally, bridge monitoring has been executed ...


Explosive Dust Test Vessel Comparison Using Pulverized Pittsburgh Coal, Jacob Miller, Jay Schafler, Phillip R. Mulligan, Robert Eades, Kyle A. Perry, Catherine E. Johnson Oct 2018

Explosive Dust Test Vessel Comparison Using Pulverized Pittsburgh Coal, Jacob Miller, Jay Schafler, Phillip R. Mulligan, Robert Eades, Kyle A. Perry, Catherine E. Johnson

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Explosions of coal dust are a major safety concern within the coal mining industry. The explosion and subsequent fires caused by coal dust can result in significant property damage, loss of life in underground coal mines and damage to coal processing facilities. The United States Bureau of Mines conducted research on coal dust explosions until 1996 when it was dissolved. In the following years, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) developed a test standard, ASTM E1226, to provide a standard test method characterizing the “explosibility” of particulate solids of combustible materials suspended in air. The research presented herein ...


Study On The Surface Features Of Preg-Robbing Carbonaceous Matter During Oxidation Treatment, Mana Pourdasht Mar 2018

Study On The Surface Features Of Preg-Robbing Carbonaceous Matter During Oxidation Treatment, Mana Pourdasht

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Carbonaceous gold ores have the ability to adsorb gold (I) cyanide from leach solutions during processing. This phenomenon, known as preg-robbing, is responsible for poor recoveries as the carbonaceous materials of the ore compete with activated carbon used during the leaching and adsorption phase of processing. Chemical oxidation of carbonaceous materials by different reagents has been utilized to investigate and compare the mechanism of Au (CN)2 adsorption onto carbonaceous materials prior to and following the treatment.

The procedure for characterization of the carbonaceous materials (plain and modified) in the sample combines the use of several analytical techniques and test ...


Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl Oct 2017

Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl

William I. Rose

Uncertainty in the physicochemical and optical properties of volcanic ash particles creates errors in the detection and modeling of volcanic ash clouds and in quantification of their potential impacts. In this study, we provide a data set that describes the physicochemical and optical properties of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from nine different volcanic eruptions covering a wide range of silica contents (50–80 wt % SiO2). We measured and calculated parameters describing the physical (size distribution, complex shape, and dense-rock equivalent mass density), chemical (bulk and surface composition), and optical (complex refractive index from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths ...


Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl Sep 2017

Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Uncertainty in the physicochemical and optical properties of volcanic ash particles creates errors in the detection and modeling of volcanic ash clouds and in quantification of their potential impacts. In this study, we provide a data set that describes the physicochemical and optical properties of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from nine different volcanic eruptions covering a wide range of silica contents (50–80 wt % SiO2). We measured and calculated parameters describing the physical (size distribution, complex shape, and dense-rock equivalent mass density), chemical (bulk and surface composition), and optical (complex refractive index from ultraviolet to near-infrared ...


Characterization Of Granite And Subsequent Ground Control Management Plan At Orphan Boy Mine – Butte, Montana, Emily Rose Apr 2017

Characterization Of Granite And Subsequent Ground Control Management Plan At Orphan Boy Mine – Butte, Montana, Emily Rose

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The Underground Mine Education Center (UMEC) and World Museum of Mining facilities began as shallow underground mines in the 1880’s during the mining boom that populated Butte, Montana. The UMEC is a multi-disciplinary facility that provides an on-campus underground laboratory environment and a place for students to learn and practice practical underground mining techniques; therefore, the longevity of the facility is important to Montana Tech. The goal of this project is to develop a Ground Control Management Plan (GCMP) for the UMEC and World Museum of Mining facilities.

The World Museum of Mining (Orphan Girl) and UMEC (Orphan Boy ...


Mining Asteroids For Volatile Resources: An Experimental Demonstration Of Extraction And Recovery, Egboche Christopher Unobe Jan 2017

Mining Asteroids For Volatile Resources: An Experimental Demonstration Of Extraction And Recovery, Egboche Christopher Unobe

Masters Theses

"Gaseous compounds trapped within carbonaceous asteroids may prove to be important targets for prospective space miners in the near-term. Volatile release is from hydrated, hydroxylated and carbonated phases present, making such bodies attractive as feedstock for the production of H2O, CO2 and simple organic compounds. A source of these species in orbit provides an opportunity to locally produce space-craft propellant and other life-support gases through the application of In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU).

