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Full-Text Articles in Applied Mechanics

Stabilizing Electrochemical Carbon Capture Membrane With Al2O3 Thin-Film Overcoating Synthesized By Chemical Vapor Deposition, Jingjing Tong, Fengzhan Si, Lingling Zhang, Jie Fang, Minfang Han, Kevin Huang Jan 2015

Stabilizing Electrochemical Carbon Capture Membrane With Al2O3 Thin-Film Overcoating Synthesized By Chemical Vapor Deposition, Jingjing Tong, Fengzhan Si, Lingling Zhang, Jie Fang, Minfang Han, Kevin Huang

Faculty Publications

Development of high-efficiency and cost-effective carbon capture technology is a central element of our effort to battle the global warming and climate change. Here we report that the unique high-flux and high-selectivity of electrochemical silver-carbonate dual-phase membranes can be retained for an extended period of operation by overcoating the surfaces of porous silver matrix with a uniform layer of Al2O3 thin-film derived from chemical vapor deposition.


La0.7Sr0.3Fe0.7Ga0.3O3-Δ As Electrode Material For A Symmetrical Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Zhibin Yang, Yu Chen, Chao Jin, Guoliang Xiao, Minfang Han, Fanglin Chen Jan 2015

La0.7Sr0.3Fe0.7Ga0.3O3-Δ As Electrode Material For A Symmetrical Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Zhibin Yang, Yu Chen, Chao Jin, Guoliang Xiao, Minfang Han, Fanglin Chen

Faculty Publications

In this research, La0.7Sr0.3Fe0.7Ga0.3O3−δ (LSFG) perovskite oxide was successfully prepared using a microwave-assisted combustion method, and employed as both anode and cathode in symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells. A maximum power density of 489 mW cm−2 was achieved at 800 °C with wet H2 as the fuel and ambient air as the oxidant in a single cell with the configuration LSFG|La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.83Mg0.17O3−δ|LSFG. Furthermore, the cells demonstrated good stability in ...


La0.6Sr1.4Mno4+Δ Layered Perovskite Oxide: Enhanced Catalytic Activity For The Oxygen Reduction Reaction, Yarong Wang, Zhibin Yang, Fanliang Liu, Chao Jin, Jiao Wu, Ming Shen, Ruizhi Yang, Fanglin Chen Jan 2015

La0.6Sr1.4Mno4+Δ Layered Perovskite Oxide: Enhanced Catalytic Activity For The Oxygen Reduction Reaction, Yarong Wang, Zhibin Yang, Fanliang Liu, Chao Jin, Jiao Wu, Ming Shen, Ruizhi Yang, Fanglin Chen

Faculty Publications

Efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a critical factor to influence the performance of lithium–oxygen batteries. In this study, La0.6Sr1.4MnO4+δ layered perovskite oxide as a highly active electrocatalyst for the ORR has been prepared, and a carbon-coating layer with thickness <5 nm has been successfully introduced to enhance the electronic conductivity of the as-prepared oxide. XRD, XPS, Raman, SEM and TEM measurements were carried out to characterize the crystalline structure and morphology of these samples. Rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) technique has been used to study catalytic activities of the as-prepared catalysts for the ORR in 0.1 M KOH media. RRDE results reveal that carbon-coated La0.6Sr1.4MnO4+δ exhibits better catalytic activity for the ORR. For the carbon-coated La0.6Sr1.4MnO4+δ, the ORR proceeds predominately via a direct four electron process, and a maximum cathodic current density of 6.70 mA cm ...


Direct Synthesis Of Methane From Co2-H2O Co-Electrolysis In Tubular Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells, Long Chen, Fanglin Chen, Changrong Xia Dec 2014

Direct Synthesis Of Methane From Co2-H2O Co-Electrolysis In Tubular Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells, Long Chen, Fanglin Chen, Changrong Xia

Faculty Publications

Directly converting CO2 to hydrocarbons offers a potential route for carbon-neutral energy technologies. Here we report a novel design, integrating the high-temperature CO2–H2O co-electrolysis and low-temperature Fischer–Tropsch synthesis in a single tubular unit, for the direct synthesis of methane from CO2 with a substantial yield of 11.84%.


