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Computational fluid dynamics

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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Computational Analysis And Design Optimization Of Convective Pcr Devices, Jung Il Shu Jul 2019

Computational Analysis And Design Optimization Of Convective Pcr Devices, Jung Il Shu

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a relatively novel technique to amplify a few copies of DNA to a detectable level. PCR has already become common in biomedical research, criminal forensics, molecular archaeology, and so on. Many have attempted to develop PCR devices in numerous types for the purpose of the lab-on-chip (LOC) or point-of-care (POC). To use PCR devices for POC lab testing, the price must be lower, and the performance should be comparable to the lab devices. For current practices with the existing methods, the price is pushed up higher partially due to too much dependence on numerous developmental ...


Direct Numerical Simulations Of The Compressible Low Atwood Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, Scott A. Wieland Jan 2019

Direct Numerical Simulations Of The Compressible Low Atwood Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, Scott A. Wieland

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Two fluids are considered Rayleigh-Taylor unstable when the more dense fluid is suspended above the less dense fluid in the presence of a gravitational like accelerative force. When a pertur- bation is applied to the interface between the two, they begin mixing as the light fluid rises and the heavy fluid drops. The extension of this to the compressible regime leads to the densities of the fluids to not be constant, but instead the molar mass is used to define the weights. At the interface, a density jump still occurs, but away from the interface the densities can vary in ...


A Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation Model With Low Reynolds Number Correction For Transitional Swirling Flow In A Multi-Inlet Vortex Nanoprecipitation Reactor, Zhenping Liu, James C. Hill, Rodney O. Fox, Alberto Passalacqua, Michael G. Olsen Aug 2018

A Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation Model With Low Reynolds Number Correction For Transitional Swirling Flow In A Multi-Inlet Vortex Nanoprecipitation Reactor, Zhenping Liu, James C. Hill, Rodney O. Fox, Alberto Passalacqua, Michael G. Olsen

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The objective of the presented work is to verify a delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES) model for simulating transitional swirling flow in a micro-scale multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR). The DDES model is a k-w based turbulence model with a low Reynolds number correction applied to the standard k-w model such that the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) component of the DDES model is able to account for low Reynolds number flow. By limiting the dissipation rate in the k-equation, the large-eddy simulation (LES) part of the DDES model behaves similarly to a one-equation sub-grid model. The turbulent Reynolds number is redefined to ...


Computational Study Of Desalination By Membranes, Mustafa Usta Aug 2018

Computational Study Of Desalination By Membranes, Mustafa Usta

Theses and Dissertations

Water desalination by membranes constitutes the majority of the low-quality water purication systems that extends across many different techniques. This study considers transport phenomena in reverse osmosis (RO) and vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) modules using computational techniques. Reverse osmosis is a pressure-driven separation method using semi-permeable membranes featuring nanoporous structures. Vacuum membrane distillation is another emerging separation method relying on the temperature difference across the microporous hydrophobic membranes.The membrane separation process intrinsically gives rise to temperature polarization (TP) and concentration polarization (CP) which could be severe limitations in these systems. To eliminate these polarizations and increase the module performance ...


High-Fidelity Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Of A 3d Composite Material Hydrofoil, Silvia Volpi May 2018

High-Fidelity Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Of A 3d Composite Material Hydrofoil, Silvia Volpi

Theses and Dissertations

Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) refers to the process of designing systems characterized by the interaction of multiple interconnected disciplines. High-fidelity MDO usually requires large computational resources due to the computational cost of achieving multidisciplinary consistent solutions by coupling high-fidelity physics-based solvers. Gradient-based minimization algorithms are generally applied to find local minima, due to their efficiency in solving problems with a large number of design variables. This represents a limitation to performing global MDO and integrating black-box type analysis tools, usually not providing gradient information. The latter issues generally inhibit a wide use of MDO in complex industrial applications.

An architecture ...


Simplified, Alternative Formulation Of Numerical Simulation Of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, Russell L. Edwards Apr 2018

Simplified, Alternative Formulation Of Numerical Simulation Of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, Russell L. Edwards

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Three-Dimensional proton exchange fuel cell (PEMFC) operation in steady-state is simulated with computational fluid dynamics / multiphysics software that is based upon the finite-element method. PEMFC operation involves the simultaneous simulation of multiple, interconnected physics involving fluid flows, heat transport, electrochemical reactions, and both protonic and electronic conduction. Modeling efforts have varied by how they treat the physics occurring within and adjacent to the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA). Several approaches treat the MEA as part of the computational domain, solving multiple, and coupled conservation equations via the CFD approach within the 3 regions of the MEA. The thickness dimensions of the 3 ...


