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2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1637

Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Stability And Interfacial Viscoelasticity Of Oil-Water Nanoemulsions Stabilized By Soy 2 Lecithin And Tween 20 For The Encapsulation Of Bioactive Carvacrol, Jerome J. Nash, Kendra Erk Dec 2016

Stability And Interfacial Viscoelasticity Of Oil-Water Nanoemulsions Stabilized By Soy 2 Lecithin And Tween 20 For The Encapsulation Of Bioactive Carvacrol, Jerome J. Nash, Kendra Erk

School of Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The rheology of oil-in-water (O/W) droplet interfaces stabilized by food-grade emulsifiers (soy lecithin or Tween 20) under controlled aqueous conditions was investigated to elucidate its contribution in the kinetic stabilization of nanoemulsion-based delivery systems containing carvacrol, a naturally-derived antimicrobial compound. Dilational rheology of surfactant-laden O/W interfaces was measured using axisymmetric drop shape analysis. The kinetic stability of corresponding nanoemulsions (containing mixtures of carvacrol and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil dispersed in water (pH 7)) was characterized using dynamic light scattering. Zwitterionic lecithin molecules adsorbed to the O/W interface for 24 h formed a notably viscoelastic layer, compared to ...


Experimental And Numerical Study Of Dysphagia, Yash G. Potdar Dec 2016

Experimental And Numerical Study Of Dysphagia, Yash G. Potdar

Masters Theses

Dysphagia, meaning difficulty in swallowing, is a symptom of disease that occurs in young children and elderly people. It occurs particularly due to two reasons, weak neural network and/or deformities in oral section/s. The Helen DeVos Children’s Hospital’s Intensive Feeding Program takes care of children suffering from Dysphagia. In order to make the swallowing process easier and in some cases safer, thickener is added to the liquids. Depending on the requirement of thickness, the amount of thickener is varied. Although the directions to prepare the mixtures are given by the thickener product company, the required thickness ...


The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Nanoscience, Fall 2016, Sandy Avila Dec 2016

The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Nanoscience, Fall 2016, Sandy Avila

Libraries' Newsletters

No abstract provided.


Wave Motion Induced By Turbulent Shear Flows Over Growing Stokes Waves, Shahrdad Sajjadi, Serena Robertson, Rebecca Harvey, Mary Brown Dec 2016

Wave Motion Induced By Turbulent Shear Flows Over Growing Stokes Waves, Shahrdad Sajjadi, Serena Robertson, Rebecca Harvey, Mary Brown

Publications

The recent analytical of multi-layer analyses proposed by Sajjadi et al. (J Eng Math 84:73, 2014) (SHD14 therein) is solved numerically for atmospheric turbulent shear flows blowing over growing (or unsteady) Stokes (bimodal) water waves, of low-to-moderate steepness. For unsteady surface waves, the amplitude a(t)∝ekcita(t)∝ekcit, where kcikci is the wave growth factor, k is the wavenumber, and cici is the complex part of the wave phase speed, and thus, the waves begin to grow as more energy is transferred to them by the wind. This will then display the critical height to a point, where ...


The Effect Of A Powered Ankle Foot Orthosis On Walking In A Stroke Subject: A Case Study, Ali Pourghasem, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Mohammad Kamali, Mohammad Jannesari, Iman Salafian Dec 2016

The Effect Of A Powered Ankle Foot Orthosis On Walking In A Stroke Subject: A Case Study, Ali Pourghasem, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Mohammad Kamali, Mohammad Jannesari, Iman Salafian

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

[Purpose] Standing and walking are impaired in stroke patients. Therefore, assisted devices are required to restore their walking abilities. The ankle foot orthosis with an external powered source is a new type of orthosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a powered ankle foot orthosis compared with unpowered orthoses in a stroke patient.

[Subjects and Methods] A single stroke subject participated in this study. The subject was fitted with three types of ankle foot orthosis (powered, posterior leg spring, and carbon ankle foot orthoses). He was asked to walk with and without the three types ...