Synthesis And Formation Mechanism Of Cuins2 Nanocrystals With A Tunable Phase, Chao Yu, Linlin Zhang, Long Tian, Dan Liu, Fanglin Chen, Cheng Wang Nov 2014

Synthesis And Formation Mechanism Of Cuins2 Nanocrystals With A Tunable Phase, Chao Yu, Linlin Zhang, Long Tian, Dan Liu, Fanglin Chen, Cheng Wang

Faculty Publications

Chalcopyrite CuInS2 (CIS) hierarchical structures composed of nanoflakes with a thickness of about 5 nm were synthesized by a facial solvothermal method. The thermodynamically metastable wurtzite phase CIS would be obtained by using InCl3 instead of In(NO3)3 as In precursor. The effects of the In precursor and the volume of concentrated HCl aqueous solution on the phases and morphologies of CIS nanocrystals have been systematically investigated. Experimental results indicated that the obtained phases of CIS nanocrystals were predominantly determined by precursor-induced intermediate products. The photocatalytic properties of chalcopyrite and wurtzite CIS in visible-light-driven degradation of ...


Host-Guest Interaction Dictated Selective Adsorption And Fluorescence Quenching Of A Luminescent Lightweight Metal-Organic Framework Toward Liquid Explosives, Dan Liu, Xiaojuan Liu, Yongxin Liu, Yang Yu, Fanglin Chen, Cheng Wang Oct 2014

Host-Guest Interaction Dictated Selective Adsorption And Fluorescence Quenching Of A Luminescent Lightweight Metal-Organic Framework Toward Liquid Explosives, Dan Liu, Xiaojuan Liu, Yongxin Liu, Yang Yu, Fanglin Chen, Cheng Wang

Faculty Publications

In this article, we report the successful preparation of a Mg-based luminescent MIL-53 metal–organic framework (MOF), namely [Mg2(BDC)2(BPNO)]·2DMF (1) (BDC = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylate, BPNO = 4,4’- dipyridyl-N,N’-dioxide, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) in a mixed solvent containing a 2 : 3 volume ratio of DMF and ethanol (EtOH) under solvothermal conditions. Desolvated compound 1a can be used as an absorbent for selective adsorption and separation of liquid explosives, including nitroaromatic (nitrobenzene (NB)) and nitroaliphatic (nitromethane (NM) and nitroethane (NE)) compounds, through single crystal-to-single crystal (SC–SC) transformations. As one of the weakly luminescent MOFs, the luminescence ...


Phonon Confinement Using Spirally Designed Elastic Resonators In Discrete Continuum, Sourav Banerjee, Raiz U. Ahmed Jun 2014

Phonon Confinement Using Spirally Designed Elastic Resonators In Discrete Continuum, Sourav Banerjee, Raiz U. Ahmed

Faculty Publications

Periodic and chiral orientation of microstructures, here we call phononic crystals, have extraordinary capabilities to facilitate the innovative design of new generation metamaterials. Periodic arrangements of phononic crystals are capable of opening portals of non-passing, non-dispersive mechanical waves. Defying conventional design of regular periodicity, in this paper spirally periodic but chiral orientation of resonators are envisioned. Dynamics of the spirally connected resonators and the acoustic wave propagation through the spirally connected multiple local resonators are studied using fundamental physics. In present study the spiral systems with local resonators are assumed to be discrete media immersed in fluid. In this paper ...