Computational Investigation Using Bleed As A Method Of Shock Stabilization, Dayle L. Chang Mar 2018

Computational Investigation Using Bleed As A Method Of Shock Stabilization, Dayle L. Chang

Theses and Dissertations

Shock-wave/boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) produce undesirable dynamic loads and separated unsteady flows, adversely impacting the performance and structural integrity of supersonic vehicles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a successful tool in experimental planning and shows promise as a critical tool in understanding and mitigating negative effects of SWBLI. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the effect of bleed holes on shock stability using the OVERFLOW CFD solver to inform the planning of an Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) SWBLI wind tunnel experiment. First, a two-dimensional, flat plate, single-hole configuration was developed. Massflow discrepancies of 14.8% were ...


Uncertainty In Combustion Reaction Rates And Its Effects On Combustion Simulations, Joshua Piehl Jan 2018

Uncertainty In Combustion Reaction Rates And Its Effects On Combustion Simulations, Joshua Piehl

Wayne State University Theses

This work investigates the uncertainties in reaction rates of an n-dodecane model on turbulent spray combustion simulations. Six major reactions were found to significantly impact the ignition delay of the mechanism in a 0-D batch reactor model. These reactions’ rates were independently modified and placed into individual mechanisms. These newly developed mechanisms were simulated in a 3-D turbulent spray simulation and a 0-D batch reactor at a pressure of 60 bar and temperatures from 900 to 1100 K. The combustion characteristics (e.g. ignition delays, flame lift-off length, liquid and vapor penetration) of the modified mechanisms were compared to those ...


Electric-Field Assisted Manipulation And Self-Assembly Of Particle Suspensions, Edison Chijioke Amah Jan 2018

Electric-Field Assisted Manipulation And Self-Assembly Of Particle Suspensions, Edison Chijioke Amah

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Design Of A Novel Tissue Culture System To Subject Aortic Tissue To Multidirectional Bicuspid Aortic Valve Wall Shear Stress, Janet Liu Jan 2018

Design Of A Novel Tissue Culture System To Subject Aortic Tissue To Multidirectional Bicuspid Aortic Valve Wall Shear Stress, Janet Liu

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Blood vessels experience complex hemodynamics marked by three-dimensionality and pulsatility. Arterial endothelial cells interact with the characteristics of the fluid wall shear stress (WSS) to maintain homeostasis or promote disease states. In particular, the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), a congenital heart valve anatomy consisting of two leaflets instead of three, is associated with aortic complications presumably promoted by hemodynamic abnormalities. While devices have been used to test this hypothesis, their capabilities are limited to the generation of time-varying WSS magnitude in one direction. However, the increased flow helicity generated by BAVs in the aorta is expected to result in increased ...


Erosion Degradation Characteristics Of A Linear Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator Under A High-Frequency Turbulent Flow Field, Yuan Li, Shaoping Wang, Mileta M. Tomovic, Chao Zhang Jan 2018

Erosion Degradation Characteristics Of A Linear Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator Under A High-Frequency Turbulent Flow Field, Yuan Li, Shaoping Wang, Mileta M. Tomovic, Chao Zhang

Engineering Technology Faculty Publications

The paper proposes a performance degradation analysis model based on dynamic erosion wear for a novel Linear Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator (LEHA). Rather than the traditional statistical methods based on degradation data, the method proposed in this paper firstly analyzes the dominant progressive failure mode of the LEHA based on the working principle and working conditions of the LEHA. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method, combining the turbulent theory and the micro erosion principle, is used to establish an erosion model of the rectification mechanism. The erosion rates for different port openings, under a time-varying flow field, are obtained. The piecewise linearization ...


Dust Control Examination Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling And Laboratory Testing Of Vortecone And Impingement Screen Filters, Ashish R. Kumar Jan 2018

Dust Control Examination Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling And Laboratory Testing Of Vortecone And Impingement Screen Filters, Ashish R. Kumar

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

Heavy industries, such as mining, generate dust in quantities that present an occupational health hazard. Prolonged exposure to the respirable dust has been found to result in many irreversible occupational ailments in thousands of miners. In underground mining applications, a variety of scrubbing systems are used to remove dust near the zones of generation. However, the wire-mesh type fibrous screens in the flooded-bed dust scrubbers used on continuous miners, are prone to clogging due to the accumulation of dust particles. This clogging results in a reduced capture efficiency and a higher exposure to the personnel. This research establishes the Vortecone ...