Finite Element Simulation And Additive Manufacturing Of Stiffness-Matched Niti Fixation Hardware For Mandibular Reconstruction Surgery, Ahmadreza Jahadakbar, Narges Shayesteh Moghaddam, Amirhesam Amerinatanzi, David Dean, Haluk E. Karaca, Mohammad Elahinia Dec 2016

Finite Element Simulation And Additive Manufacturing Of Stiffness-Matched Niti Fixation Hardware For Mandibular Reconstruction Surgery, Ahmadreza Jahadakbar, Narges Shayesteh Moghaddam, Amirhesam Amerinatanzi, David Dean, Haluk E. Karaca, Mohammad Elahinia

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

Process parameters and post-processing heat treatment techniques have been developed to produce both shape memory and superelastic NiTi using Additive Manufacturing. By introducing engineered porosity, the stiffness of NiTi can be tuned to the level closely matching cortical bone. Using additively manufactured porous superelastic NiTi, we have proposed the use of patient-specific, stiffness-matched fixation hardware, for mandible skeletal reconstructive surgery. Currently, Ti-6Al-4V is the most commonly used material for skeletal fixation devices. Although this material offers more than sufficient strength for immobilization during the bone healing process, the high stiffness of Ti-6Al-4V implants can cause stress shielding. In this paper ...


A Visual Velocity Impedance Controller, Victor Nevarez Dec 2016

A Visual Velocity Impedance Controller, Victor Nevarez

Mechanical Engineering ETDs

Successful object insertion systems allow the object to translate and rotate to accommodate contact forces. Compliant controllers are used in robotics to provide this accommodation. The impedance compliant controller is one of the more researched and well known compliant controllers used for assembly. The velocity filtered visual impedance controller is introduced as a compliant controller to improve upon the impedance controller. The velocity filtered impedance controller introduces a filter of the velocity impedance and a gain from the stiffness. The velocity impedance controller was found to be more stable over larger ranges of stiffness values than the position based impedance ...


Drag And Shape Analysis Of Fiberglass Particles, Cody Williams Dec 2016

Drag And Shape Analysis Of Fiberglass Particles, Cody Williams

Mechanical Engineering ETDs

Settling tests were performed on particles of NUKON fiberglass to relate the drag coefficient of the particles to the Reynolds number of the particles. A new method was developed to measure fiberglass particles. The projected area, projected perimeter, and average height of the particles are measured using this method. The measurements are used to calculate the measured drag coefficient and measured Reynolds number for the particles. Data collected was compared to previous studies that focused on the settling of sand grains. A predictive correlation that was developed for sand grains was applied towards the particles of fiberglass. Tests were run ...


Design Of A Modified Stewart Platform Manipulator For Misalignment Correction, Adekunle Ayoko Dec 2016

Design Of A Modified Stewart Platform Manipulator For Misalignment Correction, Adekunle Ayoko

Master of Technology Management Plan II Graduate Projects

This thesis work is about the design of a modified Stewart platform manipulator for misalignment correction. The common version of the Stewart platform uses six actuators. The traditional Stewart platform of this kind has a moving top plate and a fixed base plate. However, in this research, the modified design of the traditional Stewart platform is studied. It is designed to be an easy connect-disconnect platform that can wrap around different structures with different cross sections and symmetrically designed. It is able to adjust position easily by using four identical but independent linear actuators populated evenly in two parts fastened ...


Numerical Computation Of Transient Response Of 2d Wedge Impact, Naresh Kumar Koyyapu Dec 2016

Numerical Computation Of Transient Response Of 2d Wedge Impact, Naresh Kumar Koyyapu

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The diverse applications of advanced marine craft ascribed to their high speed and technological advancements has led to the use of stronger and lighter metals in such crafts. High speed, in effect also increases slamming loads as higher speed increases frequency of wave encounter while operating in waves. The present study is limited to wedge impact models. Fundamentally, the study is thus about two-dimensional (2D) wedge impact in water. In an attempt to predict the structural response to impact hydrodynamic force, a beam element based finite element (FE) computer program is written and the results of the code are presented ...