Redox Stable Anodes For Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Guoliang Xiao, Fanglin Chen Jun 2014

Redox Stable Anodes For Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Guoliang Xiao, Fanglin Chen

Faculty Publications

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) can convert chemical energy from the fuel directly to electrical energy with high efficiency and fuel flexibility. Ni-based cermets have been the most widely adopted anode for SOFCs. However, the conventional Ni-based anode has low tolerance to sulfur-contamination, is vulnerable to deactivation by carbon build-up (coking) from direct oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels, and suffers volume instability upon redox cycling. Among these limitations, the redox instability of the anode is particularly important and has been intensively studied since the SOFC anode may experience redox cycling during fuel cell operations even with the ideal pure hydrogen as ...


Characterization Of 3d Interconnected Microstructural Network In Mixed Ionic And Electronic Conducting Ceramic Composites, William M. Harris, Kyle S. Brinkman, Ye Lin, Dong Su, Alex P. Cocco, Arata Nakajo, Matthew B. Degostin, Yu-Chen Karen Chen-Wiegart, Jun Wang, Fanglin Chen, Yong S. Chu, Wilson K. S. Chiu May 2014

Characterization Of 3d Interconnected Microstructural Network In Mixed Ionic And Electronic Conducting Ceramic Composites, William M. Harris, Kyle S. Brinkman, Ye Lin, Dong Su, Alex P. Cocco, Arata Nakajo, Matthew B. Degostin, Yu-Chen Karen Chen-Wiegart, Jun Wang, Fanglin Chen, Yong S. Chu, Wilson K. S. Chiu

Faculty Publications

The microstructure and connectivity of the ionic and electronic conductive phases in composite ceramic membranes are directly related to device performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including chemical mapping combined with X-ray nanotomography (XNT) have been used to characterize the composition and 3-D microstructure of a MIEC composite model system consisting of a Ce0.8Gd0.2O2 (GDC) oxygen ion conductive phase and a CoFe2O4 (CFO) electronic conductive phase. The microstructural data is discussed, including the composition and distribution of an emergent phase which takes the form of isolated and distinct regions. Performance implications ...


A Sinteractive Ni-Bazr0.8Y0.2O3-Δ Composite Membrane For Hydrogen Separation, Shumin Fang, Siwei Wang, Kyle S. Brinkman, Fanglin Chen Apr 2014

A Sinteractive Ni-Bazr0.8Y0.2O3-Δ Composite Membrane For Hydrogen Separation, Shumin Fang, Siwei Wang, Kyle S. Brinkman, Fanglin Chen

Faculty Publications

BaZr0.8Y0.2O3−δ (BZY) is an excellent candidate material for hydrogen permeation membranes due to its high bulk proton conductivity, mechanical robustness, and chemical stability in H2O- and CO2-containing environments. Unfortunately, the use of BZY as a separation membrane has been greatly restrained by its highly refractory nature, poor grain boundary proton conductivity, high number of grain boundaries resulting from limited grain growth during sintering, as well as low electronic conductivity. These problems can be resolved by the fabrication of a Ni–BZY composite membrane with large BZY grains, which ...


Investigation Of The High-Temperature Redox Chemistry Of Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-Δ Via In Situ Neutron Diffraction, Daniel E. Bugaris, Jason P. Hodges, Ashfia Hug, W. Michael Chance, Andreas Heyden, Fanglin Chen, Hans-Conrad Zur Loye Mar 2014

Investigation Of The High-Temperature Redox Chemistry Of Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-Δ Via In Situ Neutron Diffraction, Daniel E. Bugaris, Jason P. Hodges, Ashfia Hug, W. Michael Chance, Andreas Heyden, Fanglin Chen, Hans-Conrad Zur Loye

Faculty Publications

Crystallographic structural changes were investigated for Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6−δ, an electrode material for symmetric solid oxide fuel cells. The samples of this material were heated and cooled in wet hydrogen and wet oxygen atmospheres, to simulate the reducing and oxidizing conditions experienced under actual fuel cell operating conditions, and their structures and oxygen contents were determined using in situ powder neutron diffraction. The existence of a reversible tetragonal to cubic phase transition was established to occur between room temperature and 400 °C, both on heating and cooling in either oxygen or hydrogen ...


