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Articles 1 - 30 of 93

Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Development And Validation Of A Nonlinear Dynamic Model For Tuned Liquid Multiple Columns Dampers, Liang Cao, Yongqiang Gong, Filippo Ubertini, Hao Wu, An Chen, Simon Laflamme Nov 2020

Development And Validation Of A Nonlinear Dynamic Model For Tuned Liquid Multiple Columns Dampers, Liang Cao, Yongqiang Gong, Filippo Ubertini, Hao Wu, An Chen, Simon Laflamme

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

The tuned liquid column damper (TLCD), a passive damping device consisting of a large U-tube with oscillating liquid, has been shown to be effective at mitigating structural responses under natural hazards. Aside from their bandwidth-limited mitigation capabilities, a key limitation of TLCDs is in their large geometries that occupy large space often at prime locations. A solution is to implement multi-columned versions, termed tuned liquid multiple columns dampers (TLMCDs), which have the potential to be tuned to multiple frequencies and occupy less space by leveraging the multiple columns to allow fluid movement. However, mathematical models characterizing their dynamic behavior must ...


Analytical And Computational Modelling Of The Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube, Nolan J. Dyck Oct 2020

Analytical And Computational Modelling Of The Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube, Nolan J. Dyck

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube (RHVT) is a simple mechanical device with no moving parts capable of separating a supply of compressed fluid into hot and cold streams through a process called temperature separation. The overall aim is to develop models which can be used to assess the temperature separation mechanisms in the RHVT, leading to a better overall understanding of the underlying physics. The introductory chapter contains a thermodynamic analysis and introduction to the flow physics, alongside three miniature literature reviews and critiques identifying research gaps.

The body of the thesis contains three articles. The first article studies the flow ...


Minimum Induced Drag For Tapered Wings Including Structural Constraints, Jeffrey D. Taylor, Douglas F. Hunsaker Aug 2020

Minimum Induced Drag For Tapered Wings Including Structural Constraints, Jeffrey D. Taylor, Douglas F. Hunsaker

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Student Publications and Presentations

LIFTING-LINE theory [1,2] is the foundation for much of our understanding of finite-wing aerodynamics. Solutions based on lifting-line theory are widely accepted and have been shown to be in good agreement with CFD [3-10]. From Prandtl’s analytic solution to the classical lifting-line equation [1,2], the wing section-lift distribution can be expressed as a Fourier series of the form [11]

bL~ (θ)/L = (4/π)[sin(θ) + Σn-2 Bnsin(nθ)]; θ = cos-1(-2z/b) (1)

where b is the wingspan, L~ is the local wing section lift, L is the total wing lift, z ...


A Protocol For Automated A Posteriori Adaptive Meshing With Simvascular: A Test Case, Akash Gupta, Ethan Kung Apr 2020

A Protocol For Automated A Posteriori Adaptive Meshing With Simvascular: A Test Case, Akash Gupta, Ethan Kung

Publications

Operational details regarding the use of the adaptive meshing (AM) algorithm available in the SimVascular package are scarce despite its application in several studies. Lacking these details, novice users of the AM algorithm may experience undesirable outcomes post-adaptation such as increases in mesh error metrics, unpredictable increases in mesh size, and losses in geometric fidelity. Here we present a test case using our proposed iterative protocol that will help prevent these undesirable outcomes and enhance the utility of the AM algorithm. We present three trials (conservative, moderate, and aggressive settings) applied to a scenario modelling a Fontan junction with a ...


A Numerical Investigation Of Microgravity Evaporation, Daniel Peter Ringle Apr 2020

A Numerical Investigation Of Microgravity Evaporation, Daniel Peter Ringle

Dissertations and Theses

Evaporation is important to myriad engineering processes such as cooling, distillation, thin film deposition, and others. In fact, NASA has renewed interest in using cabin air pressure evaporation as a means to recycle waste water in space. As one example, NASA recently conducted experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to measure evaporation rates in microgravity and to determine the impacts of porous structure on the process. It has long been assumed that differences in evaporation rates between 1-g0 and microgravity are small. However, discrepancies by as much as 40% have been observed in practice. The assumption now ...


