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Articles 1 - 30 of 49

Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Control Of Fluid Dynamics By Nanoparticles In Laser Melting, Chao Ma, Lianyi Chen, Jiaquan Xu, Jingzhou Zhao, Xiaochun Li Jan 2019

Control Of Fluid Dynamics By Nanoparticles In Laser Melting, Chao Ma, Lianyi Chen, Jiaquan Xu, Jingzhou Zhao, Xiaochun Li

Lianyi Chen

Effective control of fluid dynamics is of remarkable scientific and practical significance. It is hypothesized that nanoparticles could offer a novel means to control fluid dynamics. In this study, laser melting was used to investigate the feasibility of tuning fluid dynamics by nanoparticles and possibly breaking existing limits of conventional laser processing techniques. Alumina nanoparticles reinforced nickel samples, fabricated through electrocodeposition, were used for laser melting experiments. Since the melt pool surface is controlled by the fluid dynamics, surface topographies were carefully studied to reveal the nanoparticle effect on the fluid dynamics. Characterizations of surface topographies and microstructures of pure ...


Dynamics Of A Circular Cylinder In Close Proximity To A Wall, Yargo Teixeira Gomes De Melo Jan 2018

Dynamics Of A Circular Cylinder In Close Proximity To A Wall, Yargo Teixeira Gomes De Melo

Master’s Theses

The effect of wall proximity on the mechanism of flow-induced vibration of a circular cylinder mounted in a wind tunnel and free to vibrate with two degrees-of-freedom near a rigid plane boundary were examined at a Reynolds number of 1.86 x 105. Hot-wire anemometry and cylinder-mounted accelerometers were used to characterize the flow-induced vibration of the cylinder. In the near wall region (gap ratios, G/D< 0.4) the system was found to exhibit symptoms of movement-induced vibration resulting from the push-and-draw effect of the cylinder pushing into and out of the fluid immediately upstream and downstream of the cylinder. The variation of the width of the separated wake region with the cylinder motion produces a force in phase with the cylinder velocity, resulting in excitation of the cylinder motion. For G/D > 1.0, the alternate shedding of vortices (the Kármán vortex street) produces a fluctuating lift on the body. The lift force also has an associated drag fluctuation at twice the vortex shedding ...


Mitochondrial Dynamics And Respiration Within Cells With Increased Open Pore Cytoskeletal Meshes, David H. Jang, Sarah C. Seeger, Martha E. Grady, Frances S. Shofer, David M. Eckmann Dec 2017

Mitochondrial Dynamics And Respiration Within Cells With Increased Open Pore Cytoskeletal Meshes, David H. Jang, Sarah C. Seeger, Martha E. Grady, Frances S. Shofer, David M. Eckmann

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

The cytoskeletal architecture directly affects the morphology, motility, and tensional homeostasis of the cell. In addition, the cytoskeleton is important for mitosis, intracellular traffic, organelle motility, and even cellular respiration. The organelle responsible for a majority of the energy conversion for the cell, the mitochondrion, has a dependence on the cytoskeleton for mobility and function. In previous studies, we established that cytoskeletal inhibitors altered the movement of the mitochondria, their morphology, and their respiration in human dermal fibroblasts. Here, we use this protocol to investigate applicability of power law diffusion to describe mitochondrial locomotion, assessment of rates of fission and ...


Dyno-Mite Redesign, Brandon Joseph Miller, Daniel Robert Hoffman, Richard Demedici Young Dec 2017

Dyno-Mite Redesign, Brandon Joseph Miller, Daniel Robert Hoffman, Richard Demedici Young

Mechanical Engineering

The Cal Poly Mechanical Control Systems Laboratory currently employs an outdated device, known as the Motomatic, to teach students about various motor characteristics and control methods. These include open-loop vs. closed-loop control, speed vs. position control, and DC motor response curves. The current device does not function properly and produces unreliable data due to overwhelming non-linear effects such as stiction and shaft misalignment. Our team was tasked with designing a replacement device that retains many of the same educational goals as the original lab procedure, while also adding new educational goals pertaining to the device system dynamics. The new apparatus ...


