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Additive Manufacturing

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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Additive Manufacturing Powder Removal: Viper 2.0, Andrew D. Epperson, Sean Mccracken, Melissa O'Neil, Alex Ward Jun 2019

Additive Manufacturing Powder Removal: Viper 2.0, Andrew D. Epperson, Sean Mccracken, Melissa O'Neil, Alex Ward

Mechanical Engineering

This report presents the final design review of this senior project team. The project is being sponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a federal design agency. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is interested in improving their metal additive manufacturing process. The goal of this senior project is to improve the efficiency and safety of a method currently being used to remove metal powders for additively manufactured components. A senior project team in 2017-2018 created the Vibration Induced Powder Evacuator and Reclaimer (VIPER), a device that uses a vibration motor to shake a printed part until it is clean from excess powder ...


Torch Mounted Wire Nipper, Steven D. Patrick, Matt Montgomery, Ben Rouse, Garrett D. Foust May 2019

Torch Mounted Wire Nipper, Steven D. Patrick, Matt Montgomery, Ben Rouse, Garrett D. Foust

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Influence Of Process Variables On Physical And Mechanical Properties In Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Joshua Robert Koepke, Bradley Jared, Yu-Lin Shen Apr 2019

The Influence Of Process Variables On Physical And Mechanical Properties In Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Joshua Robert Koepke, Bradley Jared, Yu-Lin Shen

Mechanical Engineering ETDs

Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing consists of a process that incorporates many process variables into fabricating parts. This study investigated several of these process variables and determined their influence on part properties. The process variables investigated include laser power, velocity, focus offsets, layer thickness, and powder particle size. Physical properties will be compared including surface roughness, form, and density. Tensile testing provided mechanical properties including unloading Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, uniform elongation, and ductility. Process maps will be developed that will provide recommendations for these process settings. It will be shown that these laser settings ...


Fracture Toughness And Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Characterization Of Inconel 718 Formed By Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Charles C. Hohnbaum Mar 2019

Fracture Toughness And Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Characterization Of Inconel 718 Formed By Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Charles C. Hohnbaum

Theses and Dissertations

Continuing improvement in the field of AM of metals provides the opportunity for direct fabrication of aerospace parts. AM was once used in large part for rapid prototyping but improvements in technology and increases in the knowledge base of AM materials has provided the opportunity for manufacture of AM parts for operational use. The ability to create low numbers of unique parts without having to invest in expensive tooling provides great economic incentive to utilize this technique. IN718 is the most common high temperature alloy used in the aerospace industry and lends itself readily to formation by LPBF. The superior ...


Process Parameter Development Of Additively Manufactured Af9628 Weapons Steel, Erin M. Hager Mar 2019

Process Parameter Development Of Additively Manufactured Af9628 Weapons Steel, Erin M. Hager

Theses and Dissertations

The manufacture of components in Additive Manufacturing processes is limited by the range of materials available. Qualification of materials for Additive Manufacturing is time intensive, and is often specific to a single type of machine. In this study, an approach to selecting power, speed, and hatch spacing values for a newly powderized material, AF9628 weapons steel, is described that results in highly dense (>99.9%) parts on an MLab 200R Cusing. Initial power and speed values used in a weld track study were selected based on a survey of parameters used on similar materials, with a focus on the energy ...


Development Of Actuators Using Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing With Embedded Shape Memory Alloy Wire, Alfonso Fernandez Jan 2019

Development Of Actuators Using Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing With Embedded Shape Memory Alloy Wire, Alfonso Fernandez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Over the past several decades, the advancements in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have opened a wide variety of applications where AM can be used. Some examples of these advancements are the introduction of automatic wire embedding capabilities, the introduction of multi-material processing and the printing of thermoplastic elastomers. With the availability of these advancements, it is now possible to create spark-free, dust-free actuation mechanisms for applications where it is crucial that no spark is generated (i.e. space shuttle fuel valve).

In this research, a Lulzbot TAZ 6 desktop material extrusion system was utilized to print parts out of Plasticized ...