A Protocol For Automated A Posteriori Adaptive Meshing With Simvascular: A Test Case, Akash Gupta, Ethan Kung Apr 2020

A Protocol For Automated A Posteriori Adaptive Meshing With Simvascular: A Test Case, Akash Gupta, Ethan Kung

Publications

Objective

Operational details regarding the use of the adaptive meshing (AM) algorithm available in the SimVascular package are scarce despite its application in several studies. Lacking these details, novice users of the AM algorithm may experience undesirable outcomes post-adaptation such as increases in mesh error metrics, unpredictable increases in mesh size, and losses in geometric fidelity. Here we present a test case using our proposed iterative protocol that will help prevent these undesirable outcomes and enhance the utility of the AM algorithm. We present three trials (conservative, moderate, and aggressive settings) applied to a scenario modelling a Fontan junction with ...


Editorial For The Special Issue On Micro/Nano-Chip Electrokinetics, Volume Iii, Shizhi Qian, Xiangchun Xuan Jan 2020

Editorial For The Special Issue On Micro/Nano-Chip Electrokinetics, Volume Iii, Shizhi Qian, Xiangchun Xuan

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Computational Analysis And Design Optimization Of Convective Pcr Devices, Jung Il Shu Jul 2019

Computational Analysis And Design Optimization Of Convective Pcr Devices, Jung Il Shu

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a relatively novel technique to amplify a few copies of DNA to a detectable level. PCR has already become common in biomedical research, criminal forensics, molecular archaeology, and so on. Many have attempted to develop PCR devices in numerous types for the purpose of the lab-on-chip (LOC) or point-of-care (POC). To use PCR devices for POC lab testing, the price must be lower, and the performance should be comparable to the lab devices. For current practices with the existing methods, the price is pushed up higher partially due to too much dependence on numerous developmental ...


Ship Airwakes In Waves And Motions And Effects On Helicopter Operation, Gregory M. Dooley May 2019

Ship Airwakes In Waves And Motions And Effects On Helicopter Operation, Gregory M. Dooley

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis focuses on the effects of wave-induced motions on the airwake of a ship and on the operation of a helicopter in the airwake. While the topic is broad, efforts are concentrated on understanding fundamentals of the ship’s airwake structure at varying Reynolds (Re) numbers without motions, using available experimental data for validation of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology used, and on studying the effects of waves and motions on the airwake of a ship and a helicopter operating above a ship’s flight deck in full-scale. The static ONR Tumblehome (ONRT) ship geometry with a solid ...


Simulation Methods For Polydisperse, Multiphase Flows Using Moment Methods, Jeffrey C. Heylmun Jan 2019

Simulation Methods For Polydisperse, Multiphase Flows Using Moment Methods, Jeffrey C. Heylmun

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

While the ability to solve for multiphase flows that contain of a distribution of properties is crucial to the accurate prediction of physical system, there is currently a lack of numerical solution methods to solve for these types of flows. In this work, three new numerical procedures are developed in order to accurately solve for systems containing polydisperse multiphase flows, and flows with velocity distributions. The ability to correctly solve these flows allows for the local segregation of size that is generally not possibly due to the limitations of the standard solution techniques. First, a numerical algorithm is presented to ...


Flow Fields Past Grain Bins As It Relates To Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Placement Optimization, Jon Richter Jan 2019

Flow Fields Past Grain Bins As It Relates To Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Placement Optimization, Jon Richter

All Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

This thesis studies the 3D flow field of grain bins as it relates to Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) placement. Numerical CFD simulations using ANSYS FLUENT were created and validated with the Minnesota State University, Mankato water channel. It was found that the best speed-up regions were on the outer most sides of the models, closest to the walls of the water channel. The model that is furthest upwind in the group has the best speed-up velocity. As the models become closer together, an asymmetric flow field develops. VAWT placement between the models for any case researched is not recommended ...