For this study, an experimental vacuum system was modified and used to test the technical validity of radiatively heating asteroid simulants to extract contained gaseous ...


Microstructure And Geotechnical Properties Of St. Peter Sandstone In Clayton, Iowa, Amir Hossein Bagherieh Jan 2015

Microstructure And Geotechnical Properties Of St. Peter Sandstone In Clayton, Iowa, Amir Hossein Bagherieh

Doctoral Dissertations

"The St. Peter Sandstone is significantly different from the minerals and rocks which have been studied extensively in mining. It is brittle and characterized by an unusually high friction angle. On the other hand it is friable, and it is nearly cohesionless. The scarcity of the ground control techniques for this particular mining environment has created many difficulties for mine operators. This research aims to establish a fundamental understanding of the basic mechanical and strength properties of the St. Peter Sandstone for engineering design and scientific research. The specific objectives are 1) characterizing the strength of the St. Peter Sandstone ...


Gravity And Magnetic Investigations Into Possible Economic Mineral Deposits Within The Northwest St. Francois Terrane, Southeastern Missouri, Brandon Todd Ives Jan 2015

Gravity And Magnetic Investigations Into Possible Economic Mineral Deposits Within The Northwest St. Francois Terrane, Southeastern Missouri, Brandon Todd Ives

MSU Graduate Theses

The exposed Precambrian St. Francois Mountains in southeast Missouri are a well-studied terrane of rhyolites, granites, and basaltic dikes, but much of the buried basement lithology west of the exposed region is still poorly delineated. The western St. Francois is host to large hydrothermal Pb-Zn and Fe-oxide ore deposits, some of which were located with previous geophysical investigations. The economic ore deposits specifically in the Pea Ridge Mine in Washington County contain known economic minerals and rare earth element deposits. In order to further investigate the Precambrian basement lithologies and the possible locations of additional economic ore deposits, a gravity ...


Ore Classification And Breccia Formation In The 144 Zone Gold Deposit: A Chemical Replacement Model, Bare Mountain Range, Nevada, William Thomas Fischer Dec 2014

Ore Classification And Breccia Formation In The 144 Zone Gold Deposit: A Chemical Replacement Model, Bare Mountain Range, Nevada, William Thomas Fischer

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The 144 Zone is an oxidized, breccia-hosted, disseminated gold deposit that formed along the contact between Early Cambrian Carrara Formation limestone and overlying Bonanza King Formation dolomite within the Bare Mountain range in southern Nevada. Gold mineralization occurs within a breccia body that contains a variety of breccia types. Research goals of this project included classifying clay, oxide and other minerals as well as breccia types to identify the habits of gold mineralization and the minerals associated with gold. Research was also aimed at determining the paragenesis of Au mineralization and brecciation in the 144 Zone. Underground mapping provided spatial ...


Fluid Properties In The Formation Of High-Grade Iron Ore In Northern Minnesota, Elizabeth Drommerhausen Aug 2014

Fluid Properties In The Formation Of High-Grade Iron Ore In Northern Minnesota, Elizabeth Drommerhausen

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The Mesabi Iron Range in Northern Minnesota has been a major producer of iron ore for over 100 years. Production has been from the 1.85 – billion-year –old Biwabik Iron Formation, an iron-rich sedimentary rock that is tilted gently to the south. Most of the known high-grade ore lies near the surface and has been already mined. Determining whether more high-grade ore may lie at depth could have significant economic impact on the mining industry in northern Minnesota. To evaluate the likelihood of finding more high-grade iron ore deeper underground, it is important to determine the source of the fluids ...