Impact Of Temperature And Screw Speed On Material Meso-Structure And Tensile Strength In Large Area Pellet-Fed Additive Manufacturing, Xavier Jimenez Guzman Jan 2019

Impact Of Temperature And Screw Speed On Material Meso-Structure And Tensile Strength In Large Area Pellet-Fed Additive Manufacturing, Xavier Jimenez Guzman

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Evolution in additive manufacturing, specifically in material extrusion, has resulted in large-scale machines capable of extruding thermoplastic-matrix composite materials in higher volumes to fabricate products for large-scale applications. As with small- and medium-scale material extrusion, the properties of the final product often correlate directly with the bevy of print parameters employed. The current research was performed to evaluate the effects of the screw speed and temperature on an ABS 20%wt. carbon fiber thermoplastic processed on a Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM, Cincinnati Inc) machine. Five screw speeds (50, 150, 250, 350 and 400 rpm) and three extruder temperature profiles ...


Direct Write 3d Printing Of Functional Ceramics, Jorge Angel Diaz Jan 2019

Direct Write 3d Printing Of Functional Ceramics, Jorge Angel Diaz

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Humidity sensors are used in many industries and are important for ensuring quality and safety. Ceramic sensors are preferred because of their quick response time, ability to withstand high temperatures and excellent Chemical and mechanical stability. The manufacturing world has been moving toward additive manufacturing which is a form of synthesizing 3D tangible layer by layer in witch minimal waste is produced. Additive manufacturing also is known as 3D printing has opened new possibilities to design engineers by giving them design freedom and access to the layers of a part to allow embedded sensors. There is a category of ceramics ...


Investigating Using Titanium Zirconium Molybdenum For Additively Manufacturing Aerospace Components, Justin Hunter Vanhoose Jan 2019

Investigating Using Titanium Zirconium Molybdenum For Additively Manufacturing Aerospace Components, Justin Hunter Vanhoose

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Mankind throughout history has possessed an innate characteristic to explore, migrating to new frontiers.The requirement for this travel is most broadly associated with the need to pursue more resources. Rockets have been used as a means of weapons since the Sung Dynasty in the thirteenth empire and have now been integrated for travel/transport. The sophistication of rocketry and propulsion has reached a level to where it is plausible that mankind will be a multi-planetary species. The space industry has grown significantly with the advancement of the sophistication of these rocket technologies. However, a specific challenge to overcome in ...


The Effect Of Incorporating End-User Customization Into Additive Manufacturing Designs, Jonathan D. Ashley Dec 2018

The Effect Of Incorporating End-User Customization Into Additive Manufacturing Designs, Jonathan D. Ashley

Theses and Dissertations

In the realm of additive manufacturing there is an increasing trend among makers to create designs that allow for end-users to alter them prior to printing an artifact. Online design repositories have tools that facilitate the creation of such artifacts. There are currently no rules for how to create a good customizable design or a way to measure the degree of customization within a design. This work defines three types of customizations found in additive manufacturing and presents three metrics to measure the degree of customization within designs based on the three types of customization. The goal of this work ...


Design Of Lattice Structures With Graded Density Fabricated By Additive Manufacturing, Wenjin Tao, Yong Liu, Austin T. Sutton, Krishna C. R. Kolan, Ming-Chuan Leu Jul 2018

Design Of Lattice Structures With Graded Density Fabricated By Additive Manufacturing, Wenjin Tao, Yong Liu, Austin T. Sutton, Krishna C. R. Kolan, Ming-Chuan Leu

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Lattice structures fabricated by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes are promising for many applications, such as lightweight structures and energy absorbers. However, predicting and controlling of their mechanical behaviors is challenging due to the complexity of modeling and the uncertainties exist in the manufacturing process. In this paper, we explore the possibilities enabled by controlling the local densities. A set of lattice structures with different density gradients are designed using an implicit isosurface equation, and they are manufactured by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process with 304L stainless steel. Finite element analysis and compression test are used to evaluate their mechanical properties ...


Development Of An Additive Manufacturing Compression Molding Process For Low Cost In-House Prototyping, Grant Forrester Warden Jun 2018

Development Of An Additive Manufacturing Compression Molding Process For Low Cost In-House Prototyping, Grant Forrester Warden

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Composite parts can be manufactured using various processes. Generally, a mix of resin and fiber is formed into the desired geometry using a mold and pressure. One process used by Dr. Joseph Mello in his research is known as compression molding. Compression molds are generally made from large billets of aluminum or stainless steel, are machined by a CNC mill, and are then hand-finished with polishes and mold preparation products. This process is expensive, requires large machinery and experienced operators, and introduces long lead times relative to the design cycle of the part being manufactured. The nature of Dr. Mello ...