Using Cfd To Improve Off-Design Throughflow Analysis, Troy J. Lanchman Jan 2019

Using Cfd To Improve Off-Design Throughflow Analysis, Troy J. Lanchman

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

In turbomachinery design, complex internal flows give rise to significant losses and blockage whose effects are difficult to properly analyze without detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods or experiments. In a typical design method, CFD is used in conjunction with simpler throughflow or cascade codes to hasten the process. However, the lesser physical accuracy of the design codes demands the inclusion of models to improve the accuracy of the throughflow codes. This thesis aims to use CFD data to generate improved loss and blockage models for a 2D compressor throughflow code by matching throughflow data to CFD data using optimizations ...


A Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation Model With Low Reynolds Number Correction For Transitional Swirling Flow In A Multi-Inlet Vortex Nanoprecipitation Reactor, Zhenping Liu, James C. Hill, Rodney O. Fox, Alberto Passalacqua, Michael G. Olsen Aug 2018

A Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation Model With Low Reynolds Number Correction For Transitional Swirling Flow In A Multi-Inlet Vortex Nanoprecipitation Reactor, Zhenping Liu, James C. Hill, Rodney O. Fox, Alberto Passalacqua, Michael G. Olsen

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The objective of the presented work is to verify a delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES) model for simulating transitional swirling flow in a micro-scale multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR). The DDES model is a k-w based turbulence model with a low Reynolds number correction applied to the standard k-w model such that the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) component of the DDES model is able to account for low Reynolds number flow. By limiting the dissipation rate in the k-equation, the large-eddy simulation (LES) part of the DDES model behaves similarly to a one-equation sub-grid model. The turbulent Reynolds number is redefined to ...


High-Fidelity Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Of A 3d Composite Material Hydrofoil, Silvia Volpi May 2018

High-Fidelity Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Of A 3d Composite Material Hydrofoil, Silvia Volpi

Theses and Dissertations

Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) refers to the process of designing systems characterized by the interaction of multiple interconnected disciplines. High-fidelity MDO usually requires large computational resources due to the computational cost of achieving multidisciplinary consistent solutions by coupling high-fidelity physics-based solvers. Gradient-based minimization algorithms are generally applied to find local minima, due to their efficiency in solving problems with a large number of design variables. This represents a limitation to performing global MDO and integrating black-box type analysis tools, usually not providing gradient information. The latter issues generally inhibit a wide use of MDO in complex industrial applications.

An architecture ...


Electric-Field Assisted Manipulation And Self-Assembly Of Particle Suspensions, Edison Chijioke Amah Apr 2018

Electric-Field Assisted Manipulation And Self-Assembly Of Particle Suspensions, Edison Chijioke Amah

Dissertations

The aim of this dissertation is to model the processes by which particles suspended in liquids and at liquid surfaces self-assemble when they are subjected to uniform and non-uniform electric fields. To understand the role of electric forces, three related problems were studied numerically and experimentally.

In the first problem, particles are assumed to be suspended inside a liquid and a nonuniform electric field is applied using electrodes mounted in the domain walls which causes positively polarized particles to collect in the regions where the electric field intensity is locally maximal and the negatively polarized particles collect in the regions ...


Simplified, Alternative Formulation Of Numerical Simulation Of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, Russell L. Edwards Apr 2018

Simplified, Alternative Formulation Of Numerical Simulation Of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, Russell L. Edwards

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Three-Dimensional proton exchange fuel cell (PEMFC) operation in steady-state is simulated with computational fluid dynamics / multiphysics software that is based upon the finite-element method. PEMFC operation involves the simultaneous simulation of multiple, interconnected physics involving fluid flows, heat transport, electrochemical reactions, and both protonic and electronic conduction. Modeling efforts have varied by how they treat the physics occurring within and adjacent to the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA). Several approaches treat the MEA as part of the computational domain, solving multiple, and coupled conservation equations via the CFD approach within the 3 regions of the MEA. The thickness dimensions of the 3 ...