La Yeguada Volcanic Vomplex In The Republic Of Panama: An Assessment Of The Geologic Hazards Using 40ar/39ar Geochronology, Karinne L. Knutsen, William I. Rose, Brian Jicha Nov 2013

La Yeguada Volcanic Vomplex In The Republic Of Panama: An Assessment Of The Geologic Hazards Using 40ar/39ar Geochronology, Karinne L. Knutsen, William I. Rose, Brian Jicha

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

La Yeguada volcanic complex is one of three Quaternary volcanic centers in Panama. To assess potential geologic hazards, new samples were analyzed using argon analysis (40Ar/39Ar), and obtained the following: the most recent eruption occurred approximately 32,000 years ago at the Media Luna cinder cone; the youngest dated eruption from the main dome complex occurred 357 ± 19 ka, producing the Castillo dome unit; Cerro Picacho, a separate dacite dome 1.5 km east of the main complex is 4.47 ± 0.23 Ma; and the El Satro Pyroclastic Flow unit surrounds the northern portion of the ...


Study On The Surface Chemistry Behavior Of Pyrochlore During Froth Flotation, Saeed Chehreh Chelgani Oct 2013

Study On The Surface Chemistry Behavior Of Pyrochlore During Froth Flotation, Saeed Chehreh Chelgani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Separation of pyrochlore from its associated minerals is typically accomplished by froth flotation. The surface chemistry of pyrochlore is similar to many of its associated non-value minerals. Therefore, understanding the surface chemical properties of the pyrochlore for selective pyrochlore flotation will potentially aid in the design of flotation strategies for optimized recovery. In this study, pyrochlore samples were collected from various points in the flotation scheme at the Niobec plant, Quebec, Canada. The SEM-EDX analysis revealed that pyrochlore from the Niobec deposit occurs as high and low iron varieties, and that recovery favours varieties with a lower Fe content. To ...


The Size Range Of Bubbles That Produce Ash During Explosive Volcanic Eruptions, Kimberly Genareau, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Alexander A. Proussevitch, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, Dork L. Sahagian Aug 2013

The Size Range Of Bubbles That Produce Ash During Explosive Volcanic Eruptions, Kimberly Genareau, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Alexander A. Proussevitch, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, Dork L. Sahagian

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Volcanic eruptions can produce ash particles with a range of sizes and morphologies. Here we morphologically distinguish two textural types: Simple (generally smaller) ash particles, where the observable surface displays a single measureable bubble because there is at most one vesicle imprint preserved on each facet of the particle; and complex ash particles, which display multiple vesicle imprints on their surfaces for measurement and may contain complete, unfragmented vesicles in their interiors. Digital elevation models from stereo-scanning electron microscopic images of complex ash particles from the 14 October 1974 sub-Plinian eruption of Volcán Fuego, Guatemala and the 18 May 1980 ...


Predicting The Dynamic Behavior Of Coal Mine Tailings Using State-Of-Practice Geotechnical Field Methods, Ali Salehian Jan 2013

Predicting The Dynamic Behavior Of Coal Mine Tailings Using State-Of-Practice Geotechnical Field Methods, Ali Salehian

Theses and Dissertations--Civil Engineering

This study is focused on developing a method to predict the dynamic behavior of mine tailings dams under earthquake loading. Tailings dams are a by-product of coal mining and processing activities. Mine tailings impoundments are prone to instability and failure under seismic loading as a result of the mechanical behavior of the tailings. Due to the existence of potential seismic sources in close proximity to the coal mining regions in the United States, it is necessary to assess the post-earthquake stability of these tailings dams.

To develop the aforementioned methodology, 34 cyclic triaxial tests along with vane shear tests were ...


Hydrometeor-Enhanced Tephra Sedimentation: Constraints From The 18 May 1980 Eruption Of Mount St. Helens, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, A. M. Sarna-Wojcicki, S. Carey, A. C. M. Volentik Mar 2009

Hydrometeor-Enhanced Tephra Sedimentation: Constraints From The 18 May 1980 Eruption Of Mount St. Helens, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, A. M. Sarna-Wojcicki, S. Carey, A. C. M. Volentik

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Uncertainty remains on the origin of distal mass deposition maxima observed in many recent tephra fall deposits. In this study the link between ash aggregation and the formation of distal mass deposition maxima is investigated through reanalysis of tephra fallout from the Mount St. Helens 18 May 1980 (MSH80) eruption. In addition, we collate all the data needed to model distal ash sedimentation from the MSH80 eruption cloud. Four particle size subpopulations were present in distal fallout with modes at 2.2 Φ, 4.2 Φ, 5.9 Φ, and 8.3 Φ. Settling rates of the coarsest subpopulation closely ...


