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Full-Text Articles in Applied Mechanics

Investigation Of Nondestructive Testing Methods For Friction Stir Welding, Hossein Taheri, Margaret Kilpatrick, Matthew Norvalls, Warren Harper, Lucas Koester, Timothy Bigelow, Leonard J. Bond Jun 2019

Investigation Of Nondestructive Testing Methods For Friction Stir Welding, Hossein Taheri, Margaret Kilpatrick, Matthew Norvalls, Warren Harper, Lucas Koester, Timothy Bigelow, Leonard J. Bond

Timothy A. Bigelow

Friction stir welding is a method of materials processing that enables the joining of similar and dissimilar materials. The process, as originally designed by The Welding Institute (TWI), provides a unique approach to manufacturing—where materials can be joined in many designs and still retain mechanical properties that are similar to, or greater than, other forms of welding. This process is not free of defects that can alter, limit, and occasionally render the resulting weld unusable. Most common amongst these defects are kissing bonds, wormholes and cracks that are often hidden from visual inspection. To identify these defects, various nondestructive ...


On-Chip Development Of Hydrogel Microfibers From Round To Square/Ribbon Shape, Zhenhua Bai, Janet M. Mendoza Reyes, Reza Montazami, Nicole Nastaran Hashemi Nov 2018

On-Chip Development Of Hydrogel Microfibers From Round To Square/Ribbon Shape, Zhenhua Bai, Janet M. Mendoza Reyes, Reza Montazami, Nicole Nastaran Hashemi

Nicole N. Hashemi

We use a microfluidic approach to fabricate gelatin fibers with controlled sizes and cross-sections. Uniform gelatin microfibers with various morphologies and cross-sections (round and square) are fabricated by increasing the gelatin concentration of the core solution from 8% to 12%. Moreover, the increase of gelatin concentration greatly improves the mechanical properties of gelatin fibers; the Young's modulus and tensile stress at break of gelatin (12%) fibers are raised about 2.2 and 1.9 times as those of gelatin (8%) fibers. The COMSOL simulations indicate that the sizes and cross-sections of the gelatin fibers can be tuned by using ...


Synthesis Of Graphene Nanosheets Through Spontaneous Sodiation Process, Deepak-George Thomas, Emrah Kavak, Niloofar Hashemi, Reza Montazami, Nicole N. Hashemi Nov 2018

Synthesis Of Graphene Nanosheets Through Spontaneous Sodiation Process, Deepak-George Thomas, Emrah Kavak, Niloofar Hashemi, Reza Montazami, Nicole N. Hashemi

Nicole N. Hashemi

Graphene is one of the emerging materials in the nanotechnology industry due to its potential applications in diverse areas. We report the fabrication of graphene nanosheets by spontaneous electrochemical reaction using solvated ion intercalation into graphite. The current literature focuses on the fabrication of graphene using lithium metal. Our procedure uses sodium metal, which results in a reduction of costs. Using various characterization techniques, we confirmed the fabrication of graphene nanosheets. We obtained an intensity ratio (ID/IG) of 0.32 using Raman spectroscopy, interlayer spacing of 0.39 nm and our XPS results indicate that our fabricated compound is ...


Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu Aug 2015

Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu

Md Mahmudur Rahman

No abstract provided.


Design, Fabrication, And Properties Of 2-2 Connectivity Cement/Polymer Based Piezoelectric Composites With Varied Piezoelectric Phase Distribution, Xu Dongyu, Cheng Xin, Sourav Banerjee, Huang Shifeng Apr 2015

Design, Fabrication, And Properties Of 2-2 Connectivity Cement/Polymer Based Piezoelectric Composites With Varied Piezoelectric Phase Distribution, Xu Dongyu, Cheng Xin, Sourav Banerjee, Huang Shifeng

Sourav Banerjee

The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with variedpiezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramicas active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction ofpiezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and thepiezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric ...