Design, Fabrication, And Properties Of 2-2 Connectivity Cement/Polymer Based Piezoelectric Composites With Varied Piezoelectric Phase Distribution, Xu Dongyu, Cheng Xin, Sourav Banerjee, Huang Shifeng Jan 2014

Design, Fabrication, And Properties Of 2-2 Connectivity Cement/Polymer Based Piezoelectric Composites With Varied Piezoelectric Phase Distribution, Xu Dongyu, Cheng Xin, Sourav Banerjee, Huang Shifeng

Faculty Publications

The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with variedpiezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramicas active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction ofpiezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and thepiezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric ...


Low Frequency Energy Scavenging Using Sub-Wave Length Scale Acousto-Elastic Metamaterial, Raiz U. Ahmed, Sourav Banerjee Jan 2014

Low Frequency Energy Scavenging Using Sub-Wave Length Scale Acousto-Elastic Metamaterial, Raiz U. Ahmed, Sourav Banerjee

Faculty Publications

This letter presents the possibility of energy scavenging (ES) utilizing the physics of acousto-elastic metamaterial (AEMM) at low frequencies (<∼3KHz). It is proposed to use the AEMM in a dual mode (Acoustic Filter and Energy Harvester), simultaneously. AEMM’s are typically reported for filtering acoustic waves by trapping or guiding the acoustic energy, whereas this letter shows that the dynamic energy trapped inside the soft constituent (matrix) ofmetamaterials can be significantly harvested by strategically embedding piezoelectric wafers in the matrix. With unit cell AEMM model, we experimentally asserted that at lower acoustic frequencies (< ∼3 KHz), maximum power in the micro Watts (∼35µW) range can be generated, whereas, recently reported phononic crystal based metamaterials harvested only nano Watt (∼30nW) power against 10KΩ resistive load. Efficient energy scavengers at low acoustic frequencies are almost absent due to large required size relevant to the acoustic wavelength. Here we report sub wave length scale energy scavengers utilizing the coupled physics of local, structural and matrix resonances. Upon validation of the argument through analytical, numerical and experimental studies, a multi-frequency energy scavenger (ES) with multi-cellmodel is designed with varying geometrical properties capable of scavenging energy (power output from ∼10µW – ∼90µW) between 0.2 KHz and 1.5 KHz acoustic frequencies.


Influence Of Crystal Structure On The Electrochemical Performance Of A-Site-Deficient Sr1-SNb0.1Co0.9O3-Δ Perovskite Cathodes, Yinlong Zhu, Ye Lin, Xuan Shen, Jaka Sunarso, Wei Zhou, Shanshan Jiang, Dong Su, Fanglin Chen, Zongping Shao Jan 2014

Influence Of Crystal Structure On The Electrochemical Performance Of A-Site-Deficient Sr1-SNb0.1Co0.9O3-Δ Perovskite Cathodes, Yinlong Zhu, Ye Lin, Xuan Shen, Jaka Sunarso, Wei Zhou, Shanshan Jiang, Dong Su, Fanglin Chen, Zongping Shao

Faculty Publications

The creation of A-site cation defects within a perovskite oxide can substantially alter the structure and properties of its stoichiometric analogue. In this work, we demonstrate that by vacating 2 and 5% of Asite cations from SrNb0.1Co0.9O3-δ (SNC1.00) perovskites (Sr1-sNb0.1Co0.9O3-δ,s = 0.02 and 0.05; denoted as SNC0.98 and SNC0.95, respectively), a Jahn–Teller (JT) distortion with varying extents takes place, leading to the formation of a modified crystal lattice within a the perovskite framework. Electrical conductivity, electrochemical performance, chemical ...


