Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Mechanical Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Finite element method

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 48

Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical Characterizations Of 3d-Printed Plla/Steel Particle Composites, Hozhabr Mozafari, Pengfei Dong, Haitham Hadidi, Michael P. Sealy, Linxia Gu Jan 2019

Mechanical Characterizations Of 3d-Printed Plla/Steel Particle Composites, Hozhabr Mozafari, Pengfei Dong, Haitham Hadidi, Michael P. Sealy, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The objective of this study is to characterize the micromechanical properties of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) composites reinforced by grade 420 stainless steel (SS) particles with a specific focus on the interphase properties. The specimens were manufactured using 3D printing techniques due to its many benefits, including high accuracy, cost effectiveness and customized geometry. The adopted fused filament fabrication resulted in a thin interphase layer with an average thickness of 3 μm. The mechanical properties of each phase, as well as the interphase, were characterized by nanoindentation tests. The effect of matrix degradation, i.e., imperfect bonding, on the elastic modulus ...


Migration Resistance Of Esophageal Stents: The Role Of Stent Design, Hozhabr Mozafari, Pengfei Dong, Shijia Zhao, Yonghua Bi, Xinwei Han, Linxia Gu Jun 2018

Migration Resistance Of Esophageal Stents: The Role Of Stent Design, Hozhabr Mozafari, Pengfei Dong, Shijia Zhao, Yonghua Bi, Xinwei Han, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Objective: Stenting is one of the major treatments for malignant esophageal cancer. However, stent migration compromises clinical outcomes. A flared end design of the stent diminishes its migration. The goal of this work is to quantitatively characterize stent migration to develop new strategies for better clinical outcomes.

Methods: An esophageal stent with flared ends and a straight counterpart were virtually deployed in an esophagus with asymmetric stricture using the finite element method. The resulted esophagus shape, wall stress, and migration resistance force of the stent were quantified and compared.

Results: The lumen gain for both the flared stent and the ...


Computational Methods To Engineer Process-Structure-Property Relationships In Organic Electronics: The Case Of Organic Photovoltaics, Balaji Sesha Sarath Pokuri Jan 2018

Computational Methods To Engineer Process-Structure-Property Relationships In Organic Electronics: The Case Of Organic Photovoltaics, Balaji Sesha Sarath Pokuri

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ever since the Nobel prize winning work by Heeger and his colleagues, organic electronics enjoyed increasing attention from researchers all over the world. While there is a large potential for organic electronics in areas of transistors, solar cells, diodes, flexible displays, RFIDs, smart textiles, smart tattoos, artificial skin, bio-electronics, medical devices and many more, there have been very few applications that reached the market. Organic photovoltaics especially can utilize large market of untapped solar power -- portable and affordable solar conversion devices. While there are several reasons for their unavailability, a major one is the challenge of controlling device morphology at ...


A Scalable Software Framework For Solving Pdes On Distributed Octree Meshes Using Finite Element Methods, Alec Lofquist Jan 2018

A Scalable Software Framework For Solving Pdes On Distributed Octree Meshes Using Finite Element Methods, Alec Lofquist

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Tracking particle motion in inertial flows (especially in obstructed geometries) is a computationally daunting proposition. This is further complicated by that fact that the construction of migration maps for particles (as a function of particle location, flow conditions, and particle size) requires several thousands of simulations tracking individual particles. This calls for the development of an efficient, scalable approach for single particle tracking in fluids. We bring together three distinct elements to accomplish this: (a) a parallel octree based adaptive mesh generation framework, (b) a variational multiscale (VMS) based treatment that enables flow condition agnostic simulations (laminar or turbulent)~\cite ...


Design And Validation Of An In Vivo Long-Term Attachment Capsule Robot, Wanchuan Xie May 2017

Design And Validation Of An In Vivo Long-Term Attachment Capsule Robot, Wanchuan Xie

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The invention of capsule endoscopy (CE) made the non-invasive monitoring of the entire small bowel possible and became the primary means for diagnosing small bowel pathology. In the last decade, capsule robots have been transformed from diagnostic devices into a widely studied biomedical platform with the potential for active locomotion, drug delivery and therapeutic capabilities. To perform accurate on-site drug release and therapy, it is necessary for a capsule robot to be able to attach to the intestinal tissue and maintain its position long-term. Design challenges derive from the task of long-term mucosal adhesion which requires firm, quick-response attachment without ...


