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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

C6 Wheels, Samuel L. Pizot, Luke Martin, Josh Warner, Jonah Levis Jun 2019

C6 Wheels, Samuel L. Pizot, Luke Martin, Josh Warner, Jonah Levis

Mechanical Engineering

This document details the C6 Wheels project being undertaken for senior design. The objective is to design and manufacture carbon fiber reinforced polymer wheels for the Cal Poly Formula Society of Automotive Engineers (FSAE) team. The wheel shells will be used on FSAE’s competition vehicles. FSAE requested the wheels to improve the handling characteristics of their vehicles by reducing the unsprung and rotational mass. They have attempted carbon fiber wheels previously but have not yet run any on their vehicles. FSAE specifically proposed the design of carbon fiber shells with an aluminum center as opposed to full carbon fiber ...


Adaptive Paddle Board, Alexander Holthaus, Alexander Holthaus, Garrett Holmes, Garett Jones Jun 2019

Adaptive Paddle Board, Alexander Holthaus, Alexander Holthaus, Garrett Holmes, Garett Jones

Mechanical Engineering

This Final Design Review (FDR) document outlines the Adaptive Paddle Board senior project, done by four Mechanical Engineering Students at California Polytechnic State University and provides detail on the project and what the team has accomplished. The goal was to create a universally adaptive paddle board that can be used by the Central California Adaptive Sports Center for a wide range of persons with disabilities. This document highlights current research from patents and existing products, details regarding customer specifications, results from concept generation, the manufacturing and testing that went into the final design, and the process taken to get there ...


Structural Health Monitoring Of Composite Parts: A Review, Jacob Pessin Jun 2019

Structural Health Monitoring Of Composite Parts: A Review, Jacob Pessin

Honors Theses

Structural health monitoring has the potential to allow composite structures to be more reliable and safer, then by using more traditional damage assessment techniques. Structural health monitoring (SHM) utilizes individual sensor units that are placed throughout the load bearing sections of a structure and gather data that is used for stress analysis and damage detection. Statistical time based algorithms are used to analyze collected data and determine both damage size and probable location from within the structure. While traditional calculations and life span analysis can be done for structures made of isotropic materials such as steel or other metals, composites ...


Investigation Of Design, Manufacture, Analysis, And Test Of A Composite Connecting Rod Under Compression, Thomas Juhl Rohrbach Mar 2019

Investigation Of Design, Manufacture, Analysis, And Test Of A Composite Connecting Rod Under Compression, Thomas Juhl Rohrbach

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Composite materials hold great potential for the replacement of traditional materials in machines utilized on a daily basis. One such example is within an engine block assembly where massive components inherently reduce the efficiency of the system they constitute. By replacing metal elements such as connecting rods, cylinder caps, or a crank shaft with composite alternatives, a significant increase in performance may be achieved with respect to mechanical strength, thermal stability, and durability, while also reducing mass. Exploration of this technology applied to a connecting rod geometry was investigated through a combination of process development, manufacturing, numerical analysis and testing ...


Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li Jan 2019

Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) is a recently developed freeform extrusion fabrication process for producing dense ceramic components from single and multiple constituents. In this process, aqueous paste of ceramic particles with a very low binder content ( < 1 vol%) is extruded through a moving nozzle to print each layer sequentially. Once one layer is printed, it is surrounded by oil to prevent undesirable water evaporation from the perimeters of the part. The oil level is regulated just below the topmost layer of the part being fabricated. Infrared radiation is then applied to uniformly and partially dry the top layer so that the yield stress of the paste increases to avoid part deformation. By repeating the above steps, the part is printed in a layer-wise fashion, followed by post-processing. Paste extrusion precision of different extrusion mechanisms was compared and analyzed, with an auger extruder determined to be the most suitable paste extruder for the CODE system. A novel fabrication system was developed based on a motion gantry, auger extruders, and peripheral devices. Sample specimens were then produced from 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia using this fabrication system, and their properties, including density, flexural strength, Young's modulus, Weibull modulus, fracture toughness, and hardness were measured. The results indicated that superior mechanical properties were achieved by the CODE process among all the additive manufacturing processes. Further development was made on the CODE process to fabricate ceramic components that have external/internal features such as overhangs by using fugitive support material. Finally, ceramic composites with functionally graded materials (FGMs) were fabricated by the CODE process using a dynamic mixing device"--Abstract, page iv.