Banded Microstructure In 2024-T351 And 2524-T351 Aluminum Friction Stir Welds: Part Ii. Mechanical Characterization, Michael Sutton, Bangcheng Yang, Anthony Reynolds, Junhui Yan Mar 2015

Banded Microstructure In 2024-T351 And 2524-T351 Aluminum Friction Stir Welds: Part Ii. Mechanical Characterization, Michael Sutton, Bangcheng Yang, Anthony Reynolds, Junhui Yan

Anthony P. Reynolds

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of 3d Interconnected Microstructural Network In Mixed Ionic And Electronic Conducting Ceramic Composites, William M. Harris, Kyle S. Brinkman, Ye Lin, Dong Su, Alex P. Cocco, Arata Nakajo, Matthew B. Degostin, Yu-Chen Karen Chen-Wiegart, Jun Wang, Fanglin Chen, Yong S. Chu, Wilson K. S. Chiu Mar 2015

Characterization Of 3d Interconnected Microstructural Network In Mixed Ionic And Electronic Conducting Ceramic Composites, William M. Harris, Kyle S. Brinkman, Ye Lin, Dong Su, Alex P. Cocco, Arata Nakajo, Matthew B. Degostin, Yu-Chen Karen Chen-Wiegart, Jun Wang, Fanglin Chen, Yong S. Chu, Wilson K. S. Chiu

Fanglin Chen

The microstructure and connectivity of the ionic and electronic conductive phases in composite ceramic membranes are directly related to device performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including chemical mapping combined with X-ray nanotomography (XNT) have been used to characterize the composition and 3-D microstructure of a MIEC composite model system consisting of a Ce0.8Gd0.2O2 (GDC) oxygen ion conductive phase and a CoFe2O4 (CFO) electronic conductive phase. The microstructural data is discussed, including the composition and distribution of an emergent phase which takes the form of isolated and distinct regions. Performance implications ...


A Sinteractive Ni-Bazr0.8Y0.2O3-Δ Composite Membrane For Hydrogen Separation, Shumin Fang, Siwei Wang, Kyle S. Brinkman, Fanglin Chen Mar 2015

A Sinteractive Ni-Bazr0.8Y0.2O3-Δ Composite Membrane For Hydrogen Separation, Shumin Fang, Siwei Wang, Kyle S. Brinkman, Fanglin Chen

Fanglin Chen

BaZr0.8Y0.2O3−δ (BZY) is an excellent candidate material for hydrogen permeation membranes due to its high bulk proton conductivity, mechanical robustness, and chemical stability in H2O- and CO2-containing environments. Unfortunately, the use of BZY as a separation membrane has been greatly restrained by its highly refractory nature, poor grain boundary proton conductivity, high number of grain boundaries resulting from limited grain growth during sintering, as well as low electronic conductivity. These problems can be resolved by the fabrication of a Ni–BZY composite membrane with large BZY grains, which ...


Impact Damage On A Thin Glass Plate With A Thin Polycarbonate Backing, Wenke Hu, Yenan Wang, Jian Yu, Chian-Fong Yen, Florin Bobaru Nov 2013

Impact Damage On A Thin Glass Plate With A Thin Polycarbonate Backing, Wenke Hu, Yenan Wang, Jian Yu, Chian-Fong Yen, Florin Bobaru

Florin Bobaru Ph.D.

We present experimental and computational results for the impact of a spherical projectile on a thin glass plate with a thin polycarbonate backing plate, restrained in a metal frame, or in the absence of the frame. We analyze the dependence of the damage patterns in the glass plate on the increasing impact velocities, from 61 m/s to 200 m/s. Experimental results are compared with those from peridynamic simulations of a simplified model. The main fracture patterns observed experimentally are captured by the peridynamic model for each of the three projectile velocities tested. More accurate implementation of the actual ...


Influence Of Van Der Waals Forces On Increasing The Strength And Toughness In Dynamic Fracture Of Nanofibre Networks: A Peridynamic Approach, Florin Bobaru Ph.D. Jul 2013

Influence Of Van Der Waals Forces On Increasing The Strength And Toughness In Dynamic Fracture Of Nanofibre Networks: A Peridynamic Approach, Florin Bobaru Ph.D.

Florin Bobaru Ph.D.

