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Full-Text Articles in Applied Mechanics

Collapse Resistance Of Moment Resisting Frame And Shear Wall Rc Structural Systems Exposed To Blast, Alaa I. Chehab, Christopher D. Eamon, Joshua Griffin Oct 2016

Collapse Resistance Of Moment Resisting Frame And Shear Wall Rc Structural Systems Exposed To Blast, Alaa I. Chehab, Christopher D. Eamon, Joshua Griffin

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

Various characteristics of a structure influence its response when subjected to a blast load. This has important implications for survivability and resistance to progressive collapse. In this study, the effect of the type of lateral load resisting system on reinforced concrete building resistance to progressive collapse when exposed to blast load is examined. Fourteen different reinforced concrete structures were considered for analysis, with five structures designed as moment resisting frames and nine designed as shear walls systems. Buildings with 3, 6, and 10 stories with 3, 4, and 5-bay symmetric configurations were considered. The structures were exposed to external and ...


Evaluation Of Alternative Implementation Methods Of Failure Sampling Approach For Structural Reliability Analysis, Kapil Patki, Christopher D. Eamon Apr 2016

Evaluation Of Alternative Implementation Methods Of Failure Sampling Approach For Structural Reliability Analysis, Kapil Patki, Christopher D. Eamon

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

In this paper, several alternative approaches are used to implement the failure sampling method for structural reliability analysis and are evaluated for effectiveness. Although no theoretical limitation exists as to the types of problems that failure sampling can solve, the method is most competitive for problems that cannot be accurately solved with reliability index-based approaches and for which simulation is needed. These problems tend to have non-smooth limit state boundaries or are otherwise highly nonlinear. Results from numerical integration and three extrapolation approaches using the generalized lambda distribution, Johnson's distribution, and generalized extreme value distribution are compared. A variety ...


Design Live Load Factor Calibration For Michigan Highway Bridges, Christopher D. Eamon, Valid Kamjoo, Kazuhiko Shinki Feb 2016

Design Live Load Factor Calibration For Michigan Highway Bridges, Christopher D. Eamon, Valid Kamjoo, Kazuhiko Shinki

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

In this study, a reliability-based calibration of live load factors for bridge design specific to the State of Michigan was conducted. Two years of high frequency WIM data from 20 representative state-wide sites were analyzed, and load effects were generated for bridge spans from 6 to 122 m (20 to 400 ft), considering simple and continuous moments and shears, as well as single lane and two lane effects. Seventy-five year statistics for maximum live load were then estimated with probabilistic projection. Bridge girders considered for the calibration included composite steel, prestressed concrete, side-by-side and spread box beams, as well as ...


Field Tests Of Two Prestressed Concrete Girder Bridges For Live Load Distribution And Moment Continuity, Christopher D. Eamon, Alaa Chehab, Gustavo Parra-Montesinos Jan 2016

Field Tests Of Two Prestressed Concrete Girder Bridges For Live Load Distribution And Moment Continuity, Christopher D. Eamon, Alaa Chehab, Gustavo Parra-Montesinos

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

Two similar bridges constructed with a live load continuous connection were tested for live load distribution and joint continuity. Girder distribution factors (GDFs) were compared to AASHTO equivalent values. For positive moments on all girders as for negative moments on interior girders, results using AASHTO equivalent GDFs were found to be generally conservative. However, for negative moments on exterior girders, test results exceeded AASHTO values, with 2-lane results significantly so. GDF results were verified with a FEA model, which produced similar behavior to the field tests. With respect to joint continuity, it is estimated that a simple span would produce ...


Load Path Uncertainty In A Wood Structure And The Effect On Structural Reliability, Wenqi Wang, Christopher D. Eamon Nov 2013

Load Path Uncertainty In A Wood Structure And The Effect On Structural Reliability, Wenqi Wang, Christopher D. Eamon

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

The roof truss bearing points of a light-framed wood house were instrumented with load cells. It was found that under dead load alone, symmetric and theoretically identical truss reactions have significant variation. A similar degree of reaction discrepancy was found under the application of uplift pressures caused by hurricane winds. Analysis revealed that the majority of this discrepancy is caused by inherent uncertainties in load path. Although uncertainties in load magnitude and material resistance are accounted for in design by use of appropriate load and resistance factors, load path is generally taken to be deterministic. In this study, load path ...