Gnygrens18.Pdf, Garrett Nygren Aug 2018

Gnygrens18.Pdf, Garrett Nygren

Garrett Nygren

The finite element method was used to evaluate microstructural strengthening and toughening effects in nanoparticulate reinforced polymer composites (nanocomposites) and in short aligned discontinuous fiber reinforced polymer composites. Nanoparticulate reinforcement is a well-known method of polymer toughening which can greatly expand the range of engineering applications for polymers. However, the mechanisms of nanoparticulate toughening, as well as complementary sub-micron fracture processes, are not well understood. Short, aligned, discontinuous carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics show promise as a versatile, inexpensive material system with favorable manufacturability, but failure of the associated morphologies is also not yet well explored.
In nanocomposites, two microstructural effects ...


Advances In Composite Manufacturing Of Helicopter Parts, Tobias A. Weber, Hans-Joachim K. Ruff-Stahl Jul 2018

Advances In Composite Manufacturing Of Helicopter Parts, Tobias A. Weber, Hans-Joachim K. Ruff-Stahl

Hans-Joachim Ruff-Stahl

This study investigates and compares different methods for improving standard autoclave composite manufacturing in order to find suitable approaches to a more efficient composite production. The goal is not only a reduction in manufacturing times and costs but also quality enhancement. Improved part quality while decreasing costs enables a manufacturer of composite parts to expand its market share, especially in the helicopter market, which has been constantly shrinking over the last two years. Various approaches such as improved tooling technology, the use of automated systems for lamination as well as outsourcing are examined to provide an overview of possible advancements ...


Prove Endurance Car Front Suspension, Lauren A. Williams, Logan Simon, Justine G. Kwan Jun 2018

Prove Endurance Car Front Suspension, Lauren A. Williams, Logan Simon, Justine G. Kwan

Mechanical Engineering

This document details the collaborative Mechanical Engineering Senior Project with Cal Poly PROVE Lab on PROVE Lab’s Project 2; an electric vehicle designed to travel 1000 miles on a single charge. Logan Simon, Justine Kwan, and Lauren Williams are given the challenge of designing an innovative proof of concept front suspension suspension for this vehicle.

After detailed research of new suspension systems, it was determined that the innovative nature could be in the form of unique manufacturing methods, materials use, or mechanical design. At this point in time, this vehicle is a purely conceptual design with no concrete requirements ...


Numerical Evaluation Of Energy Release Rate At Material Interfaces For Fatigue Life Predictions, Robert L. Hendrickson May 2018

Numerical Evaluation Of Energy Release Rate At Material Interfaces For Fatigue Life Predictions, Robert L. Hendrickson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Composite materials are becoming popular in almost all industries. Carbon-fiber and glass-fiber composites are used in aircraft, sports equipment, boats, prosthetics, and wind turbine blades. In all these applications, the composites are subjected to different loads. Loads can take the form of impact or cyclic/fatigue loading, both of which decrease the strength of composites as micro-cracks grow through the composite. Composite laminates are made up of fiber plies (thin layers of fiber) and the fibers are surrounded by a resin like epoxy. It is common for laminates to fail because of delamination growth (plies peeling apart). Small delaminations do ...


Ultralow Wear Fluoropolymer Metal-Oxide Composites: Nanomechanics & Tribochemistry, Mark Alfred Sidebottom Jan 2018

Ultralow Wear Fluoropolymer Metal-Oxide Composites: Nanomechanics & Tribochemistry, Mark Alfred Sidebottom

Theses and Dissertations

Fluoropolymers and fluoropolymer composite materials are commonly used solid lubricant materials. Over the past fifteen years, the addition of nanostructured alumina particles to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was shown to improve the wear rate of unfilled PTFE by nearly 10,000x. In this work, the hardnesses of both porous and dense micron sized metal-oxide particles (alumina and CoAl2O4) were independently measured using in-situ nanoindentation experiments that correlated directly with wear rate of the PTFE-metal-oxide composites. Framework for developing ultralow wear of PTFE-nanostructured alumina composites was extended to melt processable perfluoroalkoxy polymer (PFA)-nanostructured alumina composites. These composites also exhibited a nearly 10 ...


