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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Visual Servoing For Multirotor Precision Landing In Varying Light Conditions, Jesse Wynn, Tim Mclain Aug 2018

Visual Servoing For Multirotor Precision Landing In Varying Light Conditions, Jesse Wynn, Tim Mclain

Faculty Publications

The problem of performing a precision landing of an autonomous multirotor UAV in various lighting conditions is studied. A vision-based approach is proposed and consists of varying degree-of-freedom image-based visual servoing (VDOF-IBVS), and a specialized landing marker. The proposed approach is validated through extensive flight testing outdoors in both lighted and dark conditions, and is done using a standard off-the-shelf autopilot system.


An Elaborate Data Set On Human Gait And The Effect Of Mechanical Perturbations, Jason K. Moore, Sandra K. Hnat, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert May 2018

An Elaborate Data Set On Human Gait And The Effect Of Mechanical Perturbations, Jason K. Moore, Sandra K. Hnat, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Here we share a rich gait data set collected from fifteen subjects walking at three speeds on an instrumented treadmill. Each trial consists of 120 s of normal walking and 480 s of walking while being longitudinally perturbed during each stance phase with pseudo-random fluctuations in the speed of the treadmill belt. A total of approximately 1.5 h of normal walking (>5000 gait cycles) and 6 h of perturbed walking (>20,000 gait cycles) is included in the data set. We provide full body marker trajectories and ground reaction loads in addition to a presentation of processed data that ...


Ball Oscillating Bouncer, Eric Blok, Daniel Altemese, Ryan Nowacki, Maram Qurban Jan 2018

Ball Oscillating Bouncer, Eric Blok, Daniel Altemese, Ryan Nowacki, Maram Qurban

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this report is to document the need, objectives, marketing and engineering requirements, as well as validate the design of an autonomous control device capable of continuously bouncing a table tennis ball on a paddle. This includes the design of a self correcting system using lightweight materials, and as few sensors and components as possible to achieve a compact, portable design. To accomplish this, the system is designed to react to a ball falling from as short a distance as 10 centimeters above the paddle, meaning all sensor processing, control processing, and motor drives should be able to ...


Model Predictive Power Management Of A Hybrid Electric Propulsion System For Aircraft, Tyler J. Wall Dec 2017

Model Predictive Power Management Of A Hybrid Electric Propulsion System For Aircraft, Tyler J. Wall

Master's Theses

This work presents the switched optimal power flow control for an aircraft with a hybrid electric propulsion system. The propulsion system is a switched system that operates in either of two modes: (i) battery discharging and electric motor propelling and (ii) battery charging and electric motor generating. The aircraft model and components that form the hybrid propulsion system are modeled as either an algebraic power source/sink or as a dynamic model with appropriate power and state interconnections. With the system model defined, a model predictive control power management strategy is set fourth which minimizes a performance index that includes ...


Cyber-Physical System Characterization And Co-Regulation Of A Quadrotor Uas, Seth E. Doebbeling Aug 2017

Cyber-Physical System Characterization And Co-Regulation Of A Quadrotor Uas, Seth E. Doebbeling

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

An Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) is a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) in which a host of real-time computational tasks contending for shared resources must be cooperatively managed to obtain mission objectives. Traditionally, control of the UAS is designed assuming a fixed, high sampling rate in order to maintain reliable performance and margins of stability. But emerging methods challenge this design by dynamically allocating resources to computational tasks, thereby affecting control and mission performance. To apply these emerging strategies, a characterization and understanding of the effects of timing on control and trajectory following performance is required. Going beyond traditional control evaluation techniques ...


Prototype Vehicles Laboratory Steering Apparatus, Zachary W. Sharpell, Jorge Lopez, Colby R. Genasci Jun 2017

Prototype Vehicles Laboratory Steering Apparatus, Zachary W. Sharpell, Jorge Lopez, Colby R. Genasci

Mechanical Engineering

The Cal Poly Prototype Vehicles Team (PROVE) is designing a solar powered vehicle to break an international land speed record. The space within the driver’s cockpit allotted for the steering mechanism was too small for a conventional steering wheel. This report describes the process that was followed to design, manufacture, and test a compact and lightweight steering apparatus for the PROVE solar vehicle. A lateral lever steering system, the final design selected for PROVE’s solar car, was designed to withstand the maximum expected loads applied by the driver during the three-minute run of the competition. The lateral lever ...