Defect Detection In Selective Laser Melting, Moira Foster Jun 2018

Defect Detection In Selective Laser Melting, Moira Foster

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Additively manufactured parts produced using selective laser melting (SLM) are prone to defects created during the build process due to part shrinkage while cooling. Currently defects are found only after the part is removed from the printer. To determine whether cracks can be detected before a print is completed, this project developed print parameters to print a test coupon with inherent defects – warpage and cracking. Data recorded during the build was then characterized to determine when the defects occurred.

The test coupon was printed using two sets of print parameters developed to control the severity of warpage and cracking. The ...


Microheater Array Powder Sintering (Maps) For Printing Flexible Electronics, Nicholas Holt May 2018

Microheater Array Powder Sintering (Maps) For Printing Flexible Electronics, Nicholas Holt

Theses and Dissertations

Microheater array powder sintering (MAPS) is a novel additive manufacturing process that uses an array of microheaters to selectively sinter powder particles. MAPS shows great promise as a new method of printing flexible electronics by enabling digital curing of conductive inks on a variety of substrates. MAPS operation relies on establishing a precision air gap of a few microns between an array of microheaters, which can reach temperatures of 600°C, and a layer of conductive ink which can be deposited onto a flexible substrate. This system presents challenges, being: the fabrication of a microheater that can reach suitable temperatures ...


Reducing Stress In 3d Printed Parts Made With Laser Engineered Net Shaping, Shaun Ross Whetten Apr 2018

Reducing Stress In 3d Printed Parts Made With Laser Engineered Net Shaping, Shaun Ross Whetten

Mechanical Engineering ETDs

Thermal cycling and repeated melting/solidification cycles characteristic of 3D metal printing processes causes buildup of residual stress in 3D printed parts. Using laser engineered net shaping (LENS®), residual stresses are formed leading to deformation and possible cracking of the 3D printed metal components. The LENS process offers opportunities for rapid prototyping, alternative manufacturing processes, and repair of worn/broken components so it is important to be able to minimize the effects of residual stress. Work was performed to understand the benefit of substrate heating on reducing residual stress in metal parts made using the LENS process. Substrate deformation, and ...


Designed Extrudate For Ceramic Additive Manufacturing, Devin Mcmillen Jan 2018

Designed Extrudate For Ceramic Additive Manufacturing, Devin Mcmillen

Masters Theses

"The objective of this thesis work was to design ceramic paste systems that assist in achieving a high theoretical density ( > 95%) after deposition by a novel additive manufacturing process, i.e. Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE). The work is encompassed in five main sections: Sections 1 and 2 provide an introduction and literature review of relevant topics for the following sections of experimentation. Section 3 provides an analysis of a reaction chemistry to identify three discrete materials that could be combined via CODE and result in zirconium diboride (ZrB2) post-sintering. Section 4 describes the development of a high solids loading ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Advanced Materials Using Laser Metal Deposition From Elemental Powder Mixture, Xueyang Chen Jan 2018

Fabrication And Characterization Of Advanced Materials Using Laser Metal Deposition From Elemental Powder Mixture, Xueyang Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

"Over the past decades of years, a great deal of money has been spent to machine large and complex parts from high-performance metals (i.e., titanium components for aerospace applications), so users attempt to circumvent the high cost of materials. Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technique capable of fabricating complicated structures with superior properties. This dissertation aims to improve the applications of LMD technique for manufacturing metallic components by using various elemental powder mixture according to the following three categories of research topics. The first research topic is to investigate and develop a cost-effective possibility by using ...


Laser Foil Printing And Surface Polishing Processes, Chen Chen Jan 2018

Laser Foil Printing And Surface Polishing Processes, Chen Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

"A foil-based additive manufacturing technology for fabricating metal parts, called Laser Foil Printing (LFP), was proposed and developed in this dissertation. The manufacturing sub-processes comprising the LFP technology were comprehensively studied, which include the laser spot welding of foil, laser raster-scan welding of foil, laser cutting of foil, and laser polishing processes. The fabricated free-form parts were demonstrated and own better mechanical properties (micro hardness and tensile strength) than the raw material, because of the rapid-cooling process of laser welding. The full and strong bond between layers was formed by the laser welding process, with no micro-cracks or pores observed ...