Soot And Spectral Radiation Modeling For High-Pressure Turbulent Spray Flames, Sebastian Ferreyro Fernandez, C. Paul, A. Sircar, A. Imren, D. C. Haworth, Somesh Roy, Michael F. Modest Apr 2018

Soot And Spectral Radiation Modeling For High-Pressure Turbulent Spray Flames, Sebastian Ferreyro Fernandez, C. Paul, A. Sircar, A. Imren, D. C. Haworth, Somesh Roy, Michael F. Modest

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

A transported probability density function (PDF) method and a photon Monte Carlo/line-by-line (PMC/LBL) spectral model are exercised to generate physical insight into soot processes and spectral radiation characteristics in transient high-pressure turbulent n-dodecane spray flames, under conditions that are relevant for compression-ignition piston engines. PDF model results are compared with experimental measurements and with results from a locally well-stirred reactor (WSR) model that neglects unresolved turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature. Computed total soot mass and soot spatial distributions are highly sensitive to the modeling of unresolved turbulent fluctuations. To achieve reasonable agreement between model and experiment and ...


Computational Investigation Using Bleed As A Method Of Shock Stabilization, Dayle L. Chang Mar 2018

Computational Investigation Using Bleed As A Method Of Shock Stabilization, Dayle L. Chang

Theses and Dissertations

Shock-wave/boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) produce undesirable dynamic loads and separated unsteady flows, adversely impacting the performance and structural integrity of supersonic vehicles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a successful tool in experimental planning and shows promise as a critical tool in understanding and mitigating negative effects of SWBLI. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the effect of bleed holes on shock stability using the OVERFLOW CFD solver to inform the planning of an Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) SWBLI wind tunnel experiment. First, a two-dimensional, flat plate, single-hole configuration was developed. Massflow discrepancies of 14.8% were ...


Dust Control Examination Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling And Laboratory Testing Of Vortecone And Impingement Screen Filters, Ashish R. Kumar Jan 2018

Dust Control Examination Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling And Laboratory Testing Of Vortecone And Impingement Screen Filters, Ashish R. Kumar

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

Heavy industries, such as mining, generate dust in quantities that present an occupational health hazard. Prolonged exposure to the respirable dust has been found to result in many irreversible occupational ailments in thousands of miners. In underground mining applications, a variety of scrubbing systems are used to remove dust near the zones of generation. However, the wire-mesh type fibrous screens in the flooded-bed dust scrubbers used on continuous miners, are prone to clogging due to the accumulation of dust particles. This clogging results in a reduced capture efficiency and a higher exposure to the personnel. This research establishes the Vortecone ...


Automated Cfd Optimization To Maximize Wind Farms Performance And Land Use, Rafael Valotta Rodrigues Jan 2018

Automated Cfd Optimization To Maximize Wind Farms Performance And Land Use, Rafael Valotta Rodrigues

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this research, a computational system was designed to analyze and optimize the layout of wind farms under variable operational conditions. At first, a wind turbine computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model was developed covering the near wake. The near wake flow field was validated against near wake velocity data from the MEXICO experiment. The CFD simulation demonstrated that the tip speed ratio and the pitch angle greatly influence the near wake behavior, affecting the velocity deficit and the turbulence intensity profile in this region. The CFD model was extended to cover the far wake, aiming to become a computational tool ...


Optimization Of Microfluidic Particle Separator Geometry Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Joseph Petersen Jan 2018

Optimization Of Microfluidic Particle Separator Geometry Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Joseph Petersen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Computational fluid dynamics software was used to simulate the motion of circulating tumor cells in a variety of microfluidic cell isolation devices. Design of several novel microfluidic cell isolation devices was aided by viewing streamlines of fluid in devices in simulation. Devices that performed best in simulation used 5-micrometer wide guiding channels to guide cells to the capture location in the device. While these devices performed better than other devices in simulation and captured all particles regardless of position along inlet, experimental results differ from simulation.