The Effect Of Number Of Corrugation On Crashworthiness Of Aluminum Corrugated Tube Under Lateral Loading, Hozhabr Mozafari, Arameh Eyvazian, Abdel Magid Hamouda Jan 2017

The Effect Of Number Of Corrugation On Crashworthiness Of Aluminum Corrugated Tube Under Lateral Loading, Hozhabr Mozafari, Arameh Eyvazian, Abdel Magid Hamouda

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Thin-walled tubes have been developed and are growing in use as new energy absorber structures. The objective of this study is to investigate the energy absorption and crushing characteristics of corrugated tubes with different number of corrugation in a specific length exposed to lateral loading. At the first step, experimental tests were carried out on a corrugated tube with three con'ugations (two inner and one outer) and a tube without corrugation. After that, a finite element model was developed by means of ABAQUS software in order to study the effect of corrugation number on crushing properties of thin-walled tubes ...


Controlling The Error On Target Motion Through Real-Time Mesh Adaptation: Applications To Deep Brain Stimulation, Huu Phuoc Bui, Satyendra Tomar, Hadrien Courtecuisse, M. Audette, Stéphane Cotin, Stéphane P.A. Bordas Jan 2017

Controlling The Error On Target Motion Through Real-Time Mesh Adaptation: Applications To Deep Brain Stimulation, Huu Phuoc Bui, Satyendra Tomar, Hadrien Courtecuisse, M. Audette, Stéphane Cotin, Stéphane P.A. Bordas

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Faculty Publications

We present an error-controlled mesh refinement procedure for needle insertion simulation and apply it to the simulation of electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation, including brain shift.

Our approach enables to control the error in the computation of the displacement and stress fields around the needle tip and needle shaft by suitably refining the mesh, whilst maintaining a coarser mesh in other parts of the domain.

We demonstrate through academic and practical examples that our approach increases the accuracy of the displacement and stress fields around the needle without increasing the computational expense. This enables real-time simulations.

The proposed methodology ...


Manual Revision Process For Project-Based Laboratory Instruction, Gene Hou, Feifei Zhong, Orlando M. Ayala Jan 2017

Manual Revision Process For Project-Based Laboratory Instruction, Gene Hou, Feifei Zhong, Orlando M. Ayala

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

A four-step laboratory manual revision process was developed in this study based upon a technical writing process for supporting project-based laboratory classes. The audience and the objectives of this type of laboratory manuals are quite different from those of traditional, descriptive laboratory classes. The project-based laboratory manual has to serve as both an operational handbook and a theoretical textbook. The proposed four-step manual revision process was implemented in the fall 2016 semester in a 3-credit, senior elective class which was built upon a commercially-rated finite element analysis software package. Student surveys and evaluations showed that the revision process greatly increased ...


Accommodation Of The Human Lens Capsule Using A Finite Element Model Based On Nonlinear Regionally Anisotropic Biomembranes, G. David, Ryan M. Pedrigi, J. D. Humphrey Jan 2017

Accommodation Of The Human Lens Capsule Using A Finite Element Model Based On Nonlinear Regionally Anisotropic Biomembranes, G. David, Ryan M. Pedrigi, J. D. Humphrey

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Accommodation of the eyes, the mechanism that allows humans to focus their vision on near objects, naturally diminishes with age via presbyopia. People who have undergone cataract surgery, using current surgical methods and artificial lens implants, are also left without the ability to accommodate. The process of accommodation is generally well known; however the specific mechanical details have not been adequately explained due to difficulties and consequences of performing in vivo studies. Most studies have modeled the mechanics of accommodation under assumptions of a linearly elastic, isotropic, homogenous lens and lens capsule. Recent experimental and numerical studies showed that the ...