The peridynamic method is used here to analyse the effect of van der Waals forces on the mechanical behaviour and strength and toughness properties of three-dimensional nanofibre networks under imposed stretch deformation. The peridynamic formulation allows for a natural inclusion of long-range forces (such as van der Waals forces) by considering all interactions as ‘long-range’. We use van der Waals interactions only between different fibres and do not need to model individual atoms. Fracture is introduced at the microstructural (peridynamic bond) level for the microelastic type bonds, while van der Waals bonds can reform at any time. We conduct statistical ...


Studies Of Dynamic Crack Propagation And Crack Branching With Peridynamics, Youn Doh Ha Ph.D., Florin Bobaru Ph.D. Jul 2013

Studies Of Dynamic Crack Propagation And Crack Branching With Peridynamics, Youn Doh Ha Ph.D., Florin Bobaru Ph.D.

Florin Bobaru Ph.D.

In this paper we discuss the peridynamic analysis of dynamic crack branching in brittle materials and show results of convergence studies under uniform grid refinement (m-convergence) and under decreasing the peridynamic horizon (δ-convergence). Comparisons with experimentally obtained values are made for the crack-tip propagation speed with three different peridynamic horizons.We also analyze the influence of the particular shape of themicro-modulus function and of different materials (Duran 50 glass and soda-lime glass) on the crack propagation behavior. We show that the peridynamic solution for this problem captures all the main features, observed experimentally, of dynamic crack propagation and branching, as ...


Controlling Nanoparticles Formation In Molten Metallic Bilayers By Pulsed-Laser Interference Heating, Mikhail Khenner, Sagar Yadavali, Ramki Kalyanaraman Dec 2011

Controlling Nanoparticles Formation In Molten Metallic Bilayers By Pulsed-Laser Interference Heating, Mikhail Khenner, Sagar Yadavali, Ramki Kalyanaraman

Mikhail Khenner

The impacts of the two-beam interference heating on the number of core-shell and embedded nanoparticles and on nanostructure coarsening are studied numerically based on the non-linear dynamical model for dewetting of the pulsed-laser irradiated, thin (< 20 nm) metallic bilayers. The model incorporates thermocapillary forces and disjoining pressures, and assumes dewetting from the optically transparent substrate atop of the reflective support layer, which results in the complicated dependence of light reflectivity and absorption on the thicknesses of the layers. Stabilizing thermocapillary effect is due to the local thickness-dependent, steady- state temperature profile in the liquid, which is derived based on the mean substrate temperature estimated from the elaborate thermal model of transient heating and melting/freezing. Linear stability analysis of the model equations set for Ag/Co bilayer predicts the dewetting length scales in the qualitative agreement with experiment.


Formation Of Organized Nanostructures From Unstable Bilayers Of Thin Metallic Liquids, Mikhail Khenner, Sagar Yadavali, Ramki Kalyanaraman Dec 2011

Formation Of Organized Nanostructures From Unstable Bilayers Of Thin Metallic Liquids, Mikhail Khenner, Sagar Yadavali, Ramki Kalyanaraman

Mikhail Khenner

Dewetting of pulsed-laser irradiated, thin (< 20 nm), optically reflective metallic bilayers on an optically transparent substrate with a reflective support layer is studied within the lubrication equations model. A steady-state bilayer film thickness (h) dependent temperature profile is derived based on the mean substrate temperature estimated from the elaborate thermal model of transient heating and melting/freezing. Large thermocapillary forces are observed along the plane of the liquid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces due to this h-dependent temperature, which, in turn, is strongly influenced by the h-dependent laser light reflection and absorption. Consequently the dewetting is a result of the competition between thermocapillary and intermolecular forces. A linear analysis of the dewetting length scales established that the non-isothermal calculations better predict the experimental results as compared to the isothermal case within the bounding Hamaker coefficients. Subsequently, a computational non-linear dynamics study of the dewetting pathway was performed for Ag/Co and Co/Ag bilayer systems to predict the morphology evolution. We found that the systems evolve towards formation of different morphologies, including core-shell, embedded, or stacked nanostructure morphologies.