Erosion Degradation Characteristics Of A Linear Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator Under A High-Frequency Turbulent Flow Field, Yuan Li, Shaoping Wang, Mileta M. Tomovic, Chao Zhang Jan 2018

Erosion Degradation Characteristics Of A Linear Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator Under A High-Frequency Turbulent Flow Field, Yuan Li, Shaoping Wang, Mileta M. Tomovic, Chao Zhang

Engineering Technology Faculty Publications

The paper proposes a performance degradation analysis model based on dynamic erosion wear for a novel Linear Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator (LEHA). Rather than the traditional statistical methods based on degradation data, the method proposed in this paper firstly analyzes the dominant progressive failure mode of the LEHA based on the working principle and working conditions of the LEHA. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method, combining the turbulent theory and the micro erosion principle, is used to establish an erosion model of the rectification mechanism. The erosion rates for different port openings, under a time-varying flow field, are obtained. The piecewise linearization ...


Uncertainty In Combustion Reaction Rates And Its Effects On Combustion Simulations, Joshua Piehl Jan 2018

Uncertainty In Combustion Reaction Rates And Its Effects On Combustion Simulations, Joshua Piehl

Wayne State University Theses

This work investigates the uncertainties in reaction rates of an n-dodecane model on turbulent spray combustion simulations. Six major reactions were found to significantly impact the ignition delay of the mechanism in a 0-D batch reactor model. These reactions’ rates were independently modified and placed into individual mechanisms. These newly developed mechanisms were simulated in a 3-D turbulent spray simulation and a 0-D batch reactor at a pressure of 60 bar and temperatures from 900 to 1100 K. The combustion characteristics (e.g. ignition delays, flame lift-off length, liquid and vapor penetration) of the modified mechanisms were compared to those ...


Design Of A Novel Tissue Culture System To Subject Aortic Tissue To Multidirectional Bicuspid Aortic Valve Wall Shear Stress, Janet Liu Jan 2018

Design Of A Novel Tissue Culture System To Subject Aortic Tissue To Multidirectional Bicuspid Aortic Valve Wall Shear Stress, Janet Liu

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Blood vessels experience complex hemodynamics marked by three-dimensionality and pulsatility. Arterial endothelial cells interact with the characteristics of the fluid wall shear stress (WSS) to maintain homeostasis or promote disease states. In particular, the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), a congenital heart valve anatomy consisting of two leaflets instead of three, is associated with aortic complications presumably promoted by hemodynamic abnormalities. While devices have been used to test this hypothesis, their capabilities are limited to the generation of time-varying WSS magnitude in one direction. However, the increased flow helicity generated by BAVs in the aorta is expected to result in increased ...


Dynamic Rating Of Overhead Transmission Lines Over Complex Terrain Using A Large-Eddy Simulation Paradigm, Tyler Phillips, Ray Deleon, Inanc Senocak Aug 2017

Dynamic Rating Of Overhead Transmission Lines Over Complex Terrain Using A Large-Eddy Simulation Paradigm, Tyler Phillips, Ray Deleon, Inanc Senocak

Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) enables rating of power line conductors using real-time weather conditions. Conductors are typically operated based on a conservative static rating that assumes worst case weather conditions to avoid line sagging to unsafe levels. Static ratings can cause unnecessary congestion on transmission lines. To address this potential issue, a simulation-based dynamic line rating approach is applied to an area with moderately complex terrain. A micro-scale wind solver — accelerated on multiple graphics processing units (GPUs) — is deployed to compute wind speed and direction in the vicinity of powerlines. The wind solver adopts the large-eddy simulation technique and the ...