Development And Management Of Advanced Batteries Via Additive Manufacturing And Modeling, Jie Li Jan 2018

Development And Management Of Advanced Batteries Via Additive Manufacturing And Modeling, Jie Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"The applications of Li-ion batteries require higher energy and power densities, improved safety, and sophisticated battery management systems. To satisfy these demands, as battery performances depend on the network of constituent materials, it is necessary to optimize the electrode structure. Simultaneously, the states of the battery have to be accurately estimated and controlled to maintain a durable condition of the battery system. For those purposes, this research focused on the innovation of 3D electrode via additive manufacturing, and the development of fast and accurate physical based models to predict the battery status for control purposes. Paper I proposed a novel ...


Research On Additive Manufacturing Of Metallic Glass Alloy, Yiyu Shen Jan 2018

Research On Additive Manufacturing Of Metallic Glass Alloy, Yiyu Shen

Doctoral Dissertations

"The required rapid cooling has limited the dimension of the Bulk Metallic glasses (BMGs) produced by traditional method, and hence has seriously limited their applications, despite their remarkable mechanical properties. In this present project, a detailed study is conducted on the methodology and understanding of manufacturing large Zr- based metallic glass part by laser based additive manufacturing technology, which breaks the size limitation. The first research issue proposes and develops a new additive manufacturing technology, named Laser-Foil-Printing (LFP). Sheet foils of LM105 (Zr52.5Ti5Al10Ni14.6Cu17.9 (at. %)) metallic glass are used ...


Investigation Of Microstructure And Mechanical Properties By Direct Metal Deposition, Jingwei Zhang Jan 2018

Investigation Of Microstructure And Mechanical Properties By Direct Metal Deposition, Jingwei Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Microstructure and properties of Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) parts are very crucial to meeting industrial requirements of parts quality. Prediction, and control of microstructure and mechanical properties have attracted much attention during conventional metal manufacturing process under different conditions. However, there is few investigations focused on microstructure simulation and mechanical properties control under different process parameters during DMD process. This dissertation is intended to develop a multiscale model to investigate Ti6Al4V grain structure development and explore Ti6Al4V based functionally graded material (FGM) deposit properties during DMD process. The first research topic is to investigate and develop a cellular automaton-finite element ...


Predictive Modeling On The Piezoelectric Properties Of 3d Printed Functional Nanocomposites Using The Data Analytics Approach, Md Didarul Islam Jan 2018

Predictive Modeling On The Piezoelectric Properties Of 3d Printed Functional Nanocomposites Using The Data Analytics Approach, Md Didarul Islam

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This paper presents research done on prediction modeling using a data analytics approach to determine various factors affecting the piezoelectric properties of the 3D printed pressure sensors. Previously, the material extrusion 3D printing technique was used to fabricate pressure sensors composed of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT), barium titanate (BT), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) using simple fabrication and low-cost methods. This sensor produced a voltage output of 725 mV (0.13 pC/N) which is enough for pressure sensing applications. However, a holistic study to determine impacts of all factors was not carried out in the previous model. In this study ...


Constitutive Model Development For Additive Manufacturing, Diana Berenice Montes Jan 2018

Constitutive Model Development For Additive Manufacturing, Diana Berenice Montes

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Additive manufacturing (AM) is known worldwide for revolutionizing the development of three-dimensional modeling by reducing the time and increasing the precision of parts. For Powder Bed Fusion research is necessary to reduce concerns in residual stress, porosity and cracking in AM parts. A constitutive model was created in Abaqus to validate material properties of 3D printed Al 6061. Finite element analysis was performed to investigate how properties may affect in the modification of parameters to reduce printing imperfections. Research was made as well in polylactic acid properties for material extrusion to explore its behavior for creep and relaxation. Properties were ...


Model-Based Predictive Analytics For Additive And Smart Manufacturing, Zhuo Yang Jan 2018

Model-Based Predictive Analytics For Additive And Smart Manufacturing, Zhuo Yang

Doctoral Dissertations

Qualification and certification for additive and smart manufacturing systems can be uncertain and very costly. Using available historical data can mitigate some costs of producing and testing sample parts. However, use of such data lacks the flexibility to represent specific new problems which decreases predictive accuracy and efficiency. To address these compelling needs, in this dissertation modeling techniques are introduced that can proactively estimate results expected from additive and smart manufacturing processes swiftly and with practical levels of accuracy and reliability. More specifically, this research addresses the current challenges and limitations posed by use of available data and the high ...