A Coupled Finite Element-Free Galerkin Method For Simulating Viscous Pressure Bulging, Chunjun Dai Oct 2016

A Coupled Finite Element-Free Galerkin Method For Simulating Viscous Pressure Bulging, Chunjun Dai

The 8th International Conference on Physical and Numerical Simulation of Materials Processing

No abstract provided.


Numerical Modeling And Simulation Of Welding Residual Stresses Using Finite Element Method, Jing Zheng, Ayhan Ince Oct 2016

Numerical Modeling And Simulation Of Welding Residual Stresses Using Finite Element Method, Jing Zheng, Ayhan Ince

The 8th International Conference on Physical and Numerical Simulation of Materials Processing

No abstract provided.


Temperature Distributions Influencing Lateral Spread In Industrial Hot Rolling, Baohui Tian, Siegfried Kleber, Silvia Zinner, Peter Markiewicz Oct 2016

Temperature Distributions Influencing Lateral Spread In Industrial Hot Rolling, Baohui Tian, Siegfried Kleber, Silvia Zinner, Peter Markiewicz

The 8th International Conference on Physical and Numerical Simulation of Materials Processing

No abstract provided.


Modifications To Johanson's Roll Compaction Model For Improved Relative Density Predictions, Yu Liu Apr 2016

Modifications To Johanson's Roll Compaction Model For Improved Relative Density Predictions, Yu Liu

Open Access Theses

Johanson’s roll compaction model [J.R. Johanson, A rolling theory for granular solids, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics E32 (1965) 842–848] is modified to improve its predictions of a compacted ribbon’s relative density. Previous work has shown that the maximum roll pressure and ribbon relative density predicted by the Johanson model are not only larger than those predicted from finite element method (FEM) simulations, but also unphysical in some cases. This over-prediction is due to a one-dimensional flow assumption in the Johanson model. Real powder velocity profiles within a roll compactor are non-uniform.

Johanson’s analysis is ...


Computations And Detailing Of Pressure Vessels Having Unusual Requirements In Design, Anil Patnaik, Ashenafi Hegana, Tirumalai Srivatsan Aug 2015

Computations And Detailing Of Pressure Vessels Having Unusual Requirements In Design, Anil Patnaik, Ashenafi Hegana, Tirumalai Srivatsan

Anil Patnaik

The provisions of Australian Standard AS 1210-1989 for design and detailing of unfired pressure vessels can be applied to commonly encountered design situations where the shells have small openings. The technique of finite element analysis is a convenient and powerful tool for the purpose of computational stress analysis when the design requirements are such that either the openings are large, or where concentrated loads and/or thermal movements are present. This paper provides a summary of one such practical design of a pressure vessel. While the computational technique using finite element analysis simplifies the stress analysis of pressure vessels considerably ...


Finite Element Analysis Of Thermal Buckling In Automotive Clutch And Brake Discs, Huizhou Yang Jan 2015

Finite Element Analysis Of Thermal Buckling In Automotive Clutch And Brake Discs, Huizhou Yang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Thermal buckling behavior of automotive clutch and brake discs is studied by making the use of finite element method. It is found that the temperature distribution along the radius and the thickness affects the critical buckling load considerably. The results indicate that a monotonic temperature profile leads to a coning mode with the highest temperature located at the inner radius. Whereas a temperature profile with the maximum temperature located in the middle leads to a dominant non-axisymmetric buckling mode, which results in a much higher buckling temperature. A periodic variation of temperature cannot lead to buckling. The temperature along the ...


Experimental Characterization Of Cu Free-Air Ball And Simulations Of Dielectric Fracture During Wire Bonding, Sai Sudharsanan Paranjothy Oct 2014

Experimental Characterization Of Cu Free-Air Ball And Simulations Of Dielectric Fracture During Wire Bonding, Sai Sudharsanan Paranjothy

Open Access Theses

Wire bonding is the process of forming electrical connection between the integrated circuit (IC) and its structural package. ICs made of material with low dielectric constant (low-k) and ultra low-k are porous in nature, and are prone to fracture induced failure during packaging process. In recent years, there is increasing interest in copper wire bond technology as an alternative to gold wire bond in microelectronic devices due to its superior electrical performance and low cost. Copper wires are also approximately 25% more conductive than Au wires aiding in better heat dissipation. At present, validated constitutive models for the strain rate ...