Ni-Doped Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-Δ As Anode Materials For Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Guoliang Xiao, Siwei Wang, Ye Lin, Zhibin Yang, Minfang Han, Fanglin Chen Jan 2014

Ni-Doped Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-Δ As Anode Materials For Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Guoliang Xiao, Siwei Wang, Ye Lin, Zhibin Yang, Minfang Han, Fanglin Chen

Faculty Publications

10% Ni-doped Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-δ with A-site deficiency is prepared to induce in situ precipitation of B-site metals under anode conditions in solid oxide fuel cells. XRD, SEM and TEM results show that a significant amount of nano-sized Ni-Fe alloy metal phase has precipitated out from Sr1.9Fe1.4Ni0.1Mo0.5O6-δ upon reduction at 800C in H2. The conductivity of the reduced composite reaches 29 S cm−1 at 800C in H2. Furthermore, fuel cell performance of the composite anode ...


Enhanced Reducibility And Conductivity Of Na/K-Doped Srti0.8Nb0.2O3, Guoliang Xiao, Sirikanda Nuansaeng, Lei Zhang, Suwit Suthirakun, Andreas Heyden, Hans-Conrad Zur Loye, Fanglin Chen Sep 2013

Enhanced Reducibility And Conductivity Of Na/K-Doped Srti0.8Nb0.2O3, Guoliang Xiao, Sirikanda Nuansaeng, Lei Zhang, Suwit Suthirakun, Andreas Heyden, Hans-Conrad Zur Loye, Fanglin Chen

Faculty Publications

Donor and acceptor co-doped SrTiO3 materials have shown interesting features in their conductivity and reducibility. In this work, 10 mol% Na+ or K+ as acceptor dopants have been introduced into the A-site of donor-doped strontium titanate, SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3, and the doping impact on their properties has been studied. By doping with Na or K, the sinterability of SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3 in reducing atmospheres has been improved. Na0.1Sr0.9Ti0.8Nb0.2O3 and K0.1Sr0.9Ti ...


Enhanced Nucleate Boiling On Horizontal Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Carbon Nanotube Coatings, Xianming Dai, Xinyu Huang, Fanghao Yang, Xiaodong Li, Joshua Sightler, Yingchao Yang, Chen Li Apr 2013

Enhanced Nucleate Boiling On Horizontal Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Carbon Nanotube Coatings, Xianming Dai, Xinyu Huang, Fanghao Yang, Xiaodong Li, Joshua Sightler, Yingchao Yang, Chen Li

Faculty Publications

Ideal hydrophobic-hydrophilic composite cavities are highly desired to enhance nucleate boiling. However, it is challenging and costly to fabricate these types of cavities by conventional micro/nano fabrication techniques. In this study, a type of hydrophobic-hydrophilic composite interfaces were synthesized from functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes by introducing hydrophilic functional groups on the pristine multiwall carbon nanotubes. This type of carbon nanotube enabled hydrophobic-hydrophilic composite interfaces were systematically characterized. Ideal cavities created by the interfaces were experimentally demonstrated to be the primary reason to substantially enhance nucleate boiling


Wave Propagation In Metamaterial Using Multiscale Resonators By Creating Local Anisotropy, Raiz U. Ahmed, Sourav Banerjee Jan 2013

Wave Propagation In Metamaterial Using Multiscale Resonators By Creating Local Anisotropy, Raiz U. Ahmed, Sourav Banerjee

Faculty Publications

Directional guiding, passing or stopping of elastic waves through engineered materials have many applications to the engineering fields. Recently, such engineered composite materials received great attention by the broader research community. In elastic waves, the longitudinal and transverse motion of material particles are coupled, which exhibits richer physics and demands greater attention than electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves in fluids. Waves in periodic media exhibit the property of Bragg scattering and create frequency band gaps in which the energy propagation is prohibited. However, in addition to the Bragg scattering, it has been found that local resonance of artificially designed resonators ...