Experimental Methods And Practices For The Study Of Toroidal Inflated, Braided Fabric Members, Daniel J. Whitney Dec 2016

Experimental Methods And Practices For The Study Of Toroidal Inflated, Braided Fabric Members, Daniel J. Whitney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Inflatable structures have become a very important area of interest for many differing applications where lightweight packable structures are required. NASA is developing Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology that takes advantage of stacked, inflated fabric tori to form a decelerating spacecraft nose cone. The tori consist of a bladder, braided fabric shell, and reinforcing in the form of integral cords or externally bonded straps. The focus of this thesis is on the development of methods for the structural testing of inflated fabric tori and developing an enhanced understanding of their behavior. This is essential for providing insight into the ...


The Mars Desert Research Station - Erau Crew 160 Expedition, Lycourgos Manolopoulos, Ashley Hollis-Bussey, Hiroki Sugimoto, Cassandra Vella, John Herman, Marc Carofano Dec 2016

The Mars Desert Research Station - Erau Crew 160 Expedition, Lycourgos Manolopoulos, Ashley Hollis-Bussey, Hiroki Sugimoto, Cassandra Vella, John Herman, Marc Carofano

Student Works

The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is a research program which is owned and operated by the Mars Society. The MDRS is located in Hanksville, Utah which hosts simulations that are typically two weeks long for professional scientists and engineers as well as college students of all levels, in training for human operations specifically on Mars. This space analog facility is in isolation, allowing for rigorous field studies regarding research that represents a true mission as if the crew members are conducting a real expedition on Mars. Participants are assigned specific roles and tasks that are typically aligned with their ...


Active Management Assistant System For Embry-Riddle Ecocar 3 Hybrid Supervisory Control System, Matthew Nelson, Blair Cutting, Michael J. Aleardi Dec 2016

Active Management Assistant System For Embry-Riddle Ecocar 3 Hybrid Supervisory Control System, Matthew Nelson, Blair Cutting, Michael J. Aleardi

Student Works

The Embry-Riddle EcoCAR 3 team is developing a prototype hybrid Chevrolet Camaro utilizing a customized vehicle powertrain controller. This controller is serving to ensure system safety, vehicle operation, and consumer drivability while also incorporating advanced driving aids to achieve both the desired performance levels one expects from a Camaro as well as vehicle efficiency. This vehicle must reach the team set vehicle technical specifications of a 4.9 second 0 to 60 time while maintaining a 53 miles per gallon gasoline equivalence rating.

In order to reach the efficiency goal, the team is developing an Active Management Assistance System utilizing ...


Energy-Climate-Manufacturing Nexus: New Insights From The Regional And Global Supply Chains Of Manufacturing Industries, Murat Kucukvar, Bunyamin Canseva, Gokhan Egilmez, Nuri C. Onat, Hamidreza Samadi Dec 2016

Energy-Climate-Manufacturing Nexus: New Insights From The Regional And Global Supply Chains Of Manufacturing Industries, Murat Kucukvar, Bunyamin Canseva, Gokhan Egilmez, Nuri C. Onat, Hamidreza Samadi

Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Faculty Publications

The main objectives of this research are to improve our understanding of energy-climate-manufacturing nexus within the context of regional and global manufacturing supply chains as well as show the significance of full coverage of entire supply chain tiers in order to prevent significant underestimations, which might lead to invalid policy conclusions. With this motivation, a multi region input–output (MRIO) sustainability assessment model is developed by using the World Input–Output Database, which is a dynamic MRIO framework on the world’s 40 largest economies covering 1440 economic sectors. The method presented in this study is the first environmentally-extended MRIO ...


Fuzzy Attitude Control Of Solar Sail, Joshua Baculi Dec 2016

Fuzzy Attitude Control Of Solar Sail, Joshua Baculi

Mechanical Engineering Master's Theses

This study presents various fuzzy type controllers for a solar sail. First, a Twin Parallel Distributed Compensator (TPDC) is built for a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model of the solarsail. The T-S fuzzy model is constructed by linearizing the existing nonlinear equations fo motion of the solar sail. The T-S fuzzy model is used to solve a set of linear matrix inequalities to derive state feedback controller gains. The TPDC controls the solar sail using a combination of reaction wheels and roll stabilizer bars for attitude control and trim masses for disturbance rejection. The TPDC tracks and stabilizes the solar sail to ...