Applications Of Relative Motion Models Using Curvilinear Coordinate Frames, Alex C. Perez May 2017

Applications Of Relative Motion Models Using Curvilinear Coordinate Frames, Alex C. Perez

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A new angles-only initial relative orbit determination (IROD) algorithm is derived using three line-of-sight observations. This algorithm accomplishes this by taking a Singular Value Decomposition of a 6x6 matrix to arrive at an approximate initial relative orbit determination solution. This involves the approximate solution of 6 polynomial equations in 6 unknowns. An iterative improvement algorithm is also derived that provides the exact solution, to numerical precision, of the 6 polynomial equations in 6 unknowns. The initial relative orbit algorithm is also expanded for more than three line-of-sight observations with an iterative improvement algorithm for more than three line-of-sight observations. The ...


Electromagnetic Signal Feedback Control For Proximity Detection Systems, Adam K. Smith Jan 2017

Electromagnetic Signal Feedback Control For Proximity Detection Systems, Adam K. Smith

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in the United States and remains an essential source of energy. While more than half of coal production comes from surface mining, nearly twice as many workers are employed by underground operations.

One of the key pieces of equipment used in underground coal mining is the continuous mining machine. These large and powerful machines are operated in confined spaces by remote control. Since 1984, 40 mine workers in the U. S. have been killed when struck or pinned by a continuous mining machine. It is estimated that a majority of these accidents could ...


Investigation Of Extremum Seeking Control For Adaptive Exercise Machines, Brahm T. Powell Jan 2017

Investigation Of Extremum Seeking Control For Adaptive Exercise Machines, Brahm T. Powell

ETD Archive

Many muscle rehabilitation regimens are non-adaptive and recommended subjectively by physicians. While there are advantages to having the feedback of a qualified physician, utilizing real-time muscle performance feedback could be beneficial. An extremum seeking control design is proposed to fulfill the need for an automated, load-varying exercise machine that can optimize muscle performance.

Several steps are outlined to contribute to the realization of this goal. First, the extremum seeking control scheme is discussed. Second, the Hill muscle model will be described. Theoretical muscle effort extrema will be derived for selected optimization cases, namely maximizing average squared power by varying load ...


Simulation Of Human Ankle Trajectory During Stance Phase Of Gait, Leslie Castelino Jan 2017

Simulation Of Human Ankle Trajectory During Stance Phase Of Gait, Leslie Castelino

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

A simulation was developed which mimics the human gait characteristics based on the input of an individual’s gait trajectory. This simulation also estimates the impedance of the human ankle based on the ground reaction forces measured by the force plate. This simulation will accept alterations of the following parameters: total body weight, weight of the shank, weight of the foot, trajectories of the shank and foot of the individual and orientation of the force plate, which would generate a new gait trajectory for the ankle during the stance phase of gait. The goal of this simulation was to validate ...


Human-Like Rewards To Train A Reinforcement Learning Controller For Planar Arm Movement, Kathleen M. Jagodnik, Philip S. Thomas, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Michael S. Branicky, Robert F. Kirsch Oct 2016

Human-Like Rewards To Train A Reinforcement Learning Controller For Planar Arm Movement, Kathleen M. Jagodnik, Philip S. Thomas, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Michael S. Branicky, Robert F. Kirsch

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

High-level spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans causes paralysis below the neck. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) technology applies electrical current to nerves and muscles to restore movement, and controllers for upper extremity FES neuroprostheses calculate stimulation patterns to produce desired arm movement. However, currently available FES controllers have yet to restore natural movements. Reinforcement learning (RL) is a reward-driven control technique; it can employ user-generated rewards, and human preferences can be used in training. To test this concept with FES, we conducted simulation experiments using computer-generated ``pseudohuman{''} rewards. Rewards with varying properties were used with an actor-critic RL controller for ...


Data Driven Low-Bandwidth Intelligent Control Of A Jet Engine Combustor, Nathan L. Toner Aug 2016

Data Driven Low-Bandwidth Intelligent Control Of A Jet Engine Combustor, Nathan L. Toner

Open Access Dissertations

This thesis introduces a low-bandwidth control architecture for navigating the input space of an un-modeled combustor system between desired operating conditions while avoiding regions of instability and blow-out. An experimental procedure is discussed for identifying regions of instability and gathering sufficient data to build a data-driven model of the system's operating modes. Regions of instability and blow-out are identified experimentally and a data-driven operating point classifier is designed. This classifier acts as a map of the operating space of the combustor, indicating regions in which the flame is in a "good" or "bad" operating mode. A data-driven predictor is ...