Finite Strain Micromorphic Elasticity, Elastoplasticity, And Dynamics For Multiscale Finite Element Analysis, Farhad Shahabi Jan 2017

Finite Strain Micromorphic Elasticity, Elastoplasticity, And Dynamics For Multiscale Finite Element Analysis, Farhad Shahabi

Civil Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This study stands as an attempt to consider the micro-structure of materials in a continuum framework by the aid of micromorphic continuum theory in the sense of Eringen. Since classical continuum mechanics do not account for the micro-structural characteristics of materials, they cannot be used to address the macroscopic mechanical response of all micro-structured materials. In the “representative volume element (RVE)” based methods, classical continuum mechanics may be applied to analyze mechanical deformation and stresses of materials at the relevant micro-structural length-scale (such as grains of a polycrystalline metal, or sand, or metal matrix composite, etc), but when applying standard ...


Finite Strain Micromorphic Elasticity, Elastoplasticity, And Dynamics For Multiscale Finite Element Analysis, Farhad Shahabi Jan 2017

Finite Strain Micromorphic Elasticity, Elastoplasticity, And Dynamics For Multiscale Finite Element Analysis, Farhad Shahabi

Civil Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This study stands as an attempt to consider the micro-structure of materials in a continuum framework by the aid of micromorphic continuum theory in the sense of Eringen. Since classical continuum mechanics do not account for the micro-structural characteristics of materials, they cannot be used to address the macroscopic mechanical response of all micro-structured materials. In the "representative volume element (RVE)" based methods, classical continuum mechanics may be applied to analyze mechanical deformation and stresses of materials at the relevant micro-structural length-scale (such as grains of a polycrystalline metal, or sand, or metal matrix composite, etc), but when applying standard ...


Thermo-Mechanical System Identification Of A Shape Memory Alloy Actuated Mechanism, Cody Alexander Wright Oct 2016

Thermo-Mechanical System Identification Of A Shape Memory Alloy Actuated Mechanism, Cody Alexander Wright

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators paired in an antagonistic arrangement can be used to produce mechanisms that replicate human biomechanics. To investigate this proposal, the biomechanical articulation of the elbow by means of the biceps brachii muscle is compared with that of a SMA actuated arm. This is accomplished by parametric analysis of a crank-slider kinematic mechanism actuated, first, with an experimentally characterized SMA wire and then an idealized musculotendon actuator based on actuation properties of muscles published in the literature. Next, equations of motion for the system dynamics of the SMA actuated mechanism are derived and phase portrait analysis ...


Analytical Modeling Of A Novel Microdisk Resonator For Liquid-Phase Sensing: An All-Shear Interaction Device (Asid), Mohamad Sadegh Sotoudegan Jul 2016

Analytical Modeling Of A Novel Microdisk Resonator For Liquid-Phase Sensing: An All-Shear Interaction Device (Asid), Mohamad Sadegh Sotoudegan

Dissertations (2009 -)

Extensive research on micro/nanomechanical resonators has been performed recently due to their potential to serve as ultra-sensitive devices in chemical/biosensing. These applications often necessitate liquid-phase sensing, introducing significant fluid-induced inertia and energy dissipation that reduces the resonator’s performance. To minimize the detrimental fluid effects on such devices, a novel microdisk resonator supported by two tangentially-oriented, axially-driven “legs” is investigated analytically and effects of the system parameters on the resonator/sensor performance are explored. Since the device surface vibrates primarily parallel to the fluid-structure interface, it is referred to here as an “all-shear interaction device,” or ASID. Analytical ...


Understanding Pyrotechnic Shock Dynamics And Response Attenuation Over Distance, Richard J. Ott May 2016

Understanding Pyrotechnic Shock Dynamics And Response Attenuation Over Distance, Richard J. Ott

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Pyrotechnic shock events used during stage separation on rocket vehicles produce high amplitude short duration structural response that can lead to malfunction or degradation of electronic components, cracks and fractures in brittle materials, local plastic deformation, and can cause materials to experience accelerated fatigue life. These transient loads propagate as waves through the structural media losing energy as they travel outward from the source. This work assessed available test data in an effort to better understand attenuation characteristics associated with wave propagation and attempted to update a historical standard defined by the Martin Marietta Corporation in the late 1960's ...