Stability Of A Strongly Anisotropic Thin Epitaxial Film In A Wetting Interaction With Elastic Substrate, Mikhail Khenner, Wondimu T. Tekalign, Margo S. Levine Dec 2010

Stability Of A Strongly Anisotropic Thin Epitaxial Film In A Wetting Interaction With Elastic Substrate, Mikhail Khenner, Wondimu T. Tekalign, Margo S. Levine

Mikhail Khenner

The linear dispersion relation for longwave surface perturbations, as derived by Levine et al. Phys. Rev. B 75, 205312 (2007) is extended to include a smooth surface energy anisotropy function with a variable anisotropy strength (from weak to strong, such that sharp corners and slightly curved facets occur on the corresponding Wulff shape). Through detailed parametric studies it is shown that a combination of a wetting interaction and strong anisotropy, and even a wetting interaction alone results in complicated linear stability characteristics of strained and unstrained films.


Modeling Diverse Physics Of Nanoparticle Self-Assembly In Pulsed Laser-Irradiated Metallic Films, Mikhail Khenner Dec 2010

Modeling Diverse Physics Of Nanoparticle Self-Assembly In Pulsed Laser-Irradiated Metallic Films, Mikhail Khenner

Mikhail Khenner

Presents physics behind dewetting of thin liquid films and mathematical/computational modeling tools (Educational/Research presentation for senior physics majors).


Reverse Logic - Safety Of Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal, Antti Lempinen, Marianne Silvan-Lempinen Dec 2010

Reverse Logic - Safety Of Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal, Antti Lempinen, Marianne Silvan-Lempinen

Antti Lempinen

No abstract provided.


Morphological Evolution Of Single-Crystal Ultrathin Solid Films, Mikhail Khenner Mar 2010

Morphological Evolution Of Single-Crystal Ultrathin Solid Films, Mikhail Khenner

Mikhail Khenner

An introduction to mathematical modeling of ultrathin solid films and the role of such modeling in nanotechnologies: Educational/Research presentation for senior physics majors


A Tangent-Plane, Marker-Particle Method For The Computation Of Three-Dimensional Solid Surfaces Evolving By Surface Diffusion On A Substrate, Ping Du, Mikhail Khenner, Harris Wong Dec 2009

A Tangent-Plane, Marker-Particle Method For The Computation Of Three-Dimensional Solid Surfaces Evolving By Surface Diffusion On A Substrate, Ping Du, Mikhail Khenner, Harris Wong

Mikhail Khenner

We introduce a marker-particle method for the computation of three-dimensional solid surface morphologies evolving by surface diffusion. The method does not use gridding of surfaces or numerical differentiation, and applies to surfaces with finite slopes and overhangs. We demonstrate the method by computing the evolution of perturbed cylindrical wires on a substrate. We show that computed growth rates at early times agree with those predicted by the linear stability analysis. Furthermore, when the marker particles are redistributed periodically to maintain even spacing, the method can follow breakup of the wire.


Oscillatory And Monotonic Modes Of Long-Wave Marangoni Convection In A Thin Film, Sergey Shklyaev, Mikhail Khenner, Alexei Alabuzhev Dec 2009

Oscillatory And Monotonic Modes Of Long-Wave Marangoni Convection In A Thin Film, Sergey Shklyaev, Mikhail Khenner, Alexei Alabuzhev

Mikhail Khenner

We study long-wave Marangoni convection in a layer heated from below. Using the scaling k=O#1;#3;Bi#2;, where k is the wave number and Bi is the Biot number, we derive a set of amplitude equations. Analysis of this set shows presence of monotonic and oscillatory modes of instability. Oscillatory mode has not been previously found for such direction of heating. Studies of weakly nonlinear dynamics demonstrate that stable steady and oscillatory patterns can be found near the stability threshold.