The Effect Of Isostatic Pressing On The Dielectric Properties Of Screen Printed Ba0.5Sr0.5Tio3 Thick Films, Siwei Wang, Lingling Zhang, Jiwei Zhai, Fanglin Chen Jan 2013

The Effect Of Isostatic Pressing On The Dielectric Properties Of Screen Printed Ba0.5Sr0.5Tio3 Thick Films, Siwei Wang, Lingling Zhang, Jiwei Zhai, Fanglin Chen

Faculty Publications

Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thick films with B2O3–Li2O glass sintering aid were prepared by the screen printing method on Al2O3 substrates. A 200 MPa isostatic pressure was applied to the films before sintering. After being sintered at 950C, lower porosity and denser microstructure was obtained compared with the films without isostatic pressing. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were 238 and 0.0028, respectively. A tunability of 61.7% was obtained for the isostatic pressed films, a 27.8% enhancement compared to unpressurized films. These results ...


High Performance Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells With Novel Electrode Architecture, Yu Chen, Qian Liu, Zhibin Yang, Fanglin Chen, Minfang Han Dec 2012

High Performance Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells With Novel Electrode Architecture, Yu Chen, Qian Liu, Zhibin Yang, Fanglin Chen, Minfang Han

Faculty Publications

In this study, we have fabricated high performance low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs) with both acicular anodes and cathodes with thin Gd-doped ceria (GDC) electrolyte film. The acicular Ni-Gd0.1Ce0.9O2−δ (Ni-GDC) anode was prepared using freeze drying tape casting, while the hierarchically porous cathode with nano-size Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (SSC) particles covering an acicular GDC skeleton was prepared by a combination of freeze drying tape casting and self-rising approaches. The acicular electrodes with 5–200 μm pores/channels enhance mass transport, while SSC particles of about ...


Atomistic Investigation Of Scratching-Induced Deformation Twinning In Nanocrystalline Cu, Junjie Zhang, Tao Sun, Yoganda Yan, Dong Shen, Xiaodong Li Oct 2012

Atomistic Investigation Of Scratching-Induced Deformation Twinning In Nanocrystalline Cu, Junjie Zhang, Tao Sun, Yoganda Yan, Dong Shen, Xiaodong Li

Faculty Publications

Deformation twinning is an important deformation mode of nanocrystalline metals. In current study, we investigate the scratching-induced deformation twinning in nanocrystallineCu by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The tribological behavior, the deformation mechanisms, the formation mechanism of deformation twins, and the grain size dependence of the propensity of deformation twinning are elucidated. Simulation results demonstrate that deformation twinning plays an important role in the plastic deformation of nanocrystallineCu under nanoscratching, in addition to dislocation activity and grain boundary-associated mechanism. The nucleation of initial twinning partial dislocations originates from the dissociation of lattice partial dislocations that emit from grain boundary triple ...


Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-Δ – Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 Composite Anodes For Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Beibei He, Ling Zhao, Shuxiang Song, Tong Liu, Fanglin Chen, Changrong Xia Mar 2012

Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-Δ – Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 Composite Anodes For Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Beibei He, Ling Zhao, Shuxiang Song, Tong Liu, Fanglin Chen, Changrong Xia

Faculty Publications

Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6−δ (SFM) perovskite is carefully investigated as an anode material for solid oxide fuel cells with LaGaO3-based electrolytes. Its electronic conductivity under anodic atmosphere is measured with four-probe method while its ionic conductivity is determined with oxygen permeation measurement. Samaria doped ceria (SDC) is incorporated into SFM electrode to improve the anodic performance. A strong relation is observed between SDC addition and polarization losses, suggesting that the internal SFM-SDC contacts are active for H2 oxidation. The best electrode performance is achieved for the composite with 30 wt ...