Evaluation And Enhancement Of Clean Energy Systems: Analytical, Computational And Experimental Study Of Solar And Nuclear Cycles, Nima Fathi Jul 2017

Evaluation And Enhancement Of Clean Energy Systems: Analytical, Computational And Experimental Study Of Solar And Nuclear Cycles, Nima Fathi

Mechanical Engineering ETDs

Clean (and specifically renewable) energy is steadily improving its global share. However, finite availability of fossil fuels and the growing effects of climate change make it an urgent priority to convince the industry and governments to incentivize investment in the renewable energy field and to make it more attractive by decreasing the capital cost. Until recently, uncertainties in funding limited renewable energy development, especially in the US. That limitation has been one of the barriers to progress. Another limitation of many renewable energy systems is the variability in their output, which makes them unsuitable for baseline power production. Therefore, fossil ...


Dynamic Rating Of Overhead Transmission Lines Over Complex Terrain Using A Large-Eddy Simulation Paradigm, Tyler Phillips, Ray Deleon, Inanc Senocak Jun 2017

Dynamic Rating Of Overhead Transmission Lines Over Complex Terrain Using A Large-Eddy Simulation Paradigm, Tyler Phillips, Ray Deleon, Inanc Senocak

Inanc Senocak

Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) enables rating of power line conductors using real-time weather conditions. Conductors are typically operated based on a conservative static rating that assumes worst case weather conditions to avoid line sagging to unsafe levels. Static ratings can cause unnecessary congestion on transmission lines. To address this potential issue, a simulation-based dynamic line rating approach is applied to an area with moderately complex terrain. A micro-scale wind solver — accelerated on multiple graphics processing units (GPUs) — is deployed to compute wind speed and direction in the vicinity of powerlines. The wind solver adopts the large-eddy simulation technique and the ...


A Ship Advancing In A Stratified Fluid: The Dead Water Effect Revisited, Mehdi Esmaeilpour May 2017

A Ship Advancing In A Stratified Fluid: The Dead Water Effect Revisited, Mehdi Esmaeilpour

Theses and Dissertations

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology is presented to predict density stratified flows in the near-field of ships and submarines. The density is solved using a higher-order transport equation coupled with mass and momentum conservation. Turbulence is implemented with a k-ε/k-ω based Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) approach, enabling explicit solution of larger energy-containing vortices in the wake. Validation tests are performed for a two-dimensional square cavity and the three-dimensional stratified flow past a sphere, showing good agreement with available data. The near-field flow of the self-propelled Research Vessel Athena advancing in a stably stratified fluid is studied, as ...


The Development Of A Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Wake Model For Use In Wind Farm Layout Optimization With Noise Level Constraints, Eric Blaine Tingey Mar 2017

The Development Of A Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Wake Model For Use In Wind Farm Layout Optimization With Noise Level Constraints, Eric Blaine Tingey

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis focuses on providing the means to use vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) in wind farms as an alternative form of harnessing wind energy in offshore and urban environments where both wake and acoustic effects of turbines are important considerations. In order for VAWTs to be used in wind farm layout analysis and optimization, a reduced-order wake model is needed to calculate velocities around a turbine quickly and accurately. However, a VAWT wake model has not been available to accomplish this task. Using vorticity data from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of VAWTs and cross-validated Gaussian distribution and polynomial surface ...


Assessment Of Varying Model Representations In Cfd Simulations, Caitlin R. Gerdes Jan 2017

Assessment Of Varying Model Representations In Cfd Simulations, Caitlin R. Gerdes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis investigates the effects of varying model refinement and representation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in two case studies. Product and process realization in engineering design requires substantial resources (time and money) in order to test novel designs for effectiveness. In recent decades, engineering has been relying more heavily on simulation-based analysis in the design process with computer models to help reduce the demands for real-life testing. The first case study analyzed in this thesis is a photobioreactor, which is used to grow microalgae for biofuel and require a balance of nutrients, light, and mixing for growth. The ...