The Tetrahedral Finite Cell Method For Fluids: Immersogeometric Analysis Of Turbulent Flow Around Complex Geometries, Fei Xu, Dominik Schillinger, David Kamensky, Vasco Varduhn, Chenglong Wang, Ming-Chen Hsu Dec 2016

The Tetrahedral Finite Cell Method For Fluids: Immersogeometric Analysis Of Turbulent Flow Around Complex Geometries, Fei Xu, Dominik Schillinger, David Kamensky, Vasco Varduhn, Chenglong Wang, Ming-Chen Hsu

Mechanical Engineering Publications

We present a tetrahedral finite cell method for the simulation of incompressible flow around geometrically complex objects. The method immerses such objects into non-boundary-fitted meshes of tetrahedral finite elements and weakly enforces Dirichlet boundary conditions on the objects’ surfaces. Adaptively-refined quadrature rules faithfully capture the flow domain geometry in the discrete problem without modifying the non-boundary-fitted finite element mesh. A variational multiscale formulation provides accuracy and robustness in both laminar and turbulent flow conditions. We assess the accuracy of the method by analyzing the flow around an immersed sphere for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. We show that quantities ...


An Algorithm For Calculating The Inverse Jacobian Of Multirobot Systems In A Cluster Space Formulation, Christopher Jude Waight Dec 2016

An Algorithm For Calculating The Inverse Jacobian Of Multirobot Systems In A Cluster Space Formulation, Christopher Jude Waight

Mechanical Engineering Master's Theses

Multirobot systems have characteristics such as high formation re-configurability that allow them to perform dynamic tasks that require real time formation control. These tasks include gradient sensing, object manipulation, and advanced field exploration. In such instances, the Cluster Space Control approach is attractive as it is both intuitive and allows for full degree of freedom control. Cluster Space Control achieves this by redefining a collection of robots as a single geometric entity called a cluster. To implement, it requires knowing the inverse Jacobian of the robotic system for use in the main control loop. Historically, the inverse Jacobian has been ...


Gaskinetic Modeling On Dilute Gaseous Plume Impingement Flows, Chunpei Cai Dec 2016

Gaskinetic Modeling On Dilute Gaseous Plume Impingement Flows, Chunpei Cai

Michigan Tech Publications

This paper briefly reviews recent work on gaseous plume impingement flows. As the major part of this paper, also included are new comprehensive studies on high-speed, collisionless, gaseous, circular jet impinging on a three-dimensional, inclined, diffuse or specular flat plate. Gaskinetic theories are adopted to study the problems, and several crucial geometry-location and velocity-direction relations are used. The final complete results include impingement surface properties such as pressure, shear stress, and heat flux. From these surface properties, averaged coefficients of pressure, friction, heat flux, moment over the entire flat plate, and the distance from the moment center to the flat ...


Predictive Modeling Of A Buoyancy-Operated Cooling Tower Under Unsaturated Conditions: Adjoint Sensitivity Model And Optimal Best-Estimate Results With Reduced Predicted Uncertainties, Federico Di Rocco, Dan Gabriel Cacuci Dec 2016

Predictive Modeling Of A Buoyancy-Operated Cooling Tower Under Unsaturated Conditions: Adjoint Sensitivity Model And Optimal Best-Estimate Results With Reduced Predicted Uncertainties, Federico Di Rocco, Dan Gabriel Cacuci

Faculty Publications

Nuclear and other large-scale energy-producing plants must include systems that guarantee the safe discharge of residual heat from the industrial process into the atmosphere. This function is usually performed by one or several cooling towers. The amount of heat released by a cooling tower into the external environment can be quantified by using a numerical simulation model of the physical processes occurring in the respective tower, augmented by experimentally measured data that accounts for external conditions such as outlet air temperature, outlet water temperature, and outlet air relative humidity. The model’s responses of interest depend on many model parameters ...