A New Approach For The Preparation Of Variable Valence Rare Earth Alloys From Nano Rare Earth Oxides At A Low Temperature In Molten Salt, Milin Zhang, Yongde Yan, Wei Han, Xing Li, Zhiyao Hou, Yang Tian, Ke Ye, Lihong Bao, Xiaodong Li, Zhijian Zhang Feb 2012

A New Approach For The Preparation Of Variable Valence Rare Earth Alloys From Nano Rare Earth Oxides At A Low Temperature In Molten Salt, Milin Zhang, Yongde Yan, Wei Han, Xing Li, Zhiyao Hou, Yang Tian, Ke Ye, Lihong Bao, Xiaodong Li, Zhijian Zhang

Faculty Publications

The solubility of RE2O3 (RE = Eu, Sm, and Yb) with variable valence in molten salts is extremely low. It is impossible to directly obtain variable valence metals or alloys from RE2O3 using electrolysis in molten salts. We describe a new approach for the preparation of variable valence rare earth alloys from nano rare earth oxide. The excellent dispersion of nano–Eu2O3 in LiCl–KCl melts was clearly observed using a luminescent feature of Eu3+ as a probe. The ratio of solubility of nano-Sm2O3/common Sm2O ...


Aerosol-Assisted Synthesis Of Monodisperse Single-Crystalline Α-Cristobalite Nanospheres, Xingmao Jiang, Lihong Bao, Yung-Sung Cheng, Darren R. Dunphy, Xiaodong Li, C. Jeffrey Brinker Dec 2011

Aerosol-Assisted Synthesis Of Monodisperse Single-Crystalline Α-Cristobalite Nanospheres, Xingmao Jiang, Lihong Bao, Yung-Sung Cheng, Darren R. Dunphy, Xiaodong Li, C. Jeffrey Brinker

Faculty Publications

Monodisperse single-crystalline α-cristobalite nanospheres have been synthesized by hydrocarbon-pyrolysis-induced carbon deposition on amorphous silica aerosol nanoparticles, devitrification of the coated silica at high temperature, and subsequent carbon removal by oxidation. The nanosphere size can be well controlled by tuning the size of the colloidal silica precursor. Uniform, high-purity nanocrystalline α-cristobalite is important for catalysis, nanocomposites, advanced polishing, and understanding silica nanotoxicology.


Synthesis, Structural, Optical And Mechanical Characterization Of Srb2O4 Nanorods, Rui Li, Lihong Bao, Xiaodong Li Oct 2011

Synthesis, Structural, Optical And Mechanical Characterization Of Srb2O4 Nanorods, Rui Li, Lihong Bao, Xiaodong Li

Faculty Publications

Single crystalline strontium borate (SrB2O4) nanorods were synthesized for the first time via a facile sol–gel route at low temperature. The SrB2O4 nanorods have a good crystalline nature with the growth direction along the [511] orientation and they are transparent from the ultraviolet to the visible regimes. Nanoscale three-point bending tests were performed directly on individual nanorods to probe their mechanical properties using an atomic force microscope. The elastic modulus of SrB2O4 nanorods was measured to be 158.2 ± 2.8 GPa, exhibiting a significant increase compared with other borate ...


In Situ Synthesis Of Ultrafine ß-Mno2/Polypyrrole Nanorod Composites For High-Performance Supercapacitors, Jianfeng Zang, Xiaodong Li Aug 2011

In Situ Synthesis Of Ultrafine ß-Mno2/Polypyrrole Nanorod Composites For High-Performance Supercapacitors, Jianfeng Zang, Xiaodong Li

Faculty Publications

We report a remarkable observation that is at odds with the established notion that β-MnO2 was regarded as an undesirable candidate for supercapacitor applications. The specific capacitance of β-MnO2 can reach as high as 294 F g−1, which is comparable to the best crystallographic structure, like α-MnO2. The key is to substantially decrease the size of β-MnO2 powders to ultra small regime. We demonstrate a facile, simple, and effective approach to synthesizing ultrafine (<10 nm in diameter) β-MnO2/polypyrrole nanorod composite powders for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. Our observation may encourage a revisit of the other good or even bad ...