Reliability Analysis Of Reinforced Concrete Columns Exposed To Fire, Christopher D. Eamon, Elin A. Jensen Nov 2013

Reliability Analysis Of Reinforced Concrete Columns Exposed To Fire, Christopher D. Eamon, Elin A. Jensen

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

A reliability analysis is conducted on reinforced concrete columns subjected to fire load. From an evaluation of load frequency of occurrence, load random variables are taken to be dead load, sustained live load, and fire temperature. Resistance is developed for axial capacity, with random variables taken as steel yield strength, concrete compressive strength, placement of reinforcement, and section width and height. A rational interaction model based on the Rankine approach is used to estimate column capacity as a function of fire exposure time. Various factors were considered in the analysis such as fire type, load ratio, reinforcement ratio, cover, concrete ...


Reliability-Based Design Optimization Of Concrete Flexural Members Reinforced With Ductile Frp Bars, Bashar Behnam, Christopher D. Eamon Jun 2013

Reliability-Based Design Optimization Of Concrete Flexural Members Reinforced With Ductile Frp Bars, Bashar Behnam, Christopher D. Eamon

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

In recent years, ductile hybrid FRP (DHFRP) bars have been developed for use as tensile reinforcement. However, initial material costs regain high, and it is difficult to simultaneously meet strength, stiffness, ductility, and reliability demands. In this study, a reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) is conducted to determine minimum cost DHFRP bar configurations while enforcing essential constraints. Applications for bridge decks and building beams are considered, with 2, 3, and 4-material bars. It was found that optimal bar configuration has little variation for the different applications, and that overall optimized bar cost decreased as the number of bar materials increased.


Analysis Of Alternative Ductile Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Reinforcing Bar Concepts, Bashar Behnam, Christopher D. Eamon Mar 2013

Analysis Of Alternative Ductile Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Reinforcing Bar Concepts, Bashar Behnam, Christopher D. Eamon

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

Steel-reinforced concrete structural components are often associated with significant maintenance costs as a result of reinforcement corrosion. To mitigate this problem, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have been used in place of traditional steel reinforcement for some applications. The non-ductile response of typical FRP bars is a concern, however. To overcome this problem, hybrid ductile FRP (HDFRP) bars have been developed for use in concrete flexural members with resulting ductility indices similar to sections reinforced with steel. In this study, five different HDFRP bar concepts are analyzed and compared in terms of ductility, stiffness, and relative cost. Of primary interest is ...


Resistance Factors For Ductile Frp-Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members, Bashar Behnam, Christopher D. Eamon Jan 2013

Resistance Factors For Ductile Frp-Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members, Bashar Behnam, Christopher D. Eamon

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

To prevent damage caused by corroding reinforcement, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing bars have been used in place of steel in a relatively small but increasing number of structures in the civil infrastructure. A concern with the use of traditional FRP bars, however, is the resulting lack of ductility. This problem has been overcome with the development of a new generation of composite reinforcement, ductile hybrid FRP (DHFRP) bars. However, standards that address the design of DHFRP bars are unavailable, and appropriate resistance factors for the use of DHFRP reinforcement are unknown. In this study, a reliability analysis is conducted ...


Reliability Analysis Of Rc Beams Exposed To Fire, Christopher D. Eamon, Elin A. Jensen Jan 2013

Reliability Analysis Of Rc Beams Exposed To Fire, Christopher D. Eamon, Elin A. Jensen

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

A procedure for conducting reliability analysis of reinforced concrete beams subjected to a fire load is presented. This involves identifying relevant load combinations, specifying critical load and resistance random variables, and establishing a high-temperature performance model for beam capacity. Based on the procedure, an initial reliability analysis is conducted using currently available data. Significant load random variables are taken to be dead load, sustained live load, and fire temperature. Resistance is in terms of moment capacity, with random variables taken as steel yield strength, concrete compressive strength, placement of reinforcement, beam width, and thermal diffusivity. A semi-empirical model is used ...


Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Alternative Reinforcement Materials For Bridge Superstructures Considering Cost And Maintenance Uncertainties, Christopher D. Eamon, Elin A. Jensen, Nabil F. Grace, Xiuwei Shi Mar 2012

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Alternative Reinforcement Materials For Bridge Superstructures Considering Cost And Maintenance Uncertainties, Christopher D. Eamon, Elin A. Jensen, Nabil F. Grace, Xiuwei Shi

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

A life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) was conducted on prestressed concrete bridges using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars and strands. Traditional reinforcement materials of uncoated steel with cathodic protection and epoxy-coated steel were also considered for comparison. A series of deterministic LCCAs were first conducted to identify a range of expected cost outcomes for different bridge spans and traffic volumes. Then, a probabilistic LCCA was conducted on selected structures that included activity timing and cost random variables. It was found that although more expensive initially, the use of CFRP reinforcement has the potential to achieve significant reductions in life ...


Reliability Estimation Of Complex Numerical Problems Using Modified Conditional Expectation Method, Christopher D. Eamon, Bulakorn Charumas Oct 2010

Reliability Estimation Of Complex Numerical Problems Using Modified Conditional Expectation Method, Christopher D. Eamon, Bulakorn Charumas

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

A simulation-based structural reliability analysis method is presented. It is intended as an alternate approach to estimate reliability for problems for which most-probable point of failure methods fail and when computational resources are limited. The proposed method combines conditional expectation and estimating the PDF or CDF of a selected portion of the limit state. In the proposed approach, complex limit state functions are simplified to two random variable problems. The success of the simplification depends on the quality of the CDF estimate. Results indicate that the method may provide accurate and efficient solutions for some difficult reliability problems.


Integrated Reliability And Sizing Optimization Of A Large Composite Structure, Christopher D. Eamon, Masoud Rais-Rohani Apr 2009

Integrated Reliability And Sizing Optimization Of A Large Composite Structure, Christopher D. Eamon, Masoud Rais-Rohani

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

In this paper, we present the application of probabilistic design modeling and reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) methodology to the sizing optimization of a composite advanced submarine sail structure under parametric uncertainty. With the help of probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the influence of individual random variables on each structural failure mode is examined, and the critical modes are treated as probabilistic design constraints under consistent lower bounds on the corresponding reliability indices. Whereas the failure modes are applied to structural components in the solution of the RBDO problem, the overall system reliability is also evaluated as a post-optimization step. The results indicate ...


Reliability Analysis Of Plank Decks, Andrzej S. Nowak, Christopher D. Eamon Sep 2008

Reliability Analysis Of Plank Decks, Andrzej S. Nowak, Christopher D. Eamon

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

The objective of this study is to summarize the load and resistance criteria for highway bridge plank decks, and to estimate the reliability of plank decks designed by AASHTO Code. Both transverse and longitudinal planks for a variety of typical stringer spacings and plank sizes are considered. Truck traffic load data is based on the model used to calibrate the 1994 AASHTO LRFD Code. However, for plank decks, wheel load rather than whole vehicle weight is most important, and these statistics are developed for this study. For wood planks, dead load and dynamic load are not significant. The limit state ...


Reliability Of Concrete Masonry Unit Walls Subjected To Explosive Loads, Christopher D. Eamon Jul 2007

Reliability Of Concrete Masonry Unit Walls Subjected To Explosive Loads, Christopher D. Eamon

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

This study discuses the development of a procedure that can be used to assess the reliability of concrete masonry unit infill walls subjected to personnel-delivered blast loads. Consideration is given to maintain reasonable computational effort for both the structural analysis and reliability models. Blast load and wall resistance models are developed based on experimental and analytical data, and resistance is evaluated with a large strain, large displacement transient dynamic finite element analysis. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify significant random variables and a reliability analysis conducted with a feasible level of computational effort. Reliability indices are estimated for two ...


Observations Of Structural Damage Caused By Hurricane Katrina On The Mississippi Gulf Coast, Christopher D. Eamon, Patrick Fitzpatrick, Dennis D. Truax Apr 2007

Observations Of Structural Damage Caused By Hurricane Katrina On The Mississippi Gulf Coast, Christopher D. Eamon, Patrick Fitzpatrick, Dennis D. Truax

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

The loads associated with Hurricane Katrina led to the destruction or severe damage of approximately 130,000 homes and over 200 deaths in the state of Mississippi. This paper discusses the results of a field inspection of structural damage along the state’s Gulf Coast area caused by this hurricane. It was found that reinforced concrete, steel frame, and heavy timber structures generally performed well, with minimal structural damage. Precast concrete, light frame wood, and bridge structures generally performed poorly. Non-structural components of all building types, in particular facades and interior partitions subjected to storm surge, were typically destroyed. For ...