A Design Framework For Additive Manufacturing Through The Synergistic Use Of Axiomatic Design Theory And Triz, Sarath C. Renjith, Gül E. Okudan Kremer, Kijung Park Jan 2018

A Design Framework For Additive Manufacturing Through The Synergistic Use Of Axiomatic Design Theory And Triz, Sarath C. Renjith, Gül E. Okudan Kremer, Kijung Park

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Additive manufacturing has emerged as an integral part of modern manufacturing because of its unique capabilities for rapid prototyping and the design flexibility. In order to take full advantage of additive manufacturing, Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) has risen to provide design frameworks, methodologies, and a set of guidelines for effective product designs under additive manufacturing. However, the existing DfAM methods have limitations in that most methods rely on either too general or too specific design requirements and parameters for additive manufacturing; an effective design framework that can consider the capabilities and constraints of additive manufacturing at an early design ...


Supporting Engineering Design Of Additively Manufactured Medical Devices With Knowledge Management Through Ontologies, Thomas Hagedorn Jan 2018

Supporting Engineering Design Of Additively Manufactured Medical Devices With Knowledge Management Through Ontologies, Thomas Hagedorn

Doctoral Dissertations

Medical environments pose a substantial challenge for engineering designers. They combine significant knowledge demands with large investment for new product development and severe consequences in the case of design failure. Engineering designers must contend with an often-chaotic environment to which they have limited access and familiarity, a user base that is difficult to engage and highly diverse in many attributes, and a market structure that often pits stakeholders against one another. As medical care in general moves towards personalized models and surgical tools towards less invasive options emerging manufacturing technologies in additive manufacturing offer significant potential for the design of ...


Development Of Material For 3d Printed Habitats With Extraplanetary Applications, Taylor Wait Jan 2018

Development Of Material For 3d Printed Habitats With Extraplanetary Applications, Taylor Wait

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

3D printing, also called Additive Manufacturing, has increasingly become a focus for research because of the potential to replace complicated assemblies or complex parts with a single printed item. The space industry is very interesting in studying 3d printing with parts being tested and used on rockets, a 3D printer being installed at the International Space Station and is being developed for use in manned exploration of extraplanetary bodies to build habitats. To encourage teams from around the world to develop technologies and materials for autonomous habitat construction using minimal Earth exports, NASA created the 3D Printed Habitat Challenge. NASA ...


Development Of A Desktop Material Extrusion 3d Printer With Wire Embedding Capabilities, Jose Francisco Motta Jan 2018

Development Of A Desktop Material Extrusion 3d Printer With Wire Embedding Capabilities, Jose Francisco Motta

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Printed circuit boards (PCB) have been widely used as a permanent solution for generating complex circuitries to power electronic devices. Over the years, PCB boards have proved to be reliable when powering electronic devices. However, when fabricating a printed circuit board, one must outsource to fabricate the boards when in prototype phase. Therefore, the risk of intellectual property theft and long lead time is an issue. The objective of this Thesis is to develop a hybrid multi-tool desktop material extrusion 3D printer that allows for easy integration (modularity) of tools to generate multi-functional 3D printed components.

The addition of an ...


Design And Optimization Of A 1 Kw Stirling Engine, Garrett Tyler Rinker Jan 2018

Design And Optimization Of A 1 Kw Stirling Engine, Garrett Tyler Rinker

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Stirling engines are often overlooked as a means of energy conversion, though its versatility offers many advantages. Since it is an external combustion engine, it can be supplied with heat through the combustion of a variety of fuels. Its maintenance- and degradation-free aspects, as well as its excellent turn down ratio, make it a suitable candidate for applications such as remote power generation, combined heat and power (CHP), cryogenics, solar power, and even space exploration. The continual advancement of additive manufacturing (AM) offers opportunity to potentially further improve the already efficient Stirling cycle. This dissertation presents the design and optimization ...


Investigation Of 2195 And 2219 Post Weld Heat Treatments For Additive Friction Stir Lap Welds, Matthew Champagne Dec 2017

Investigation Of 2195 And 2219 Post Weld Heat Treatments For Additive Friction Stir Lap Welds, Matthew Champagne

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

To evaluate potential uses for friction stir welding in additive manufacturing, two separate parts were fabricated, one of 2195-T84 and the other 2219-T87, utilizing fixed pin techniques and additive lap welds. The parts were cut into samples, artificially aged and subjected to Rockwell hardness (HRB), Vickers hardness, micrographic photography, and metallographic imaging on both pre- and post- heat treatment. Additionally, tensile testing was performed on the heat-treated samples. A comparisons of test results showed a minimal increase in the yield strength of the 2195-T84 samples compared to as-welded tensile results obtained from a previous project. The ultimate tensile strength was ...