Modified Trajectory Shaping Guidance For Autonomous Path Following Control Of Platooning Ground Vehicles, Ishmaal T. Erekson May 2016

Modified Trajectory Shaping Guidance For Autonomous Path Following Control Of Platooning Ground Vehicles, Ishmaal T. Erekson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis proposes a modification of trajectory shaping guidance to provide more accurate path convergence in curved paths. The object of this thesis is to apply this simple guidance law to platooning control to ensure all vehicles in the platoon converge to a desired constant radius path at a desired vehicle separation distance. To show the viability of this new guidance law, it is shown mathematically to be exponentially stable. It is also confirmed through simulations and on ground robots.


Solar Photovoltaic System Control Topology Investigation For Power Source Mismatch, Lynette O'Callaghan Jan 2016

Solar Photovoltaic System Control Topology Investigation For Power Source Mismatch, Lynette O'Callaghan

Conference papers

An investigation into solar photovoltaic (PV) system control topology selection, when partial shade is anticipated in the solar array, is presented. As available area is maximised in Building Integrated PV (BIPV) systems, shading is an inevitable consequence. The presence of partial shading in a PV array leads to multiple power peaks in the power-voltage curve, due to bypass diode sections being triggered, and an increase in module mismatch losses in the array. A building energy design software, Integrated Environmental Solutions, is used to determine the shadowed area on PV modules throughout the year, incorporating the PV system location and geometrical ...


Modeling And Control Of Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Energy Sources, Nima Lotfi Jan 2016

Modeling And Control Of Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Energy Sources, Nima Lotfi

Doctoral Dissertations

"Environmental, political, and availability concerns regarding fossil fuels in recent decades have garnered substantial research and development in the area of alternative energy systems. Among various alternative energy systems, fuel cells and batteries have attracted significant attention both in academia and industry considering their superior performances and numerous advantages. In this dissertation, the modeling and control of these two electrochemical sources as the main constituents of fuel cell-battery hybrid energy sources are studied with ultimate goals of improving their performance, reducing their development and operational costs and consequently, easing their widespread commercialization. More specifically, Paper I provides a comprehensive background ...


Design, Manufacturing And Control Of An Advanced High-Precision Robotic System For Microsurgery, Arezoo Ebrahimi Dec 2015

Design, Manufacturing And Control Of An Advanced High-Precision Robotic System For Microsurgery, Arezoo Ebrahimi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Microsurgeries like ophthalmic surgery confront many challenges like limited workspace and hand motion, steady hand movements, manipulating delicate thin tissues, and holding the instrument in place for a long time. New developments in robotically-assisted surgery can highly benefits this field and facilitate those complicated surgeries. Robotic eye surgery can save time, reduce surgical complications and inspire more delicate surgical procedures that cannot be done currently by surgeon’s hands. In this thesis work, the requirements for ophthalmic surgeries were studied and based on that a robotic system with 6 DOF is proposed and designed. This robotic

system is capable of ...


Simulation, Control And Testing Of Advanced Hydraulic Hybrid Transmissions, Italo M. Ramos, Monika Ivantysynova, Michael Sprengel Aug 2015

Simulation, Control And Testing Of Advanced Hydraulic Hybrid Transmissions, Italo M. Ramos, Monika Ivantysynova, Michael Sprengel

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Hydraulic hybrids transmissions have the potentially to substantially improve the fuel efficiency of on road vehicles. In fact recent studies have demonstrated that this technology can improve fuel economy by upwards of 30% over competing electric hybrids. To further improve the fuel economy and performance of this technology a novel blended hydraulic hybrid transmission has been constructed at the Maha Fluid Power Research Center. While this novel hybrid architecture created by the Maha lab has many benefits over conventional systems, there are a number of control challenges present due to several discrete modes of operation. And though improving fuel economy ...


Design And Implementation Of An Interactive Animatronic System For Guest Response Analysis, Brian Burns Jun 2015

Design And Implementation Of An Interactive Animatronic System For Guest Response Analysis, Brian Burns

Phi Kappa Phi Research Symposium

In theme park based entertainment applications, there is a need for interactive, autonomous animatronic systems to create engaging and compelling experiences for the guests. The animatronic figures must identify the guests and recognize their status in dynamic interactions for enhanced acceptance and effectiveness as socially interactive agents, in the general framework of human-robot interactions. The design and implementation of an interactive, autonomous animatronic system in form of a tabletop dragon, Kronos, and the comparisons of guest responses in its passive and interactive modes are presented in this work. The dragon capabilities include a four degrees-of-freedom head, moving wings, tail, jaw ...