Thickness-Dependent Spontaneous Dewetting Morphology Of Ultrathin Ag Films, H Krishna, R Sachan, J Strader, C Favazza, Mikhail Khenner, Ramki Kalyanaraman Dec 2009

Thickness-Dependent Spontaneous Dewetting Morphology Of Ultrathin Ag Films, H Krishna, R Sachan, J Strader, C Favazza, Mikhail Khenner, Ramki Kalyanaraman

Mikhail Khenner

We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO2 under nanosecond laser melting is found to be film thickness dependent. For films with thickness h between 2<=h<=9.5 nm, the intermediate stages of the morphology consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films 11.5<=h<=20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly-sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films [A. Shama et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., v81, pp3463 (1998); R. Seemann et al, J. Phys. Cond. Matt., v13, pp4925, (2001)]. Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for Ag on SiO2. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.


Thermocapillary Effects In Driven Dewetting And Self-Assembly Of Pulsed Laser-Irradiated Metallic Films, Mikhail Khenner Nov 2009

Thermocapillary Effects In Driven Dewetting And Self-Assembly Of Pulsed Laser-Irradiated Metallic Films, Mikhail Khenner

Mikhail Khenner

A mathematical model for the evolution of pulsed laser-irradiated, molten metallic films has been developed using the lubrication theory. The heat transfer problem that incorporates the absorbed heat from a single laser beam or the interfering laser beams is solved analytically. Using this temperature field, we derive the 3D long-wave evolution PDE for the film height. To get insights into dynamics of dewetting, we study the 2D version of the evolution equation by means of a linear stability analysis and by numerical simulations. The stabilizing and destabilizing effects of various system parameters, such as the reflectivity, the peak laser beam ...


Thermocapillary Effects In Driven Dewetting And Self-Assembly Of Pulsed Laser-Irradiated Metallic Films, Agegnehu Atena, Mikhail Khenner Dec 2008

Thermocapillary Effects In Driven Dewetting And Self-Assembly Of Pulsed Laser-Irradiated Metallic Films, Agegnehu Atena, Mikhail Khenner

Mikhail Khenner

In this paper the lubrication-type dynamical model is developed of a molten, pulsed laser-irradiated metallic film. The heat transfer problem that incorporates the absorbed heat from a single beam or interfering beams is solved analytically. Using this temperature field, we derive the 3D long-wave evolution PDE for the film height. To get insights into dynamics of dewetting, we study the 2D version of the evolution equation by means of a linear stability analysis and by numerical simulations. The stabilizing and destabilizing effects of various system parameters, such as the peak laser beam intensity, the film optical thickness, the Biot and ...


Morphologies And Kinetics Of A Dewetting Ultrathin Solid Film, Mikhail Khenner Dec 2007

Morphologies And Kinetics Of A Dewetting Ultrathin Solid Film, Mikhail Khenner

Mikhail Khenner

The surface evolution model based on geometric partial differential equation is used to numerically study the kinetics of dewetting and dynamic morphologies for the localized pinhole defect in the surface of the ultrathin solid film with the strongly anisotropic surface energy. Depending on parameters such as the initial depth and width of the pinole, the strength of the attractive substrate potential and the strength of the surface energy anisotropy, the pinhole may either extend to the substrate and thus rupture the film, or evolve to the quasiequilibrium shape while the rest of the film surface undergoes phase separation into a ...


Enhanced Stability Of A Dewetting Thin Liquid Film In A Single-Frequency Vibration Field, Sergey Shklyaev, Mikhail Khenner, Alexei Alabuzhev Dec 2007

Enhanced Stability Of A Dewetting Thin Liquid Film In A Single-Frequency Vibration Field, Sergey Shklyaev, Mikhail Khenner, Alexei Alabuzhev

Mikhail Khenner

Dynamics of a thin dewetting liquid film on a vertically oscillating substrate is considered. We assume moderate vibration frequency and large (compared to the mean film thickness) vibration amplitude. Using the lubrication approximation and the averaging method, we formulate the coupled sets of equations governing the pulsatile and the averaged fluid flows in the film, and then derive the nonlinear amplitude equation for the averaged film thickness. We show that there exists a window in the frequency-amplitude domain where the parametric and shear-flow instabilities of the pulsatile flow do not emerge. As a consequence, in this window the averaged description ...