Reliability-Based Optimization Of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite Bridge Deck Panels, Michel D. Thompson, Christopher D. Eamon, Masoud Rais-Rohani Dec 2006

Reliability-Based Optimization Of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite Bridge Deck Panels, Michel D. Thompson, Christopher D. Eamon, Masoud Rais-Rohani

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

A reliability-based optimization (RBO) procedure is developed and applied to minimize the weight of eight fiber-reinforced polymer composite bridge deck panel configurations. The method utilizes interlinked finite element, optimization, and reliability analysis procedures to solve the weight minimization problem with a deterministic strength constraint and two probabilistic deflection constraints. Panels are composed of an upper face plate, lower face plate, and a grid of interior stiffeners. Different panel depths and stiffener layouts are considered. Sensitivity analyses are conducted to identify significant design and random variables. Optimization design variables are panel component ply thicknesses while random variables include load and material ...


Load And Resistance Factor Calibration For Wood Bridges, Andrzej S. Nowak, Christopher D. Eamon Nov 2005

Load And Resistance Factor Calibration For Wood Bridges, Andrzej S. Nowak, Christopher D. Eamon

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

The paper presents the calibration procedure and background data for the development of design code provisions for wood bridges. The structural types considered include sawn lumber stringers, glued-laminated girders, and various wood deck types. Load and resistance parameters are treated as random variables, and therefore, the structural performance is measured in terms of the reliability index. The statistical parameters of dead load and live (traffic) load, are based on the results of previous studies. Material resistance is taken from the available test data, which includes consideration of the post-elastic response. The resistance of components and structural systems is based on ...


Evaluation Of Accuracy And Efficiency Of Some Simulation And Sampling Methods In Structural Reliability Analysis, Christopher D. Eamon, Michel D. Thompson, Zhenyu Liu Jul 2005

Evaluation Of Accuracy And Efficiency Of Some Simulation And Sampling Methods In Structural Reliability Analysis, Christopher D. Eamon, Michel D. Thompson, Zhenyu Liu

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

Numerous simulation and sampling methods can be used to estimate reliability index or failure probability. Some point sampling methods require only a fraction of the computational effort of direct simulation methods. For many of these methods, however, it is not clear what trade-offs in terms of accuracy, precision, and computational effort can be expected, nor for which types of functions they are most suited. This study uses nine procedures to estimate failure probability and reliability index of approximately 200 limit state functions with characteristics common in structural reliability problems. The effects of function linearity, type of random variable distribution, variance ...


Effect Of Edge-Stiffening And Diaphragms On The Reliability Of Bridge Girders, Christopher D. Eamon, Andrzej S. Nowak Mar 2005

Effect Of Edge-Stiffening And Diaphragms On The Reliability Of Bridge Girders, Christopher D. Eamon, Andrzej S. Nowak

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

Secondary elements such as barriers, sidewalks, and diaphragms may affect the distribution of live load to bridge girders. The objective of this study is to evaluate their effect on girder reliability if these elements are designed to be sufficiently attached to the bridge so as not to detach under traffic live loads. Simple span, two lane structures are considered, with composite steel girders supporting a reinforced concrete deck. Several representative structures are selected, with various configurations of barriers, sidewalks and diaphragms. Bridge analysis is performed using a finite element procedure. Load and resistance parameters are treated as random variables. Random ...


Modeling Concrete Masonry Walls Subjected To Explosive Loads, Christopher D. Eamon, James T. Baylot, James L. O'Daniel Aug 2004

Modeling Concrete Masonry Walls Subjected To Explosive Loads, Christopher D. Eamon, James T. Baylot, James L. O'Daniel

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

Concrete masonry unit walls subjected to blast pressure were analyzed with the finite element method, with the goal of developing a computationally-efficient and accurate model. Wall behavior can be grouped into three modes of failure, which correspond to three ranges of blast pressures. Computational results were compared to high-speed video images and debris velocities obtained from experimental data. A parametric analysis was conducted to determine the sensitivity of computed results to critical modeling values. It was found that the model has the ability to replicate experimental results with good agreement. However, it was also found that, without knowledge of actual ...