Investigation Of Distributed Model Predictive Control For Economic Load Shifting In Building Hvac Systems, Peter Kinsella May 2015

Investigation Of Distributed Model Predictive Control For Economic Load Shifting In Building Hvac Systems, Peter Kinsella

Theses and Dissertations

One of the major challenges that building owners and operators face is maintaining a low cost of operation. In certain markets within the U.S., electrical cost varies throughout the day; it is higher during times of peak demand. This leaves the customer the incentive to cut back electrical use during peak demand periods. Since 40% of the peak electrical demand is due to the operation of the building HVAC system alone, the opportunity exists for shifting the building cooling load to off-peak hours. This can be done by pre-cooling the space, thereby using the building mass as a sort ...


An Elaborate Data Set On Human Gait And The Effect Of Mechanical Perturbations, Jason K. Moore, Sandra K. Hnat, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert Apr 2015

An Elaborate Data Set On Human Gait And The Effect Of Mechanical Perturbations, Jason K. Moore, Sandra K. Hnat, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

Here we share a rich gait data set collected from fifteen subjects walking at three speeds on an instrumented treadmill. Each trial consists of 120 s of normal walking and 480 s of walking while being longitudinally perturbed during each stance phase with pseudo-random fluctuations in the speed of the treadmill belt. A total of approximately 1.5 h of normal walking (>5000 gait cycles) and 6 h of perturbed walking (>20,000 gait cycles) is included in the data set. We provide full body marker trajectories and ground reaction loads in addition to a presentation of processed data that ...


Guidance, Navigation And Control System Of A Hopper Spacecraft Simulator, Yu Hin Hau Jan 2015

Guidance, Navigation And Control System Of A Hopper Spacecraft Simulator, Yu Hin Hau

Theses and Dissertations

The space hopper simulator project drew its origin from a partnership with Penn State University to compete in the Google Lunar XPRIZE competition. Lehigh University is tasked with the exploring the guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) system of the hopper spacecraft. To simulate the dynamics and flight behavior of the concept, Earth-based multirotor flying platforms were developed with the end goal of executing the hopping maneuver.The overall project has been ongoing for more than 5 years and went through several major revisions to fix flaws discovered in the previous design. As older students graduate and new teams are ...


Design And Simulation Of A Distortion Masking Control Algorithm For A Pneumatic Cylinder, Gabriel Fernando Bravo Palacios Jan 2015

Design And Simulation Of A Distortion Masking Control Algorithm For A Pneumatic Cylinder, Gabriel Fernando Bravo Palacios

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Low energy efficiency is one of the main detractors of fluid power technology. To ensure the availability and sustainability of energy sources, fluid power technology needs to meet high energy-efficiency and cost standards. This study aims to design, simulate and test a control algorithm that attenuates the detrimental effects of air compressibility on the performance and efficiency of a pneumatic cylinder.

The transmission of power over long distances makes it more difficult for fluid power technology to meet energy-efficiency and cost requirements. Transmitting power over long distances represents a challenge particularly for pneumatics due to the compressibility of air. The ...


Control Of Responses Of Smart Plate Structures Under Non-Stationary Random Excitations, Xiaojian Yang Dec 2014

Control Of Responses Of Smart Plate Structures Under Non-Stationary Random Excitations, Xiaojian Yang

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

This thesis is concerned with an investigation of the control of responses of plate structures with piezoelectric layers and under complicated excitations modeled as a non-stationary random process. The plate structures and piezoelectric layers are both discretized by the mixed formulation finite element method (FEM).

The investigation consists of three parts. The first part is a literature survey and theoretical development. The second part is the eigenvalue solution and computation of uncontrolled response statistics of laminated plate structures under nonstationary random excitations. The final part is the introduction and application of the stochastic central difference (SCD) method that was presented ...


Control Of A Spacecraft Using Mixed Momentum Exchange Devices, Blake J. Currie Oct 2014

Control Of A Spacecraft Using Mixed Momentum Exchange Devices, Blake J. Currie

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Hardware configurations, a control law, and a steering law are developed for a mixed hardware spacecraft that uses both control moment gyros and reaction wheels. Replacing one or more gyros in a spacecraft with a reaction wheel has potential for cost savings while still achieving much greater performance than using reaction wheels alone. Several simulated tests are run to compare the performance to a traditional all reaction wheel or all control moment gyro spacecraft, including analysis of failure modes and singular configurations. The mixed system performed similarly to all gyro systems, responding within 6% of the gyro system’s time ...