Optimization Of Microfluidic Particle Separator Geometry Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Joseph Petersen Jan 2018

Optimization Of Microfluidic Particle Separator Geometry Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Joseph Petersen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Computational fluid dynamics software was used to simulate the motion of circulating tumor cells in a variety of microfluidic cell isolation devices. Design of several novel microfluidic cell isolation devices was aided by viewing streamlines of fluid in devices in simulation. Devices that performed best in simulation used 5-micrometer wide guiding channels to guide cells to the capture location in the device. While these devices performed better than other devices in simulation and captured all particles regardless of position along inlet, experimental results differ from simulation.


Dynamic Rating Of Overhead Transmission Lines Over Complex Terrain Using A Large-Eddy Simulation Paradigm, Tyler Phillips, Ray Deleon, Inanc Senocak Aug 2017

Dynamic Rating Of Overhead Transmission Lines Over Complex Terrain Using A Large-Eddy Simulation Paradigm, Tyler Phillips, Ray Deleon, Inanc Senocak

Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) enables rating of power line conductors using real-time weather conditions. Conductors are typically operated based on a conservative static rating that assumes worst case weather conditions to avoid line sagging to unsafe levels. Static ratings can cause unnecessary congestion on transmission lines. To address this potential issue, a simulation-based dynamic line rating approach is applied to an area with moderately complex terrain. A micro-scale wind solver — accelerated on multiple graphics processing units (GPUs) — is deployed to compute wind speed and direction in the vicinity of powerlines. The wind solver adopts the large-eddy simulation technique and the ...


Evaluation And Enhancement Of Clean Energy Systems: Analytical, Computational And Experimental Study Of Solar And Nuclear Cycles, Nima Fathi Jul 2017

Evaluation And Enhancement Of Clean Energy Systems: Analytical, Computational And Experimental Study Of Solar And Nuclear Cycles, Nima Fathi

Mechanical Engineering ETDs

Clean (and specifically renewable) energy is steadily improving its global share. However, finite availability of fossil fuels and the growing effects of climate change make it an urgent priority to convince the industry and governments to incentivize investment in the renewable energy field and to make it more attractive by decreasing the capital cost. Until recently, uncertainties in funding limited renewable energy development, especially in the US. That limitation has been one of the barriers to progress. Another limitation of many renewable energy systems is the variability in their output, which makes them unsuitable for baseline power production. Therefore, fossil ...


Dynamic Rating Of Overhead Transmission Lines Over Complex Terrain Using A Large-Eddy Simulation Paradigm, Tyler Phillips, Ray Deleon, Inanc Senocak Jun 2017

Dynamic Rating Of Overhead Transmission Lines Over Complex Terrain Using A Large-Eddy Simulation Paradigm, Tyler Phillips, Ray Deleon, Inanc Senocak

Inanc Senocak

Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) enables rating of power line conductors using real-time weather conditions. Conductors are typically operated based on a conservative static rating that assumes worst case weather conditions to avoid line sagging to unsafe levels. Static ratings can cause unnecessary congestion on transmission lines. To address this potential issue, a simulation-based dynamic line rating approach is applied to an area with moderately complex terrain. A micro-scale wind solver — accelerated on multiple graphics processing units (GPUs) — is deployed to compute wind speed and direction in the vicinity of powerlines. The wind solver adopts the large-eddy simulation technique and the ...


A Ship Advancing In A Stratified Fluid: The Dead Water Effect Revisited, Mehdi Esmaeilpour May 2017

A Ship Advancing In A Stratified Fluid: The Dead Water Effect Revisited, Mehdi Esmaeilpour

Theses and Dissertations

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology is presented to predict density stratified flows in the near-field of ships and submarines. The density is solved using a higher-order transport equation coupled with mass and momentum conservation. Turbulence is implemented with a k-ε/k-ω based Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) approach, enabling explicit solution of larger energy-containing vortices in the wake. Validation tests are performed for a two-dimensional square cavity and the three-dimensional stratified flow past a sphere, showing good agreement with available data. The near-field flow of the self-propelled Research Vessel Athena advancing in a stably stratified fluid is studied, as ...


The Development Of A Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Wake Model For Use In Wind Farm Layout Optimization With Noise Level Constraints, Eric Blaine Tingey Mar 2017

The Development Of A Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Wake Model For Use In Wind Farm Layout Optimization With Noise Level Constraints, Eric Blaine Tingey

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis focuses on providing the means to use vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) in wind farms as an alternative form of harnessing wind energy in offshore and urban environments where both wake and acoustic effects of turbines are important considerations. In order for VAWTs to be used in wind farm layout analysis and optimization, a reduced-order wake model is needed to calculate velocities around a turbine quickly and accurately. However, a VAWT wake model has not been available to accomplish this task. Using vorticity data from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of VAWTs and cross-validated Gaussian distribution and polynomial surface ...