Experimental Strain Measurement In Ultrasonic Welding Of Battery Tabs, Chen Chen Jan 2016

Experimental Strain Measurement In Ultrasonic Welding Of Battery Tabs, Chen Chen

Wayne State University Theses

Lithium-ion battery is one the most popular types of batteries currently used in electric

vehicles. To meet the power requirement, hundreds of Lithium ion battery cells are connected together before being assembled into a battery pack. Ultrasonic welding is the most widely used joining technology to connect battery cells together. In an ultrasonic welding process, high frequency oscillation is used to generate small relative motions between sheet metals to be welded, and produce solid-state bonds between the sheet metals clamped under pressure. One of the major issues for battery pack ultrasonic welding is that sometimes the welding process damages the ...


Eight Degree Of Freedom Vehicle Model With Pitch, Yaw, Tire Control And Sensor Inputs, Sean T. Hirtle May 2015

Eight Degree Of Freedom Vehicle Model With Pitch, Yaw, Tire Control And Sensor Inputs, Sean T. Hirtle

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This research focuses on the development of an eight degree of freedom vehicle model in the MATLAB computing language. Its purpose is to provide flexibility in the modeling and implementation of signal inputs and crash avoidance logic while maintaining accuracy in the physics of the vehicle’s motion. Firstly, the equations of motion for the bodies involved under a reasonable set of assumptions were developed. Next the model was translated to computer code. By writing the model in SimuLink with *.m files, the modularity of the code is enhanced. To validate the model, several well defined tests were simulated.

To ...


Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics In The Cervical Spine: Importance Of Fine Anatomical Structures, S. Pahlavian, T. Yiallourou, R. Tubbs, A. Bunck, M. Goodin, Francis Loth, M. Raisee, Bryn Martin Apr 2015

Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics In The Cervical Spine: Importance Of Fine Anatomical Structures, S. Pahlavian, T. Yiallourou, R. Tubbs, A. Bunck, M. Goodin, Francis Loth, M. Raisee, Bryn Martin

Dr. Bryn Martin

No abstract provided.


Dynamic Modeling Of Human Gait Using A Model Predictive Control Approach, Jinming Sun Apr 2015

Dynamic Modeling Of Human Gait Using A Model Predictive Control Approach, Jinming Sun

Dissertations (2009 -)

This dissertation aims to develop a dynamic model of human gait, especially the working principle of the central nervous system (CNS), using a novel predictive approach. Based on daily experience, it should be straightforward to understand the CNS controls human gait based on predictive control. However, a thorough human gait model using the predictive approach have not yet been explored. This dissertation aims to fill this gap. The development of such a predictive model can assist the developing of lower limb prostheses and orthoses which typically follows a trial and error approach. With the development of the predictive model, lower ...


Control Of Fluid Dynamics By Nanoparticles In Laser Melting, Chao Ma, Lianyi Chen, Jiaquan Xu, Jingzhou Zhao, Xiaochun Li Mar 2015

Control Of Fluid Dynamics By Nanoparticles In Laser Melting, Chao Ma, Lianyi Chen, Jiaquan Xu, Jingzhou Zhao, Xiaochun Li

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Effective control of fluid dynamics is of remarkable scientific and practical significance. It is hypothesized that nanoparticles could offer a novel means to control fluid dynamics. In this study, laser melting was used to investigate the feasibility of tuning fluid dynamics by nanoparticles and possibly breaking existing limits of conventional laser processing techniques. Alumina nanoparticles reinforced nickel samples, fabricated through electrocodeposition, were used for laser melting experiments. Since the melt pool surface is controlled by the fluid dynamics, surface topographies were carefully studied to reveal the nanoparticle effect on the fluid dynamics. Characterizations of surface topographies and microstructures of pure ...


Multi-Scale Visualization Of Molecular Architecture Using Real-Time Ambient Occlusion In Sculptor, Manuel Wahle, Willy Wriggers Jan 2015

Multi-Scale Visualization Of Molecular Architecture Using Real-Time Ambient Occlusion In Sculptor, Manuel Wahle, Willy Wriggers

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

The modeling of large biomolecular assemblies relies on an efficient rendering of their hierarchical architecture across a wide range of spatial level of detail. We describe a paradigm shift currently under way in computer graphics towards the use of more realistic global illumination models, and we apply the so-called ambient occlusion approach to our opensource multi-scale modeling program, Sculptor. While there are many other higher quality global illumination approaches going all the way up to full GPU-accelerated ray tracing, they do not provide size-specificity of the features they shade. Ambient occlusion is an aspect of global lighting that offers great ...