Feedback Speed Control Of A Small Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine That Propels An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Paul D. Fjare Aug 2014

Feedback Speed Control Of A Small Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine That Propels An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Paul D. Fjare

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) require intelligent control of their power source. Small UAV are typically powered by electric motors or small two-stroke internal combustion (IC) engines. Small IC engines allow for longer flight times but are more difficult to control and cause significant ground noise. A hybrid operation that uses the engine at high altitudes and the electric motors at low altitudes is desired. This would allow for extended flight with acceptable ground noise levels. Since the engine can not be restarted in the air it must be able to remain at idle for an extended time without stalling. A ...


Laboratory Apparatus For Gas Turbine Combustion Development, Dustin Lee Cruise Jul 2014

Laboratory Apparatus For Gas Turbine Combustion Development, Dustin Lee Cruise

Open Access Theses

The next generation of combustor technology will be required to meet the demands of a world more focused on greenhouse gases and global warming. Due to this new focus on emission control, combustors must produce less NO x , while operating in a higher pressure environment that is more prone to combustion instabilities.

This work focuses on the development of a lab and combustor that will be used for the next generation combustor development. The lab development includes layout and organization, facilities, measurement and instrumentation, automation of the testing process, and an imaging tool for diagnostics.

A Lean Direction Injection (LDI ...


Modeling, Analysis, And Control Of A Mobile Robot For In Vivo Fluoroscopy Of Human Joints During Natural Movements, Matthew A. Young May 2014

Modeling, Analysis, And Control Of A Mobile Robot For In Vivo Fluoroscopy Of Human Joints During Natural Movements, Matthew A. Young

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, the modeling, analysis and control of a multi-degree of freedom (mdof) robotic fluoroscope was investigated. A prototype robotic fluoroscope exists, and consists of a 3 dof mobile platform with two 2 dof Cartesian manipulators mounted symmetrically on opposite sides of the platform. One Cartesian manipulator positions the x-ray generator and the other Cartesian manipulator positions the x-ray imaging device. The robotic fluoroscope is used to x-ray skeletal joints of interest of human subjects performing natural movement activities. In order to collect the data, the Cartesian manipulators must keep the x-ray generation and imaging devices accurately aligned while ...


Kinesthetic Haptics Sensing And Discovery With Bilateral Teleoperation Systems, Tian Qiu May 2014

Kinesthetic Haptics Sensing And Discovery With Bilateral Teleoperation Systems, Tian Qiu

Doctoral Dissertations

In the mechanical engineering field of robotics, bilateral teleoperation is a classic but still increasing research topic. In bilateral teleoperation, a human operator moves the master manipulator, and a slave manipulator is controlled to follow the motion of the master in a remote, potentially hostile environment. This dissertation focuses on kinesthetic perception analysis in teleoperation systems. Design of the controllers of the systems is studied as the influential factor of this issue. The controllers that can provide different force tracking capability are compared using the same experimental protocol. A 6 DOF teleoperation system is configured as the system testbed. An ...


Thermal And Cooling Systems Modeling Of Powertrain For A Plug -In Parallel-Through-The-Road Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Mengjia Cao Jan 2014

Thermal And Cooling Systems Modeling Of Powertrain For A Plug -In Parallel-Through-The-Road Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Mengjia Cao

Wayne State University Theses

Thermal modeling and control play an ever increasing role with hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design and development for improving overall vehicle energy efficiency, and to account for additional thermal loading from electric powertrain components such as electric motor, motor controller and battery pack.

This thesis presents a complete development process for an efficient modeling approach with integrated control strategy for the thermal management of plug-in HEV in a parallel-through-the road (PTTR) architecture, adopted by Wayne State University Hybrid Warriors for their Department of Energy's EcoCAR2 Plugging in to the Future Competition.

The frameworks of this project include simulating the ...


Ubot-7: The Design Of A Compliant Dexterous Mobile Manipulator, Jonathan Cummings Jan 2014

Ubot-7: The Design Of A Compliant Dexterous Mobile Manipulator, Jonathan Cummings

Masters Theses

This thesis presents the design of uBot-7, the latest version of a dexterous mobile manipulator. This platform has been iteratively developed to realize a high performance-to-cost dexterous whole body manipulator with respect to mobile manipulation. The semi-anthropomorphic design of the uBot is a demonstrated and functional research platform for developing advanced autonomous perception, manipulation, and mobility tasks. The goal of this work is to improve the uBot’s ability to sense and interact with its environment in order to increase the platforms capability to operate dexterously, through the incorporation of joint torque feedback, and safely, through the implementation of passive ...