Human-Robot Collaborative Force-Controlled Micro-Drilling For Advanced Manufacturing And Medical Applications, Parimal Mahesh Prajapati Jan 2018

Human-Robot Collaborative Force-Controlled Micro-Drilling For Advanced Manufacturing And Medical Applications, Parimal Mahesh Prajapati

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Robotic drilling finds applications in diverse fields ranging from advanced manufacturing to the medical industry. Recent advances in low-cost, and human-safe, collaborative robots (e.g., Sawyer) are enabling us to rethink the possibilities in which robots can be deployed for such tedious and time-consuming tasks. This thesis presents a robotic drilling methodology with features of force-control enabled micro-drilling and human-robot collaboration to reduce programming efforts and enhance drilling performance. A Sawyer robot from Rethink Robotics, which offers safe physical interactions with a human co-worker, kinesthetic teaching, and force control, is used as the test bed. The robot’s end-effector was ...


High Temperature Polymer Composites Using Out-Of-Autoclave Processing, Sudharshan Anandan Jan 2018

High Temperature Polymer Composites Using Out-Of-Autoclave Processing, Sudharshan Anandan

Doctoral Dissertations

"High performance polymer composites possess high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and have design flexibility. Carbon/epoxy composites are commonly used aerospace materials. Bismaleimide based composites are used as a replacement for epoxy systems at higher service temperatures. Aerospace composites are usually manufactured, under high pressure, in an autoclave which requires high capital investments and operating costs. In contrast, out-of-autoclave manufacturing, specifically vacuum-bag-only prepreg process, is capable of producing low cost and high performance composites. In the current study, out-of-autoclave processing of high temperature carbon/bismaleimide composites was evaluated. The cure and process parameters were optimized. The properties of out-of-autoclave cured ...


One-Shot Manufacturing Techniques Developed For Carbon Fiber Prepreg Components, Jacob Bruce Patterson Jan 2018

One-Shot Manufacturing Techniques Developed For Carbon Fiber Prepreg Components, Jacob Bruce Patterson

Theses and Dissertations

The need for faster and more accurate manufacturing methods for composite parts continues to grow. Co-curing composite structures can decrease manufacturing time by eliminating secondary operations such as grinding, jigging, bonding, and fastening while creating lighter and more accurate parts. As a demonstrator for co-curing techniques, a six-meter carbon fiber wing for a high-altitude and high-speed dynamically soaring unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was designed and manufactured in one cure cycle. Two wing-skin molds were created using low density tooling board, with the mold geometry directly machined into the material, reducing tool manufacturing time and cost. An aluminum insert was used ...


Development Of Novel, Microscale Fracture Toughness Testing For Adhesives, Dillon S. Watring Jun 2017

Development Of Novel, Microscale Fracture Toughness Testing For Adhesives, Dillon S. Watring

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this thesis was to develop microscale fracture toughness tests to be performed in situ based off previously used macroscale fracture toughness tests. The thesis also was to use these tests to perform in situ analysis and imaging of reinforced adhesives during crack propagation. Two different fracture toughness tests were developed for this thesis through developing fixtures and sample geometry. A microscale double cantilever beam (DCB) test was developed for mode I fracture (opening mode). A microscale end notch flexure (ENF) test was developed for mode II fracture (sliding mode).

Three different types of materials were used as ...


Drawing And Twisting Of Graphene Fibers, Gregory T. Lane, Robert J. Sekerak, Isaias Diaz Jun 2017

Drawing And Twisting Of Graphene Fibers, Gregory T. Lane, Robert J. Sekerak, Isaias Diaz

Mechanical Engineering

The aim of this project was to develop a more automated process for drawing and twisting of graphene fibers than was currently in place. This was implemented by having two chemical baths with variable speed rollers at either end, and intermediate roller to spool fiber between stages, and a twisting cylinder with integral spool to twist the fiber as it is collected. The goal was to have this first iteration deliver a working prototype, however due to manufacturing delays and timing constraints, that will be missed. A second follow-on project would be able to continue the work presented here and ...