College Of Engineering Senior Design Competition Fall 2016, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas Dec 2016

College Of Engineering Senior Design Competition Fall 2016, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas

Senior Projects (COE)

Part of every UNLV engineering student’s academic experience, the senior design project stimulates engineering innovation and entrepreneurship. Each student in their senior year chooses, plans, designs, and prototypes a product in this required element of the curriculum. A capstone to the student’s educational career, the senior design project encourages the student to use everything learned in the engineering program to create a practical, real world solution to an engineering challenge. The senior design competition helps focus the senior students in increasing the quality and potential for commercial application for their design projects. Judges from local industry evaluate the ...


Attitude Determination Control Testing System (Helmholtz Cage And Air Bearing), Nicolas Theoret Dec 2016

Attitude Determination Control Testing System (Helmholtz Cage And Air Bearing), Nicolas Theoret

Honors Theses

The WALI team at Western Michigan University requested a test environment to validate their CubeSat’s de-tumbling control system and hardware. The test environment required a Helmholtz cage and spherical air bearing. The Helmholtz cage provides an adjustable magnetic field to simulate low earth orbit; the spherical air bearing simulates the friction free environment the CubeSat will experience in space. In conjunction, the two components create an adjustable system that simulates a satellite in low earth orbit.


Energy Optimization And Fuel Economy Investigation Of A Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Integrated With Diesel/Rcci Engines, Ali Solouk, Mahdi Shahbakhti Dec 2016

Energy Optimization And Fuel Economy Investigation Of A Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Integrated With Diesel/Rcci Engines, Ali Solouk, Mahdi Shahbakhti

Michigan Tech Publications

Among different types of low temperature combustion (LTC) regimes, eactively controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has received a lot of attention as a promising advanced combustion engine technology with high indicated thermal efficiency and low nitrogen oxides ( NOx" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; max-height: none; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">NOx ) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. In this study, an RCCI engine for the purpose of fuel economy investigation is incorporated in series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) architecture ...


Mitigation Of The Impact Of High Plug-In Electric Vehicle Penetration On Residential Distribution Grid Using Smart Charging Strategies, Chong Cao, Luting Wang, Bo Chen Dec 2016

Mitigation Of The Impact Of High Plug-In Electric Vehicle Penetration On Residential Distribution Grid Using Smart Charging Strategies, Chong Cao, Luting Wang, Bo Chen

Michigan Tech Publications

Vehicle electrification presents a great opportunity to reduce transportation greenhouse gas emissions. The greater use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), however, puts stress on local distribution networks. This paper presents an optimal PEV charging control method integrated with utility demand response (DR) signals to mitigate the impact of PEV charging to several aspects of a grid, including load surge, distribution accumulative voltage deviation, and transformer aging. To build a realistic PEV charging load model, the results of National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) have been analyzed and a stochastic PEV charging model has been defined based on survey results. The residential ...


Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Structure From Motion Biomass Inventory Estimates, Emily Jane Bedell Dec 2016

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Structure From Motion Biomass Inventory Estimates, Emily Jane Bedell

Dissertations and Theses

Riparian vegetation restoration efforts demand cost effective, accurate, and replicable impact assessments. In this thesis a method is presented using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a GoPro digital camera to collect photogrammetric data of a 2.02-acre riparian restoration. A three-dimensional point cloud was created from the photos using Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques. The point cloud was analyzed and compared to traditional, ground-based monitoring techniques. Ground truth data collected using the status-quo approach was collected on 6.3% of the study site and averaged across the entire site to report stem heights in stems/acre in three ...


Development Of 3d Accelerometer Testing System, Mohammed Abbas Soudai Alsaedi Dec 2016

Development Of 3d Accelerometer Testing System, Mohammed Abbas Soudai Alsaedi

Dissertations and Theses

Accelerometers are used in numerous industries including aircrafts and missile navigations systems, rotary machines, and electronic devices such as tablets, cell phones, and cameras. Accelerometers of different purposes and specifications are being produced in large quantities. The large demand for accelerometers forces the need for accelerometer testing methodology that is more convenient and accurate. Inertial Micro-Electromechanical Systems Accelerometer (MEMS) require a series of tests that include physical stimuli. One of the key challenges is the cost associated with testing. Therefore, the accurate prediction of the sensor functions not only reduces the testing time but also more importantly contributes to reducing ...