Dissipative Wave Propagation In Phononic Crystals And Metamaterials: Models And Analysis, Michael Joseph Frazier Jan 2015

Dissipative Wave Propagation In Phononic Crystals And Metamaterials: Models And Analysis, Michael Joseph Frazier

Aerospace Engineering Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Through deliberate material and geometrical design of the internal structure, phononic crystals and metamaterials, collectively, phononic materials, elicit fundamental wave phenomena pertaining to acoustic/elastic systems. This unique ability among classical materials and composites has immediate engineering applications including vibration control in structures. Moreover, ongoing research has been directed toward technological improvements in communications, energy harvesting, and acoustic imaging as well as the proposal of new devices for acoustic cloaking, nondestructive super-resolution imaging, and even flow control. Periodicity, emerging from the spatial repetition of a representative structural element, the unit cell, is a characteristic feature of phononic materials and makes ...


Self-Manipulation And Dynamic Transitions For A Legged Robot, Aaron M. Johnson Jan 2014

Self-Manipulation And Dynamic Transitions For A Legged Robot, Aaron M. Johnson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

How can we make a robot that can go anywhere on its own? This thesis presents several new behaviors on the RHex robot that greatly increase the variety of obstacles that it can overcome, including vertical jumps, flips, leaps onto and across ledges, aerial reorientations, and proprioceptively-aware behaviors. These behaviors inspire new tools to model and understand their transitional nature, wherein it is no longer useful to think of each step as being an equal part of a steady state gait. Legged robots will necessarily experience a variety of changing contact conditions as they locomote in complex environments epitomized by ...


The Effects Of Asymmetric Micro Ratchets On Pool Boiling Performance, Lance Austin Brumfield Jan 2014

The Effects Of Asymmetric Micro Ratchets On Pool Boiling Performance, Lance Austin Brumfield

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Nucleate boiling is an attractive method for achieving high heat flux at low superheat temperatures. It is frequently used for industrial applications such as heat exchangers and is being considered to cool advanced central processing units (CPU) which produce heat fluxes on the order of 1 MW/m2 and are becoming increasingly less efficient to cool via forced conduction of air. The issue with implementing nucleate boiling as a cooling mechanism lies in the difficulty of quantifying the numerous and complex mechanisms which control the process. A comprehensive nucleate boiling model has yet to be formulated and will be required ...


Active Learning Using Model-Eliciting Activities And Inquiry-Based Learning Activities In Dynamics, Jeffrey Phillip Georgette Dec 2013

Active Learning Using Model-Eliciting Activities And Inquiry-Based Learning Activities In Dynamics, Jeffrey Phillip Georgette

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This thesis focuses on a year-long project of implementing active learning in undergraduate dynamics courses at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo from 2012-2013. The purpose is to increase conceptual understanding of critical dynamics concepts and to repair misconceptions of the students. Conceptual understanding in Dynamics is vital to understanding the big picture, building upon previous knowledge, and better understanding the behavior of engineering systems. Through various hands-on activities, students make predictions, test their conceptions, and solve real world problems. These active learning methods allow students to improve their learning of Dynamics concepts. Education research on active learning is present in ...


Visualizing Mechanics: Improving Student Learning Through Video Demonstrations, Blake A. Wetherton, Olumide A. Awofeso, Carolyn E. Creighton, Adam F. Potrzebowski, Charles M. Krousgrill, Jeffrey F. Rhoads Oct 2013

Visualizing Mechanics: Improving Student Learning Through Video Demonstrations, Blake A. Wetherton, Olumide A. Awofeso, Carolyn E. Creighton, Adam F. Potrzebowski, Charles M. Krousgrill, Jeffrey F. Rhoads

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The Purdue Mechanics Freeform Classroom (PMFC) is a project that seeks to reform engineering mechanics education by integrating content and technology; enhancing communication between students, their peers, and instructors; accommodating a broader range of learning styles; and facilitating greater depths of understanding. In an attempt to increase the PMFC’s efficacy, a series of demonstration videos has been produced. As demonstrated by the popularity and pervasiveness of websites such as YouTube, short videos have the potential to captivate audiences. As such, these videos have incredible promise in educational contexts. In the PMFC series of videos, entitled Visualizing Mechanics, each imitates ...