Advances In Composite Manufacturing Of Helicopter Parts, Tobias A. Weber, Hans-Joachim K. Ruff-Stahl Jan 2017

Advances In Composite Manufacturing Of Helicopter Parts, Tobias A. Weber, Hans-Joachim K. Ruff-Stahl

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

This study investigates and compares different methods for improving standard autoclave composite manufacturing in order to find suitable approaches to a more efficient composite production. The goal is not only a reduction in manufacturing times and costs but also quality enhancement. Improved part quality while decreasing costs enables a manufacturer of composite parts to expand its market share, especially in the helicopter market, which has been constantly shrinking over the last two years. Various approaches such as improved tooling technology, the use of automated systems for lamination as well as outsourcing are examined to provide an overview of possible advancements ...


Formula Sae Intake System, Esa Mahmood, Arman Sarwar, Michael R. Smith Jan 2017

Formula Sae Intake System, Esa Mahmood, Arman Sarwar, Michael R. Smith

Capstone Design Expo Posters

The Formula SAE Intake System is intended to optimize the airflow into a restricted 600cc engine. The intake system is designed, fabricated, and installed in accordance with the FSAE rule book with a focus on maximizing the vehicle’s acceleration. It is directly responsible for determining the drivability of the car and how much horsepower the flow restricted engine produces.

Design of the intake was conceptualized based on researching a number of factors including venturi diffusion angles, plenum volumes, and runner lengths. Initial tests were performed utilizing computational fluid dynamics for a total of 367 flow simulations and 261 running ...


Multiscale Modeling: Thermal Conductivity Of Graphene/Cycloaliphatic Epoxy Composites, Sorayot Chinkanjanarot Jan 2017

Multiscale Modeling: Thermal Conductivity Of Graphene/Cycloaliphatic Epoxy Composites, Sorayot Chinkanjanarot

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The thermal property of epoxy as the binder in the Carbon Fiber (CF) composites, especially thermal conductivity is important to achieve the advance technology and to improve the performance of materials. Multiscale modeling including molecular dynamic (MD) modeling and micromechanical modeling is used to study the properties of neat Cycloaliphatic Epoxies (CE) and Graphene nanoplatelet (GNP)/CE with and without covalent functionalization.

The thermal properties (glass-transition temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, and thermal conductivity) and mechanical properties of CE system are investigated by MD modeling using OPLS-All Atom force field. A unique crosslinking technique is developed to achieve the cured CE ...


Finite Element Analysis Of A High-Speed Suspension Boat Fuselage, Lean Fang Jan 2017

Finite Element Analysis Of A High-Speed Suspension Boat Fuselage, Lean Fang

Theses and Dissertations

The ongoing suspension boat project at Lehigh University Composites Lab presents new challenges for design since a suspension boat will encounter entirely different loads than a conventional boat. High strength yet low weight are as always of major importance.The suspension boat presently under consideration consists of four sponsons connected to a center hull, or fuselage. An FEA study of the composite fuselage was conducted. Crash loads were applied as evenly distributed pressures over parts of the top of the cockpit. Suspension loads were applied at discrete points on the fuselage, where the suspension components will be mounted, and inertia ...


Wrinkling Of Functionally Graded Sandwich Structures Subject To Biaxial And In-Plane Shear Loads, Harold Costa Jan 2017

Wrinkling Of Functionally Graded Sandwich Structures Subject To Biaxial And In-Plane Shear Loads, Harold Costa

Masters Theses

"Benefits of a functionally graded core increasing wrinkling stability of sandwich panels have been demonstrated in a recent paper [1] where a several-fold increase in the wrinkling stress was observed, without a significant weight penalty, using a stiffer core adjacent to the facings. In the present paper wrinkling is analyzed in case where the facings are subject to biaxial compression and/or in-plane shear loading and the core is arbitrary graded through-the-thickness. Two issues addressed are the effect of biaxial or in-plane shear loads on wrinkling stability of panels with both graded and ungraded core and the verification that functional ...