Fundamental Studies Of Electrochemical Reactions And Microfluidics In Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer Cells, Jingke Mo Dec 2016

Fundamental Studies Of Electrochemical Reactions And Microfluidics In Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer Cells, Jingke Mo

Doctoral Dissertations

In electrochemical energy devices, including fuel cells, electrolyzers and batteries, the electrochemical reactions occur only on triple phase boundaries (TPBs). The boundaries provide the conductors for electros and protons, the catalysts for electrochemical reactions and the effective pathways for transport of reactants and products. The interfaces have a critical impact on the overall performance and cost of the devices in which they are incorporated, and therefore could be a key feature to optimize in order to turn a prototype into a commercially viable product. For electrolysis of water, proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cells (PEMECs) have several advantages compared to other ...


Computational Modeling Of Transient Processes During Run-In For Tribological Systems, Rob Morien Dec 2016

Computational Modeling Of Transient Processes During Run-In For Tribological Systems, Rob Morien

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the frictional behavior of machine elements in mutual rolling or sliding contact is important for many engineering applications. When frictional sliding is initiated, the tribological system passes through several stages with each stage possessing its own unique frictional property. The initial transition process preceding stationary sliding is usually called “run-in”. During the run-in time interval, surface topographies of frictional contacts as well as lubricant distribution and surface tribofilms reorganize and adjust through asperity deformation and wear processes before reaching the steady state. This surface stability formed during run-in leads to an improvement in frictional performance during steady state operation ...


Microstructure, Wetting Angle And Corrosion Of Aluminum-Silicon Alloys, Shvetashva Suri Dec 2016

Microstructure, Wetting Angle And Corrosion Of Aluminum-Silicon Alloys, Shvetashva Suri

Theses and Dissertations

In this study the effect of composition, surface roughness and water droplet size on contact angle and corrosion properties of cast Aluminum-Silicon alloys containing Si from 5% to 50% have been examined. The water contact angle was measured on a given sample using a goniometer. In addition, the effect of surface roughness and droplet size on contact angle has been measured for alloys at a fixed composition. The microstructures can be found in this report with sizes of primary and eutectic Silicon as well as inter-particle spacing between Silicon. Contact angle measurements are accompanied with a photographic validation of the ...


In-Situ Optical Microscopic Investigation Of The Dendrite Formation On Lithium Anode Under Different Electrolyte Conditions In Li-S Battery, Tianyao Ding Dec 2016

In-Situ Optical Microscopic Investigation Of The Dendrite Formation On Lithium Anode Under Different Electrolyte Conditions In Li-S Battery, Tianyao Ding

Theses and Dissertations

By utilizing a high-resolution optical microscope, the dendrite formation on a lithium electrode with different electrolytes suitable for Li-S battery was investigated. It is found that the anions of lithium, the solvents, and the deposition current density have significant effects on the dendrite formation and surface morphology of lithium electrodes in electrolytes without polysulfides. On the contrary, in electrolytes with 25 mM concentration of polysulfides, the dendrite formation and surface morphology tend to be similar regardless of the other conditions. The dendrite-suppression effect of polysulfides, inorganic additive (CsNO3), and electrode modifier (TEOS) are not significant in the electrolytes with polysulfides ...


Experimental Investigation Of Chicken Manure Pyrolysis And Gasification, Mohamed Hussein Hussein Dec 2016

Experimental Investigation Of Chicken Manure Pyrolysis And Gasification, Mohamed Hussein Hussein

Theses and Dissertations

The dependency on renewable resources of energy in power production is a necessary step that mankind has to take if we want our advances in life and technology to resume. In a century or two, fossil fuels will be depleted, and if we do not start to take action, Energy will be the most expensive and rare item on our planet. Biomass is one of the sources of renewable energy with an advantage of being the closest in characteristics to fossil fuels. The evolved gases are similar to fossil fuel gases which makes itthe easiest source to switch to, with ...