The Stability And Control Of The Single Track Vehicles, Shyngys Karimov, Martin Corless Oct 2013

The Stability And Control Of The Single Track Vehicles, Shyngys Karimov, Martin Corless

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Bicycles, motorcycles and scooters are all examples of the single track vehicles. The dynamics of the single track vehicle involve many degrees of freedom and various modes which govern its performance, making a complicated and interesting research topic. Motorcycle in motion can roll, yaw, and steer about the steering axis. It has three main modes which determine the motion and stability of it, they are weave, capsize, and wobble. The motorcycle performance is limited by the behavior of its modes, and if even one of the modes becomes unstable, the vehicle will roll over, and crash. The goal of this ...


Linear Controller Establishment For Displacement-Control Pump Switching System, Yangqiao Zheng, Monika Ivantysynova Oct 2013

Linear Controller Establishment For Displacement-Control Pump Switching System, Yangqiao Zheng, Monika Ivantysynova

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Displacement Controlled (DC) hydraulics system is booming recently due to its high efficiency and accurate controllability, while the surplus numbers of pumps restrains its further development. DC pump switch technique is a promising application to reduce the number of pumps as well as the cost products to promote DC hydraulics technique. It is necessary to support an innovative DC hydraulic pump switching system with a controller which would allow rapid and accurate estimation and adaptation for all the parameters, like pressures and velocities, in the system. Dynamics and Hydraulics characteristics have initially been investigated for a simplified DC pump switching ...


Acoustic And Dynamic Characteristics Of A Complex Urban Turnout Using Fibre-Reinforced Foamed Urethane (Ffu) Bearers, Sakdirat Kaewunruen Sep 2013

Acoustic And Dynamic Characteristics Of A Complex Urban Turnout Using Fibre-Reinforced Foamed Urethane (Ffu) Bearers, Sakdirat Kaewunruen

Sakdirat Kaewunruen

A special track system used to divert a train to other directions or other tracks is generally called ‘railway turnout’. A traditional turnout system includes rails, switches, crossings (special track components), steel plates, fasteners, screw spikes, timber bearers, ballast and formation. The wheel rail contact over the crossing transfer zone has a dip-like shape and can often cause detrimental impact loads on the railway track and its components. The large impact also emits disturbing noises (either impact or ground-borne noise) to railway neighbors. In a brown-field railway track where an existing aged infrastructure requires renewal or maintenance, some physical constraints ...


Measurement And Description Of Dynamics Required For In Vivo Surgical Robotics Via Kinematic Methods, Jacob G. Greenburg Aug 2013

Measurement And Description Of Dynamics Required For In Vivo Surgical Robotics Via Kinematic Methods, Jacob G. Greenburg

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

With the goal of improved recovery times and reduced trauma to the patient there has been a substantial shift in the medical community’s demand for minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques. With the standardization of MIS becoming more commonplace in the medical field there are still many improvements that are desired. Traditional, manual methods of these surgeries require multiple incisions on the abdomen for the tools and instruments to be inserted. The more recent demand has been to localize the incisions into what is being referred to as a Laparoendoscopic Single-Site (LESS) surgery. Furthermore, the manual instruments that are commonly ...


Linear Covariance Analysis For Gimbaled Pointing Systems, Randall S. Christensen Aug 2013

Linear Covariance Analysis For Gimbaled Pointing Systems, Randall S. Christensen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Linear covariance analysis has been utilized in a wide variety of applications. Historically, the theory has made significant contributions to navigation system design and analysis. More recently, the theory has been extended to capture the combined effect of navigation errors and closed-loop control on the performance of the system. These advancements have made possible rapid analysis and comprehensive trade studies of complicated systems ranging from autonomous rendezvous to vehicle ascent trajectory analysis. Comprehensive trade studies are also needed in the area of gimbaled pointing systems where the information needs are different from previous applications. It is therefore the objective of ...