Creating Lakes From Open Pit Mines: Processes And Considerations, Emphasis On Northern Environments, Christopher H. Gammons, Les N. Harris, James M. Castro, Peter A. Cott, Bruce W. Hanna Jan 2009

Creating Lakes From Open Pit Mines: Processes And Considerations, Emphasis On Northern Environments, Christopher H. Gammons, Les N. Harris, James M. Castro, Peter A. Cott, Bruce W. Hanna

Geological Engineering

Creating Lakes from Open Pit Mines: Processes and Considerations, Emphasis on Northern Environments. This document summarizes the literature of mining pit lakes (through 2007), with a particular focus on issues that are likely to be of special relevance to the creation and management of pit lakes in northern climates. Pit lakes are simply waterbodies formed by filling the open pit left upon the completion of mining operations with water. Like natural lakes, mining pit lakes display a huge diversity in each of these subject areas. However, pit lakes are young and therefore are typically in a non-equilibrium state with respect ...


Ice Nucleation And Overseeding Of Ice In Volcanic Clouds, Adam J. Durant, R. A. Shaw, William I. Rose, Y. Mi, G. G. J. Ernst May 2008

Ice Nucleation And Overseeding Of Ice In Volcanic Clouds, Adam J. Durant, R. A. Shaw, William I. Rose, Y. Mi, G. G. J. Ernst

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Water is the dominant component of volcanic gas emissions, and water phase transformations, including the formation of ice, can be significant in the dynamics of volcanic clouds. The effectiveness of volcanic ash particles as ice-forming nuclei (IN) is poorly understood and the sparse data that exist for volcanic ash IN have been interpreted in the context of meteorological, rather than volcanic clouds. In this study, single-particle freezing experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of ash particle composition and surface area on water drop freezing temperature. Measured freezing temperatures show only weak correlations with ash IN composition and surface ...


Percussive Penetration Of Unconsolidated Granular Media In A Laboratory Setting, Leslie S. Gertsch Feb 2007

Percussive Penetration Of Unconsolidated Granular Media In A Laboratory Setting, Leslie S. Gertsch

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

This controlled study examined the feasibility of a simple percussive approach to drilling through unconsolidated regolith deposits on Mars. The experiments showed that the approach is feasible at the low power levels and low confining pressures used, and that the rate of impact is more important to the penetration rate than is the mass of the impactor (hammer). More massive impactors tend to lower energy efficiency, as they do in terrestrial pile-driving. Unexpectedly, penetration plotted against applied energy tends to cluster into parallel linear trends. Within a given cluster, penetration is very sensitive to applied energy, while between clusters, the ...


Atmospheric Chemistry Of A 33–34 Hour Old Volcanic Cloud From Hekla Volcano (Iceland): Insights From Direct Sampling And The Application Of Chemical Box Modeling, William I. Rose, Genevieve A. Millard, Tamsin A. Mather, Donald E. Hunton, Bruce Anderson, Clive Oppenheimer, Brett F. Thornton, Terrence M. Gerlach, Albert A. Viggiano, Yutaka Kondo, Thomas M. Miller, John O. Ballenthin Oct 2006

Atmospheric Chemistry Of A 33–34 Hour Old Volcanic Cloud From Hekla Volcano (Iceland): Insights From Direct Sampling And The Application Of Chemical Box Modeling, William I. Rose, Genevieve A. Millard, Tamsin A. Mather, Donald E. Hunton, Bruce Anderson, Clive Oppenheimer, Brett F. Thornton, Terrence M. Gerlach, Albert A. Viggiano, Yutaka Kondo, Thomas M. Miller, John O. Ballenthin

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

On 28 February 2000, a volcanic cloud from Hekla volcano, Iceland, was serendipitously sampled by a DC-8 research aircraft during the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE I). It was encountered at night at 10.4 km above sea level (in the lower stratosphere) and 33–34 hours after emission. The cloud is readily identified by abundant SO2 (≤1 ppmv), HCl (≤70 ppbv), HF (≤60 ppbv), and particles (which may have included fine silicate ash). We compare observed and modeled cloud compositions to understand its chemical evolution. Abundances of sulfur and halogen species indicate some oxidation of sulfur ...