Flexural Creep Behavior Of Adhesively Bonded Metal And Composite Laminates, Hasan M. Nuwayer Jan 2017

Flexural Creep Behavior Of Adhesively Bonded Metal And Composite Laminates, Hasan M. Nuwayer

Wayne State University Dissertations

Adhesively bonded structures exhibit time dependent behavior when subjected to constant load (creep). In this investigation, long-term creep behavior of adhesively bonded aluminum and carbon fiber composite beams under flexural loading was investigated. Three point bending test was selected because of its simplicity and the fact that bending stresses are quite common. In this study, two types of adhesively bonded beam specimens were tested: specimens prepared by adhesively bonding two aluminum beams and specimens prepared by adhesively bonding two unidirectional carbon fiber laminated beams. Accelerated creep tests were performed at higher temperatures up to 60 °C and deflection was measured ...


Non-Destructive Evaluation Of Composites: Predictive Ultrasonic Guided-Waves Modeling, Non-Destructive Material Characterization, And The Application To Aerospace Structures, Darun Barazanchy Jan 2017

Non-Destructive Evaluation Of Composites: Predictive Ultrasonic Guided-Waves Modeling, Non-Destructive Material Characterization, And The Application To Aerospace Structures, Darun Barazanchy

Theses and Dissertations

To predict guided wave dispersion curves, it is common to use different solution approaches depending on the material type (isotropic or anisotropic) of the medium in which the wave propagates. The two different solution methods are defined in different domains, frequency-phase velocity domain for isotropic materials and wavenumber-phase velocity domain for anisotropic materials. This may lead to difficulties and unsatisfying results when predicting the dispersion curves for hybrid laminates which contain both isotropic and anisotropic materials. Therefore, a unified formulation defined in the wavenumber-phase velocity domain to accomodate both isotropic and anisotropic materials, as well as hybrid combinations, is desired ...


Organic-Inorganic Graphite And Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Based Composites For 3d Printing, Jorge Alfredo Catalan Gonzalez Jan 2017

Organic-Inorganic Graphite And Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Based Composites For 3d Printing, Jorge Alfredo Catalan Gonzalez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This project was multipronged to help fuse together topics of additive manufacturing and two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, and studying the mechanical and electrical properties of the composites produced. The composites are made from the thermoplastic polymer acting as a matrix and the graphite and 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) serving as the filler or reinforcement. Different concentrations of TMD's were added to the matrix to study the effect of composition on the mechanical and electrical properties. To shed insights into the mechanical properties, test coupons were produced as "dog bone" structures for tensile testing using the ASTM D638 type ...


Controllable Energy Absorption Of Double Sided Corrugated Tubes Under Axial Crushing, Hozhabr Mozafari, Shengmao Lin, Linxia Gu Jan 2017

Controllable Energy Absorption Of Double Sided Corrugated Tubes Under Axial Crushing, Hozhabr Mozafari, Shengmao Lin, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

To maximize the controllable energy absorption of corrugation troughs as observed in the single sided corrugated (SSC) tube, we proposed and tested a new structure design, i.e., double-sided corrugated (DSC) tube made of Al 6060-T6 aluminum alloy or CF1263 carbon/epoxy composite. Finite element models were developed to test the mechanical advantage of the DSC tube in comparison with both SSC and classical straight (S) tubes under axial crushing. Results have shown that the total absorbed energy of the DSC aluminum tube with 14 corrugations was 330% and 32% higher than that of the SSC tube with 14 corrugations ...


Energy Localization And Heat Generation In Composite Energetic Systems Under High-Frequency Mechanical Excitation, Jesus O. Mares Dec 2016

Energy Localization And Heat Generation In Composite Energetic Systems Under High-Frequency Mechanical Excitation, Jesus O. Mares

Open Access Dissertations

In this work, the ability to use high frequency mechanical excitation to generate significant heating within plastic bonded explosives, as well as single energetic particles embedded within a viscoelastic binder, is studied. In this work, the fundamental mechanisms associated with the conversion of high-frequency mechanical excitation to heat as applied to these composite energetic systems are thoroughly investigated.

High-frequency contact excitation has been used to generate a significant amount of heat within samples of PBX 9501 and representative inert mock materials. Surface temperature rises on the order of 10 °C were observed at certain frequencies over a range from 50 ...