Impact Mechanics And High-Energy Absorbing Materials: Review, Pizhong Qiao, Mijia Yang, Florin Bobaru Jul 2013

Impact Mechanics And High-Energy Absorbing Materials: Review, Pizhong Qiao, Mijia Yang, Florin Bobaru

Florin Bobaru Ph.D.

In this paper a review of impact mechanics and high-energy absorbing materials is presented. We review different theoretical models (rigid-body dynamics, elastic, shock, and plastic wave propagation, and nonclassical or nonlocal models. and computational methods (finite-element, finite-difference, and mesh-free methods. used in impact mechanics. Some recent developments in numerical simulation of impact (e.g., peridynamics) and new design concepts proposed as high energy absorbing materials (lattice and truss structures, hybrid sandwich composites, metal foams, magnetorheological fluids, porous shape memory alloys. are discussed. Recent studies on experimental evaluation and constitutive modeling of strain rate-dependent polymer matrix composites are also presented. Impact ...


Background And Available Potential Energy In Numerical Simulations Of A Boussinesq Fluid, Shreyas S. Panse Jan 2013

Background And Available Potential Energy In Numerical Simulations Of A Boussinesq Fluid, Shreyas S. Panse

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

In flows with stable density stratification, a portion of the gravitational potential energy is available for conversion to kinetic energy. The remainder is not and is called “background potential energy”. The partition of potential energy is analogous to the classical division of energy due to motion into its kinetic and internal components. Computing background and available potential energies is important for understanding stratified flows. In many numerical simulations, though, the Boussinesq approximations to the Navier-Stokes equations are employed. These approximations are not consistent with conservation of energy. In this thesis we re-derive the governing equations for a buoyancy driven fluid ...


The Effect Of Leaves And Steel Support Cables On The Dynamic Properties Of Northern Red Oak (Quercus Rubra) With Co-Dominant Trunks, Mark Reiland Jan 2013

The Effect Of Leaves And Steel Support Cables On The Dynamic Properties Of Northern Red Oak (Quercus Rubra) With Co-Dominant Trunks, Mark Reiland

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Natural frequency and damping ratio were measured for ten forest grown northern red oak trees with co-dominant trunks. Steels support cables were installed in the canopies of five of the sample trees prior to measurement. Free vibration testing was performed during periods when leaves were and were not present. An accelerometer mounted at the base of the co-dominant union measured the acceleration time history during the free vibration testing. Natural frequency was determined from the acceleration time history using power spectral density analysis. Damping ratios were calculated from the power spectral density plots using the half power bandwidth method.

Trees ...


Modeling Of Legged Locomotion With A Suspended Load In The Sagittal Plane, Karna P. Potwar Jan 2013

Modeling Of Legged Locomotion With A Suspended Load In The Sagittal Plane, Karna P. Potwar

Open Access Theses

Walking or running while carrying loads has always been a tedious task, more so when the loads are heavy. Such a task of carrying loads not only requires extra effort but also leads to physical pain and in some cases injury. Prior studies on human locomotion with a suspended load have used models that are restricted in their DOFs and so are not able to take into account the fore aft movement in human beings. The objective of this thesis is to model the dynamics of sagittal plane center-of-mass locomotion with a suspended load and apply findings to carrying loads ...


Investigation Of Vehicle And Driver Aggressivity And Relation To Fuel Economy Testing, Jonathan Seth Stichter Dec 2012

Investigation Of Vehicle And Driver Aggressivity And Relation To Fuel Economy Testing, Jonathan Seth Stichter

Theses and Dissertations

As vehicle technologies continue to improve it is becoming more evident one of the last major factors impacting fuel economy left today is the driver. In this study the driver is defined as the operator of a vehicle and the difference between driving styles of the driver and vehicle is defined as aggressivity. Driver aggressivity is proven to have a substantial impact on fuel economy in many studies. Many fuel economy tests have been created, all to measure the fuel efficiency of today's vehicles and their related technologies. These tests typically require that the drivers be trained or experienced ...