Design Of A Novel Microreactor To Study Short Residence Time Combustion, Tianzhu Fan Jan 2017

Design Of A Novel Microreactor To Study Short Residence Time Combustion, Tianzhu Fan

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Microreactors are useful tools for understanding the short residence time reactions of biomass polymers and fuel molecules. When coupled with sensitive detection methods, microreactors have the ability to detect all molecules produced in the reactor, including stable, meta-stable, and radical species, making microreactors one of the few experiments where nearly all chemical species may be detected. At the University of Colorado Boulder, our microreactor studies have involved very small (~1 mm internal diameter, ~28 mm long) silicon carbide (SiC) tubes to study short residence time pyrolysis reactions in conjunction with photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR ...


Stabilized Conservative Level Set Method With Adaptive Wavelet-Based Mesh Refinement, Navid Shervani-Tabar Jan 2017

Stabilized Conservative Level Set Method With Adaptive Wavelet-Based Mesh Refinement, Navid Shervani-Tabar

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This study investigates one of the well-known shortcomings of the conservative level set method, namely the ill-defined normal vector. A stabilized formulation is proposed which does not rely on the unit normal vector anymore. Instead, the proposed stabilized conservative level set, SCLS, utilizes a modified normal vector, magnitude of which is unit in the interfacial region of width ε and approaches zero in the far field from the interface. Respective adjustments have been applied on the reinitialization equation to comply with the proposed normal vector. This methodology is general and robust and it is not topology dependent. Since the information ...


Immersed Boundary Methods For Optimization Of Strongly Coupled Fluid-Structure Systems, Nicholas J. Jenkins Jan 2017

Immersed Boundary Methods For Optimization Of Strongly Coupled Fluid-Structure Systems, Nicholas J. Jenkins

Aerospace Engineering Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Conventional methods for design of tightly coupled multidisciplinary systems, such as fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems, traditionally rely on manual revisions informed by a loosely coupled linearized analysis. These approaches are both inaccurate for a multitude of applications, and they require an intimate understanding of the assumptions and limitations of the procedure in order to soundly optimize the design. Computational optimization, in particular topology optimization, has been shown to yield remarkable results for problems in solid mechanics using density interpolations schemes. In the context of FSI, however, well defined boundaries play a key role in both the design problem and the ...


Assessment Of Varying Model Representations In Cfd Simulations, Caitlin R. Gerdes Jan 2017

Assessment Of Varying Model Representations In Cfd Simulations, Caitlin R. Gerdes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis investigates the effects of varying model refinement and representation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in two case studies. Product and process realization in engineering design requires substantial resources (time and money) in order to test novel designs for effectiveness. In recent decades, engineering has been relying more heavily on simulation-based analysis in the design process with computer models to help reduce the demands for real-life testing. The first case study analyzed in this thesis is a photobioreactor, which is used to grow microalgae for biofuel and require a balance of nutrients, light, and mixing for growth. The ...


Cfd Analysis Methods For Systems Driven By Natural Convection, Aaron Propst Jan 2017

Cfd Analysis Methods For Systems Driven By Natural Convection, Aaron Propst

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Natural convection driven flows are present in many engineering applications such as HVAC, electronics cooling, and cryogenic systems. Predicting the flow behavior of such systems requires experimentation or numerical simulation through Computational Fluid Dynamics due to the complex interactions of natural convection. Recent advances in computing resources have made CFD increasingly popular for engineering analysis of fluid dynamics and heat transfer. CFD simulation has several advantages over experimentation including: 1) cost, 2) ease of changing design parameters, and 3) time required to obtain results. These advantages lead to an increased likelihood of discovering an optimal design. However, systems with complex ...


Hydrodynamics Of Swimming Microorganisms In Complex Fluids, Gaojin Li Dec 2016

Hydrodynamics Of Swimming Microorganisms In Complex Fluids, Gaojin Li

Open Access Dissertations

Swimming motion of microorganisms, such as spermatozoa, plankton, algae and bacteria, etc., ubiquitously occurs in nature. It affects many biological processes, including reproduction, infection and the marine life ecosystem. The hydrodynamic effects are important in microorganism swimming, their nutrient uptake, fertilization, collective motions and formation of colonies. In nature, microorganisms have evolved to use various fascinating ways for locomotion and transport. Different designs are also developed for the locomotion of artificial nano- and microswimmers. In this study, we use several different computational models to investigate the behavior of microswimmers.

Microorganisms typically swim in the low Reynolds number regime, where inertia ...


Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis Of Microbubble Drag Reduction Systems At High Reynolds Number, John D. Goolcharan Jul 2016

Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis Of Microbubble Drag Reduction Systems At High Reynolds Number, John D. Goolcharan

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Microbubble drag reduction (MBDR) is an effective method to improve the efficiency of fluid systems. MBDR is a field that has been extensively studied in the past, and experimental values of up to 80% to 90% drag reduction have been obtained. The effectiveness and simplicity of MBDR makes it a viable method for real world applications, particularly in naval applications where it can reduce the drag between the surface of ships and the surrounding water. A two dimensional single phase model was created in ANSYS Fluent to effectively model the behavior of bubble laden flow over a flat plate. This ...


Implementations Of Fourier Methods In Cfd To Analyze Distortion Transfer And Generation Through A Transonic Fan, Marshall Warren Peterson Jun 2016

Implementations Of Fourier Methods In Cfd To Analyze Distortion Transfer And Generation Through A Transonic Fan, Marshall Warren Peterson

Theses and Dissertations

Inlet flow distortion is a non-uniform total pressure, total temperature, or swirl (flow angularity) condition at an aircraft engine inlet. Inlet distortion is a critical consideration in modern fan and compressor design. This is especially true as the industry continues to increase the efficiency and operating range of air breathing gas turbine engines. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Harmonic Balance (HB) solver in STAR-CCM+ as a reduced order method for capturing inlet distortion as well as the associated distortion transfer and generation. New methods for quantitatively describing and analyzing distortion transfer and ...


A Reduced Order Model For Efficient Physiological Flow Analysis In Aneurysms By Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, Gary Han Chang, Yahya Modarres-Sadeghi May 2016

A Reduced Order Model For Efficient Physiological Flow Analysis In Aneurysms By Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, Gary Han Chang, Yahya Modarres-Sadeghi

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Simulating physiological flows using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) remains to be computationally expensive and difficult for clinical usage because of the physiological flow and geometrical complexity involved in patient specific situations. We use the reduced order modeling (ROM) of such systems with high nonlinearity and geometrical non-uniformity to replace the full, nonlinear model with a low-degrees of freedom ROM model. We construct ROM models by the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method to estimate the flow-induced wall shear stress (WSS) and pressure loading of a simplified abdominal aortic aneurysm and a bifurcation cerebral aneurysm. This method allows us to investigate a ...


An Integrated Experimental-Computational Investigation Of Connected Spaces As Natural Ventilation Typologies, Ulrike Passe, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Shan He, Kyle Vansice, Songzhe Xu May 2016

An Integrated Experimental-Computational Investigation Of Connected Spaces As Natural Ventilation Typologies, Ulrike Passe, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Shan He, Kyle Vansice, Songzhe Xu

Architecture Conference Proceedings and Presentations

This paper investigates the impact of spatial composition on the effectiveness of passive cooling by natural ventilation in a comparative study of the conical roofed Harran houses in Turkey and a passive solar home in the Midwest of the United States. While the projects are distinct and are situated in two extreme climate zones (hot and arid and continental humid) both projects have in common open variable configurations of multiple interconnected spaces. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using OpenFoam were used to investigate the fundamental airflow characteristics and the resulting interior temperature and velocity profiles. The simulations were initialized as ...


Improving Ventricular Catheter Design Through Computational Fluid Dynamics, Sofy Hefets Weisenberg May 2016

Improving Ventricular Catheter Design Through Computational Fluid Dynamics, Sofy Hefets Weisenberg

Masters Theses

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts are fully implantable medical devices that are used to treat patients suffering from conditions characterized by elevated intracranial pressure, such as hydrocephalus. In cases of shunt failure or malfunction, patients are often required to endure one or more revision surgeries to replace all or part of the shunt. One of the primary causes of CSF shunt failure is obstruction of the ventricular catheter, a component of the shunt system implanted directly into the brain's ventricular system. This work aims to improve the design of ventricular catheters in order to reduce the incidence of catheter obstruction ...


Cfd Model For Ventilation In Broiler Holding Sheds, Christian Heymsfield May 2016

Cfd Model For Ventilation In Broiler Holding Sheds, Christian Heymsfield

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Broiler production in Arkansas was valued at over $3.6 billion in 2013 (University of Arkansas Extension of Agriculture). Consequently, improvement in any phase of the production process can have significant economic impact and animal welfare implications. From the time poultry leave the farm and until they are slaughtered, they can be exposed to harsh environmental conditions, both in winter and in summer. After road transportation, birds are left to wait in holding sheds once they arrive at the processing plant, for periods of approximately 30 minutes to two hours. This project was interested in this holding shed waiting time ...