Halogen Emissions From A Small Volcanic Eruption: Modeling The Peak Concentrations, Dispersion, And Volcanically Induced Ozone Loss In The Stratosphere, G. A. Millard, T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, William I. Rose, B. Thornton Oct 2006

Halogen Emissions From A Small Volcanic Eruption: Modeling The Peak Concentrations, Dispersion, And Volcanically Induced Ozone Loss In The Stratosphere, G. A. Millard, T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, William I. Rose, B. Thornton

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Aircraft measurements in the Hekla, Iceland volcanic plume in February 2000 revealed large quantities of hydrogen halides within the stratosphere correlated to volcanic SO2. Investigation of the longer-term stratospheric impact of these emissions, using the 3D chemical transport model, SLIMCAT suggests that volcanic enhancements of H2O and HNO3 increased HNO3·3H2O particle availability within the plume. These particles activated volcanic HCl and HBr, enhancing model plume concentrations of ClOx (20 ppb) and BrOx (50 ppt). Model O3 concentrations decreased to near-zero in places, and plume average O3 remained 30% lower after two weeks. Reductions in the model O3column reduced UV ...


Effect Of Water Ice Content On Excavatability Of Lunar Regolith, Leslie S. Gertsch, Robert Gustafson, Richard E. Gertsch Feb 2006

Effect Of Water Ice Content On Excavatability Of Lunar Regolith, Leslie S. Gertsch, Robert Gustafson, Richard E. Gertsch

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The amount of water ice contained within prepared samples of JSC-1 lunar regolith simulant strongly affects the excavatability of the material. As part of a NASA Phase I SBIR project, load-penetration testing of JSC-1 lunar regolith simulant was performed at water ice concentrations ranging from zero to 11% by mass (approximately saturated), after compaction and cooling to simulate probable lunar conditions. After mixing dry JSC-1 simulant with the appropriate amount of water, the samples were individually compressed into containment rings under 48 MPa of pressure. Thermocouples embedded in the samples monitored internal temperature while they were cooled in a bath ...


Advantageous Goes Ir Results For Ash Mapping At High Latitudes: Cleveland Eruptions 2001, Yingxin Gu, William I. Rose, David J. Schneider, Gregg J. S. Bluth, M. I. Watson Jan 2005

Advantageous Goes Ir Results For Ash Mapping At High Latitudes: Cleveland Eruptions 2001, Yingxin Gu, William I. Rose, David J. Schneider, Gregg J. S. Bluth, M. I. Watson

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

The February 2001 eruption of Cleveland Volcano, Alaska allowed for comparisons of volcanic ash detection using two-band thermal infrared (10–12 μm) remote sensing from MODIS, AVHRR, and GOES 10. Results show that high latitude GOES volcanic cloud sensing the range of about 50 to 65°N is significantly enhanced. For the Cleveland volcanic clouds the MODIS and AVHRR data have zenith angles 6–65 degrees and the GOES has zenith angles that are around 70 degrees. The enhancements are explained by distortion in the satellite view of the cloud's lateral extent because the satellite zenith angles result in ...


Surface Temperature And Spectral Measurements At Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Steve T. M. Sahetapy-Engel, Luke P. Flynn, Andrew J. L. Harris, Gregg J. Bluth, William I. Rose, Otoniel Matias Oct 2004

Surface Temperature And Spectral Measurements At Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Steve T. M. Sahetapy-Engel, Luke P. Flynn, Andrew J. L. Harris, Gregg J. Bluth, William I. Rose, Otoniel Matias

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

An infrared thermometer, spectroradiometer and digital video camera were used to observe and document short-term evolution of surface brightness temperature and morphology at Santiaguito lava dome, Guatemala. The thermometer dataset shows 40–70 minute-long cooling cycles, each defined by a cooling curve that is both initiated and terminated by rapid increases in temperature due to regular ash venting. The average cooling rate calculated for each cycle range from 0.9 to 1.6°C/min. We applied a two-component thermal mixture model to the spectroradiometer (0.4–2.5 μm) dataset. The results suggest that the observed surface morphology changed ...