Ionic Electroactive Polymer Devices: Physics-Based Modeling With Experimental Investigation And Verification, Tyler Paul Stalbaum Dec 2016

Ionic Electroactive Polymer Devices: Physics-Based Modeling With Experimental Investigation And Verification, Tyler Paul Stalbaum

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The primary focus of this study is to examine, understand, and model ionic electroactive polymer based systems in attempt to further develop this field of study. Physics-based modeling is utilized, as opposed to empirical modeling, to achieve a deeper insight to the underlying physics. The ionic electroactive polymer system of primary interest in this study is ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) devices. Other similar devices, such as anion-exchange membrane (AEM) type actuators and flow battery systems are also investigated using the developed model. The underlying physics are in the studies of transport phenomenon for describing the ionic flow within the polymer ...


Finite Element Modeling Of Delamination Damage In Carbon Fiber Laminates Subject To Low-Velocity Impact And Comparison With Experimental Impact Tests Using Nondestructive Vibrothermography Evaluation, George Rodriguez Iv Jun 2016

Finite Element Modeling Of Delamination Damage In Carbon Fiber Laminates Subject To Low-Velocity Impact And Comparison With Experimental Impact Tests Using Nondestructive Vibrothermography Evaluation, George Rodriguez Iv

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Carbon fiber reinforced composites are utilized in many design applications where high strength, low weight, and/or high stiffness are required. While composite materials can provide high strength and stiffness-to-weight ratios, they are also more complicated to analyze due to their inhomogeneous nature. One important failure mode of composite structures is delamination. This failure mode is common when composite laminates are subject to impact loading.

Various finite element methods for analyzing delamination exist. In this research, a modeling strategy based on contact tiebreak definitions in LS-DYNA®was used. A finite element model of a low-velocity impact event was created to ...


Mens Doped Adhesive And Influence On Fracture Toughness, Kao Z. Yang Mar 2016

Mens Doped Adhesive And Influence On Fracture Toughness, Kao Z. Yang

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Composites are in high demand; however, fasteners are often required for joining process and can reduce their advantages. One solution is adhesive bonding, but uncertainty exists regarding long term durability and the ability to interrogate bonds noninvasively. One potential solution to qualify bond integrity over its service life is to dope an adhesive with magneto-electric nanoparticles (MENs). MENs can yield output magnetic signatures that are influenced by bond quality and damage state. In this study, adhesives have been doped with MENs prior to bonding at 1% volume concentration. For optimum implementation, this health monitoring system should be evaluated for effects ...


Modified Yttrium Hydroxide/Mc Nylon Nanocomposites And Scaling Effects In Multilayer Polyethylene Films, Jia Chen Mar 2016

Modified Yttrium Hydroxide/Mc Nylon Nanocomposites And Scaling Effects In Multilayer Polyethylene Films, Jia Chen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, monomer casting (MC) nylon was synthesized. MC nylon could replace nonferrous metals in certain applications, including gears, wheels, and other moving parts. However, compared with metals, MC nylon products have poor strength and stiffness, and crack easily, especially at low temperatures. In addition, the dimensional stability of MC nylon is poor, especially in the large casting nylon products, causing significant internal stresses due to shrinkage. Thus, MC nylon cracks easily when cast and molded. The yttrium hydroxide particles were modified by stearic acid and dispersed in the caprolactam. The polymerization time was short due to fast anionic ...


Damage Tolerance And Assessment Of Unidirectional Carbon Fiber Composites, Mark David Flores Jan 2016

Damage Tolerance And Assessment Of Unidirectional Carbon Fiber Composites, Mark David Flores

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Composites are beginning to be used in a variety of different applications throughout industry. However, certification and damage tolerance is a growing concern in many aerospace and marine applications. Although compression-after-impact have been studied thoroughly, determining a damage tolerance methodology that accurately characterizes the failure of composites has not been established. An experimental investigation was performed to study the effect of stacking sequence, low-velocity impact response, and residual strength due to compression and fatigue. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) captured the strains and deformation of the plate due to compression. Computational investigations integrated non-destructive techniques (C-Scan, X-Ray) to determine the extent ...