An Investigation Of The Effect Of Direct Metal Deposition Parameters On The Characteristics Of The Deposited Layers, Tarak A. Amine, Joseph William Newkirk, Frank W. Liou Jul 2014

An Investigation Of The Effect Of Direct Metal Deposition Parameters On The Characteristics Of The Deposited Layers, Tarak A. Amine, Joseph William Newkirk, Frank W. Liou

Materials Science and Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Multilayer direct laser deposition (DLD) is a fabrication process through which parts are fabricated by creating a molten pool into which metal powder is injected as particles. During fabrication, complex thermal activity occurs in different regions of the build; for example, newly deposited layers will reheat previously deposited layers. The objective of this study was to provide insight into the thermal activity that occurs during the DLD process. This work focused on the effect of the laser parameters of newly deposited layers on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the previously deposited layers in order to characterize these effects to ...


Bi-Directional Variable Stiffness Magnetorheological Elastomer (Mre) Design, Sarah S. Trabia May 2014

Bi-Directional Variable Stiffness Magnetorheological Elastomer (Mre) Design, Sarah S. Trabia

College of Engineering: Graduate Celebration

What is MRE?
•MRE is a semi-active silicon with embedded iron particles for variable stiffness changes under external magnetic flux

Research Objective
•Feasibility of using MRE as a haptic feedback device.
•Design a MRE device that can increase or decrease the stiffness.
•Design an effective way of providing a “pre-strain” to the base silicon material.

Computational Simulation
•COMSOL 4.3b Finite Element Analysis
•2D axisymmetric model
•Parametric sweep was run to find the amount of current needed to counteract the permanent magnet.


Applications Of The Variational Approach To Fracture Mechanics, Ataollah Mesgarnejad Jan 2014

Applications Of The Variational Approach To Fracture Mechanics, Ataollah Mesgarnejad

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

In this study we present the variational approach to fracture mechanics as a versatile tool for the modeling of the fracture phenomenon in solids. Variational fracture mechanics restates the problem of initiation and propagation of cracks in solids as an energy minimization problem. The edifice of this energy minimization problem is such that unlike other methods (e.g. extended finite element method XFEM, cohesive-zone methods) the variational approach to fracture mechanics, diminishes the need for an a priori knowledge of the crack path or ad hoc assumptions in the form of path selection laws. We will show applications of the ...


Impact Mechanics And High-Energy Absorbing Materials: Review, Pizhong Qiao, Mijia Yang, Florin Bobaru Jul 2013

Impact Mechanics And High-Energy Absorbing Materials: Review, Pizhong Qiao, Mijia Yang, Florin Bobaru

Florin Bobaru Ph.D.

In this paper a review of impact mechanics and high-energy absorbing materials is presented. We review different theoretical models (rigid-body dynamics, elastic, shock, and plastic wave propagation, and nonclassical or nonlocal models. and computational methods (finite-element, finite-difference, and mesh-free methods. used in impact mechanics. Some recent developments in numerical simulation of impact (e.g., peridynamics) and new design concepts proposed as high energy absorbing materials (lattice and truss structures, hybrid sandwich composites, metal foams, magnetorheological fluids, porous shape memory alloys. are discussed. Recent studies on experimental evaluation and constitutive modeling of strain rate-dependent polymer matrix composites are also presented. Impact ...


Finite Element Simulation Of Wind Turbine Aerodynamics: Validation Study Using Nrel Phase Vi Experiment, Ming-Chen Hsu, Ido Akkerman, Yuri Bazilevs Mar 2013

Finite Element Simulation Of Wind Turbine Aerodynamics: Validation Study Using Nrel Phase Vi Experiment, Ming-Chen Hsu, Ido Akkerman, Yuri Bazilevs

Ming-Chen Hsu

A validation study using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI wind turbine is presented. The aerodynamics simulations are performed using the finite element arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian–variational multiscale formulation augmented with weakly enforced essential boundary conditions. In all cases, the rotor is assumed to be rigid and its rotation is prescribed. The rotor-only simulations are performed for a wide range of wind conditions, and the computational results compare favorably with the experimental findings in all cases. The sliding-interface method is adopted for the simulation of the full wind turbine configuration. The full-wind-turbine simulations capture the blade–tower interaction ...