Numerical Modeling Of Geophysical Granular Flows: 2. Computer Simulations Of Plinian Clouds And Pyroclastic Flows And Surges, Sebastien Dartevelle, William I. Rose, John Stix, Karim Kelfoun, James W. Vallance Aug 2004

Numerical Modeling Of Geophysical Granular Flows: 2. Computer Simulations Of Plinian Clouds And Pyroclastic Flows And Surges, Sebastien Dartevelle, William I. Rose, John Stix, Karim Kelfoun, James W. Vallance

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Geophysical granular flows display complex nonlinear, nonuniform, and unsteady rheologies, depending on the volumetric grain concentration within the flow: kinetic, kinetic-collisional, and frictional. To account for the whole spectrum of granular rheologies (and hence concentrations), we have used and further developed for geophysical-atmospheric applications a multiphase computer model initially developed by U.S. Department of Energy laboratories: (Geophysical) Multiphase Flow with Interphase Exchange. As demonstrated in this manuscript, (G)MFIX can successfully simulate a large span of pyroclastic phenomena and related processes: plinian clouds, pyroclastic flows and surges, flow transformations, and depositional processes. Plinian cloud simulations agree well with the ...


Scattering Matrices Of Volcanic Ash Particles Of Mount St. Helens, Redoubt, And Mount Spurr Volcanoes, O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, B. Veihelmann, W. J. Van Der Zande, L. B. F. M. Waters, William I. Rose Aug 2004

Scattering Matrices Of Volcanic Ash Particles Of Mount St. Helens, Redoubt, And Mount Spurr Volcanoes, O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, B. Veihelmann, W. J. Van Der Zande, L. B. F. M. Waters, William I. Rose

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

We present measurements of the whole scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle at a wavelength of 632.8 nm in the scattering angle range 3°–174° of randomly oriented particles taken from seven samples of volcanic ashes corresponding to four different volcanic eruptions: the 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption, the 1989–1990 Redoubt eruption, and the 18 August and 17 September 1992 Mount Spurr eruptions. The samples were collected at different distances from the vent. The samples studied contain large mass fractions of fine particles and were chosen to represent ash that could remain in ...


Particles In The Great Pinatubo Volcanic Cloud Of June 1991:The Role Of Ice, Song Guo, William I. Rose, Gregg J. S. Bluth, M. I. Watson May 2004

Particles In The Great Pinatubo Volcanic Cloud Of June 1991:The Role Of Ice, Song Guo, William I. Rose, Gregg J. S. Bluth, M. I. Watson

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Pinatubo's 15 June 1991 eruption was Earth's largest of the last 25 years, and it formed a substantial volcanic cloud. We present results of analysis of satellite-based infrared remote sensing using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder/High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder/2 (TOVS/HIRS/2) sensors, during the first few days of atmospheric residence of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud, as it drifted from the Philippines toward Africa. An SO2-rich upper (25 km) portion drifted westward slightly faster than an ash-rich lower (22 km) part, though uncertainty exists due to difficulty ...


Re-Evaluation Of So2 Release Of The 15 June 1991 Pinatubo Eruption Using Ultraviolet And Infrared Satellite Sensors, Song Guo, Gregg J. S. Bluth, William I. Rose, M. I. Watson, A. J. Prata Apr 2004

Re-Evaluation Of So2 Release Of The 15 June 1991 Pinatubo Eruption Using Ultraviolet And Infrared Satellite Sensors, Song Guo, Gregg J. S. Bluth, William I. Rose, M. I. Watson, A. J. Prata

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

In this study, ultraviolet TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite data for SO2 are re-evaluated for the first 15 days following the 15 June 1991 Pinatubo eruption to reflect new data retrieval and reduction methods. Infrared satellite SO2 data from the TOVS/HIRS/2 (TIROS (Television Infrared Observation Satellite) Optical Vertical Sounder/High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder/2) sensor, whose data sets have a higher temporal resolution, are also analyzed for the first time for Pinatubo. Extrapolation of SO2 masses calculated from TOMS and TOVS satellite measurements 19–118 hours after the eruption suggest initial SO2 ...