Characteristics Of The Hydrogen Electrode In High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Process, Chao Jin, Chenghao Yang, Fanglin Chen Aug 2011

Characteristics Of The Hydrogen Electrode In High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Process, Chao Jin, Chenghao Yang, Fanglin Chen

Faculty Publications

YSZ-electrolyte supported solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOECs) using LSM-YSZ oxygen electrode but with three types of hydrogen electrode, Ni–SDC, Ni–YSZ and LSCM–YSZ have been fabricated and characterized under different steam contents in the feeding gas at 850°C. Electrochemical impedance spectra results show that cell resistances increase with the increase in steam concentrations under both open circuit voltage and electrolysis conditions, suggesting that electrolysis reaction becomes more difficult in high steam content. Pt reference electrode was applied to evaluate the contributions of the hydrogen electrode and oxygen electrode in the electrolysis process. Electrochemical impedance spectra and over ...


A Generic Bamboo-Based Carbothermal Method For Preparing Carbide (Sic, B4C, Tic, Tac, Nbc, TiXNb1-XC, And TaX Nb1-XC) Nanowires, Xinyong Tao, Yiping Li, Jun Du, Yang Xia, Yingchao Yang, Hui Huang, Yongping Gan, Wenkui Zhang, Xiaodong Li Jun 2011

A Generic Bamboo-Based Carbothermal Method For Preparing Carbide (Sic, B4C, Tic, Tac, Nbc, TiXNb1-XC, And TaX Nb1-XC) Nanowires, Xinyong Tao, Yiping Li, Jun Du, Yang Xia, Yingchao Yang, Hui Huang, Yongping Gan, Wenkui Zhang, Xiaodong Li

Faculty Publications

Finding a general procedure to produce a whole class of materials in a similar way is a desired goal of materials chemistry. In this work, we report a new bamboo-based carbothermal method to prepare nanowires of covalent carbides (SiC and B4C) and interstitial carbides (TiC, TaC, NbC, TixNb1−xC, and TaxNb1−xC). The use of natural nanoporous bamboo as both the renewable carbon source and the template for the formation of catalyst particles greatly simplifies the synthesis process. Based on the structural, morphological and elemental analysis, volatileoxides or halides assisted ...


Structural Health Monitoring With Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors—Predictive Modeling And Simulation, Victor Giurgiutiu Jan 2010

Structural Health Monitoring With Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors—Predictive Modeling And Simulation, Victor Giurgiutiu

Faculty Publications

This paper starts a review of the state of the art in structural health monitoring with piezoelectric wafer active sensors and follows with highlighting the limitations of the current approaches which are predominantly experimental. Subsequently, the paper examines the needs for developing a predictive modeling methodology that would allow to perform extensive parameter studies to determine the sensing method’s sensitivity to damage and insensitivity to confounding factors such as environmental changes, vibrations, and structural manufacturing variability. The thesis is made that such a predictive methodology should be multi-scale and multi-domain, thus encompassing the modeling of structure, sensors, electronics, and ...


Enhance Diamond Coating Adhesion By Oriented Interlayer Microcracking, Habio Guo, Xingcheng Xiao, Yue Qi, Zhi-Hui Xu, Xiaodong Li Dec 2009

Enhance Diamond Coating Adhesion By Oriented Interlayer Microcracking, Habio Guo, Xingcheng Xiao, Yue Qi, Zhi-Hui Xu, Xiaodong Li

Faculty Publications

In this paper, we report a microcrack toughening mechanism for enhancing the adhesion of diamondcoating. The oriented microcracks were formed within the TiC interlayer to dissipate strain energy and accommodate deformation via the crack opening-closing mechanism, thus enhancing the coating/substrate interfacial toughness. The delamination of diamondcoating was effectively prevented when the parallel microcracks were confined within the interlayer and arrested at interfaces of coating/interlayer/substrate. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the highly anisotropicfracture strength of the TiC phase energetically favors crack initiation and propagation along (100) planes only, which are 54.7° away from the interface. These ...