Simulation Based Characterization And Performance Enhancement Of Heterogeneous Polymer Solar Cells, Hari Krishna Kodali Jan 2013

Simulation Based Characterization And Performance Enhancement Of Heterogeneous Polymer Solar Cells, Hari Krishna Kodali

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Polymer based photovoltaic devices have the potential for widespread usage due to their low cost-per-watt and mechanical flexibility. Efficiencies close to 10 % have been achieved recently in conjugated polymer based organic solar cells. These devices were fabricated using solvent-based processing of electron-donating and electron-accepting materials into the so-called bulk heterojunction (BHJ) architecture. Experimental evidence suggests that a key property determining the power-conversion efficiency of such devices is the final morphological distribution of the donor and acceptor constituents. In order to understand the role of morphology on device performance, we develop a scalable computational framework that efficiently interrogates organic solar cells ...


The Effect Of Structural Distortion On The Fatigue Life Of Large-Diameter Ball Bearing, Jerzy Sawicki, Samuel Johansson, John Rumbarger, Ronald Sharpless Nov 2012

The Effect Of Structural Distortion On The Fatigue Life Of Large-Diameter Ball Bearing, Jerzy Sawicki, Samuel Johansson, John Rumbarger, Ronald Sharpless

Jerzy T. Sawicki

Large-diameter special configuration ball bearings feature narrow raceways with low structural stiffness. They are susceptible to local distortions caused by the surrounding structures, which are often subjected to heavy loading. This presents a difficulty in the design process which relies mainly on defining the individual rolling-element loads within the bearing under the assumption of rigid circular and flat supporting structures. Therefore, the application of large-diameter ball and roller bearing rings as the critical components in rotating machines becomes more of a design task than making a catalog selection. This paper will demonstrate how the finite element analysis can be utilized ...


Biomechanical Modeling For Lung Tumor Motion Prediction During Brachytherapy And Radiotherapy, Zahra Shirzadi Aug 2012

Biomechanical Modeling For Lung Tumor Motion Prediction During Brachytherapy And Radiotherapy, Zahra Shirzadi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A novel technique is proposed to develop a biomechanical model for estimating lung’s tumor position as a function of respiration cycle time. Continuous tumor motion is a major challenge in lung cancer treatment techniques where the tumor needs to be targeted; e.g. in external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. If not accounted for, this motion leads to areas of radiation over and/or under dosage for normal tissue and tumors. In this thesis, biomechanical models were developed for lung tumor motion predication in two distinct cases of lung brachytherapy and lung external beam radiotherapy. The lung and other relevant ...


Finite Element Analysis Of The Implantation Of A Self-Expanding Stent: Impact Of Lesion Calcification, Shijia Zhao, Linxia Gu, Stacey R. Froemming Jun 2012

Finite Element Analysis Of The Implantation Of A Self-Expanding Stent: Impact Of Lesion Calcification, Shijia Zhao, Linxia Gu, Stacey R. Froemming

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

In this work, the deployment of a self-expanding stent in a stenosed artery was evaluated through finite element analysis. The three-layered structure of the artery and their material properties were measured and implemented in our computational models. The instant outcomes, including lumen gain, tissue prolapse, and stress distribution, were quantified, and the effect of plaque calcification was evaluated. Results showed that the peak wall stress occurred on the media layer regardless of plaque calcification. The calcified plaque mitigated the tissue prolapse and arterial wall stresses in general, compared with the soft plaque. However, the lesion calcification led to a more ...


Three-Dimensional Modeling Of Carbon/Epoxy To Titanium Single-Lap Joints With Variable Adhesive Recess Length, Yi Hua, Linxia Gu, Michael Trogdon Jun 2012

Three-Dimensional Modeling Of Carbon/Epoxy To Titanium Single-Lap Joints With Variable Adhesive Recess Length, Yi Hua, Linxia Gu, Michael Trogdon

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The objective of this paper was to investigate the performance of recessed single-lap joints with dissimilar adherends through the finite element method. The influence of material and geometric nonlinearity of the adhesive as well as the impact of the recess length was examined in terms of maximum principal stresses. The strength of the joint was obtained as the load to initiate the crack propagation. Results suggested that either adding a spew fillet or considering the adhesive plasticity led to reduced peak stresses at the edge of the adhesive layer. The presence of a spew fillet in the single-lap joint with ...


The Impact Of Wire Stent Fabrication Technique On The Performance Of Stent Placement, Shijia Zhao, Xiangyi (Cheryl) Liu, Linxia Gu Jan 2012

The Impact Of Wire Stent Fabrication Technique On The Performance Of Stent Placement, Shijia Zhao, Xiangyi (Cheryl) Liu, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Braided wire stents demonstrate distinct characteristics compared to welded ones. In this study, both braided and welded wire stents with the same nominal dimensions were crimped inside a sheath and then deployed into a stenosed artery using finite element analysis. The braided wire stent was generated by overlapping wires to form crisscross shape. A welded wire stent was created by welding the intersection points of wires to avoid sliding between wires. The effect of fabrication technique on mechanical behavior of Nitinol wire stents was evaluated. The results showed that relative sliding between wires reduced the deformation of the braided stent ...


Assessment Of Shape Memory Alloy Stent Deployment In A Stenosed Artery, Shijia Zhao, Linxia Gu, Stacey R. Froemming Jan 2011

Assessment Of Shape Memory Alloy Stent Deployment In A Stenosed Artery, Shijia Zhao, Linxia Gu, Stacey R. Froemming

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Purpose — Shape memory alloy (SMA) stents have been used increasingly for the treatment of complex arterial occlusions. There is an immediate need to quantify the mechanical performance of SMA stents to open occluded arteries.
Methods — The stent crimping and expanding process was assessed through both numerical modeling and in-vitro studies. The implantation of a SMA stent in curved arteries with eccentric stenosis were simulated to evaluate the effect of artery curvature on arterial mechanics.
Results — The crimping process stored a considerable amount of strain energy in the stent, which were then released through self-expansion until a balance between the stent ...


The Relation Between The Arterial Stress And Restenosis Rate After Coronary Stenting, Linxia Gu, Shijia Zhao, Aswini K. Muttyam, James M. Hammel Sep 2010

The Relation Between The Arterial Stress And Restenosis Rate After Coronary Stenting, Linxia Gu, Shijia Zhao, Aswini K. Muttyam, James M. Hammel

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Two commercially available stents (the Palmaz–Schatz (PS) and S670 stents) with reported high and low restenosis rates, respectively, have been investigated in this paper. Finite element models simulating the stent, plaque, and artery interactions in 3 mm stenosed right coronary arteries were developed. These models were used to determine the stress field in artery walls after stent implantation. The material properties of porcine arteries were measured and implemented in the numerical models. The stress concentration induced in the artery by the PS stent was found to be more than double that of the S670 stent. It demonstrated a good ...


Structural Health Monitoring With Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors--Predictive Modeling And Simulation, Victor Giurgiutiu Jan 2010

Structural Health Monitoring With Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors--Predictive Modeling And Simulation, Victor Giurgiutiu

Faculty Publications

This paper starts a review of the state of the art in structural health monitoring with piezoelectric wafer active sensors and follows with highlighting the limitations of the current approaches which are predominantly experimental. Subsequently, the paper examines the needs for developing a predictive modeling methodology that would allow to perform extensive parameter studies to determine the sensing method’s sensitivity to damage and insensitivity to confounding factors such as environmental changes, vibrations, and structural manufacturing variability. The thesis is made that such a predictive methodology should be multi-scale and multi-domain, thus encompassing the modeling of structure, sensors, electronics, and ...