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2011

Aerospace Engineering

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Articles 1 - 23 of 23

Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Coherent Solid/Liquid Interface With Stress Relaxation In A Phase-Field Approach To The Melting/Solidification Transition, Valery I. Levitas, Kamran Samani Oct 2011

Coherent Solid/Liquid Interface With Stress Relaxation In A Phase-Field Approach To The Melting/Solidification Transition, Valery I. Levitas, Kamran Samani

Aerospace Engineering Publications

An advanced Ginzburg-Landau (GL) approach to melting and solidification coupled with mechanics is developed. It is based on the concept of a coherent solid-liquid interface with a transformation strain tensor, the deviatoric part of which is described by a thermodynamically consistent kinetic equation. Due to the relaxation of the elastic energy, a promoting contribution to the driving force for phase transformation in the GL equation appears, both for melting and solidification. Good agreement with known experiments is obtained for Al nanoparticles for the size-dependent melting temperature and temperature-dependent thickness of the surface molten layer. All types of interface stress distributions ...


Surface-Induced Phase Transformations: Multiple Scale And Mechanics Effects And Morphological Transitions, Valery I. Levitas, Mahdi Javanbakht Oct 2011

Surface-Induced Phase Transformations: Multiple Scale And Mechanics Effects And Morphological Transitions, Valery I. Levitas, Mahdi Javanbakht

Aerospace Engineering Publications

Strong, surprising, and multifaceted effects of the width of the external surface layer Δξ and internal stresses on surface-induced pretransformation and phase transformations (PTs) are revealed. Using our further developed phase-field approach, we found that above some critical Δξ*, a morphological transition from fully transformed layer to lack of surface pretransformation occurs for any transformation strain εt. It corresponds to a sharp transition to the universal (independent of εt), strongly increasing the master relationship of the critical thermodynamic driving force for PT Xc on Δξ. For large εt, with increasing Δξ, X ...


A Multi-Regulator Sliding Mode Control Strategy For Output-Constrained Systems, Hanz Richter Oct 2011

A Multi-Regulator Sliding Mode Control Strategy For Output-Constrained Systems, Hanz Richter

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper proposes a multi-regulator control scheme for single-input systems, where the setpoint of a regulated output must be changed under the constraint that a set of minimum-phase outputs remain within prescribed bounds. The strategy is based on a max–min selector system frequently used in the aerospace field. The regulators used for the regulated and limited outputs are of the sliding mode type, where the sliding variable is defined as the difference between an output and its allowable limit. The paper establishes overall asymptotic stability, as well as invariance properties leading to limit protection. The design methodology is illustrated ...


Apparatus For Focused Electric-Field Imprinting For Micron And Sub-Micron Patterns On Wavy Or Planar Surfaces, Abhijit Chandra, Ashraf F. Bastawros, Ambar K. Mitra, Charles A. Lemaire Aug 2011

Apparatus For Focused Electric-Field Imprinting For Micron And Sub-Micron Patterns On Wavy Or Planar Surfaces, Abhijit Chandra, Ashraf F. Bastawros, Ambar K. Mitra, Charles A. Lemaire

Aerospace Engineering Patents

A Focused Electric Field Imprinting (FEFI) process and apparatus provides a focused electric field to guide an unplating operation and/or a plating operation to form very fine-pitched metal patterns on a substrate. The process is a variation of the electrochemical unplating process, wherein the process is modified for imprinting range of patterns of around 2000 microns to 20 microns or less in width, and from about 0.1 microns or less to 10 microns or more in depth. Some embodiments curve a proton-exchange membrane whose shape is varied using suction on a backing fluid through a support mask. Other ...


Phase-Field Modeling Of Fracture In Liquid, Valery I. Levitas, Alexander V. Idesman, Ameeth K. Palakala Aug 2011

Phase-Field Modeling Of Fracture In Liquid, Valery I. Levitas, Alexander V. Idesman, Ameeth K. Palakala

Aerospace Engineering Publications

Phase-field theory for the description of the overdriven fracture in liquid (cavitation) in tensile pressure wave is developed. Various results from solid mechanics are transferred into mechanics of fluids. Thermodynamic potential is formulated that describes the desired tensile pressure–volumetric strain curve and for which the infinitesimal damage produces infinitesimal change in the equilibrium bulk modulus. It is shown that the gradient of the order parameter should not be included in the energy, in contrast to all known phase-field approaches for any material instability. Analytical analysis of the equations is performed. Problems relevant to the melt-dispersion mechanism of the reaction ...


Single-Shot Gas-Phase Thermometry Using Purerotational Hybrid Femtosecond/Picosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering, Joseph D. Miller, Sukesh Roy, Mikhail N. Slipchenko, James R. Gord, Terrence R. Meyer Aug 2011

Single-Shot Gas-Phase Thermometry Using Purerotational Hybrid Femtosecond/Picosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering, Joseph D. Miller, Sukesh Roy, Mikhail N. Slipchenko, James R. Gord, Terrence R. Meyer

Mechanical Engineering Publications

High-repetition-rate, single-laser-shot measurements are important for the investigation of unsteady flows where temperature and species concentrations can vary significantly. Here, we demonstrate singleshot, pure-rotational, hybrid femtosecond/picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs/ps RCARS) thermometry based on a kHz-rate fs laser source. Interferences that can affect nanosecond (ns) and ps CARS, such as nonresonant background and collisional dephasing, are eliminated by selecting an appropriate time delay between the 100-fs pump/Stokes pulses and the pulse-shaped 8.4-ps probe. A time- and frequency-domain theoretical model is introduced to account for rotational-level dependent collisional dephasing and indicates that the optimal probe-pulse time ...


Phase Transition And Structure Of Silver Azide At High Pressure, Dongbin Hou, Fuxiang Zhang, Cheng Ji, Trevor Hannon, Hongyang Zhu, Jianzhe Wu, Valery I. Levitas, Yanzhang Ma Jul 2011

Phase Transition And Structure Of Silver Azide At High Pressure, Dongbin Hou, Fuxiang Zhang, Cheng Ji, Trevor Hannon, Hongyang Zhu, Jianzhe Wu, Valery I. Levitas, Yanzhang Ma

Aerospace Engineering Publications

ilver azide (AgN 3) was compressed up to 51.3 GPa. The results reveal a reversible second-order orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transformation starting from ambient pressure and completing at 2.7 GPa. The phase transition is accompanied by a proximity of cell parameters aand b, a 3° rotation of azide anions, and a change of coordination number from 4-4 (four short, four long) to eight fold. The crystal structure of the high pressure phase is determined to be inI4/mcm space group, with Ag at 4a, N1 at 4d, and N2 at 8h Wyckoff positions. Both of ...


A Study On Facility Planning Using Discrete Event Simulation: Case Study Of A Grain Delivery Terminal., Sarah M. Asio Jul 2011

A Study On Facility Planning Using Discrete Event Simulation: Case Study Of A Grain Delivery Terminal., Sarah M. Asio

Industrial and Management Systems Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

The application of traditional approaches to the design of efficient facilities can be tedious and time consuming when uncertainty and a number of constraints exist. Queuing models and mathematical programming techniques are not able to capture the complex interaction between resources, the environment and space constraints for dynamic stochastic processes. In the following study discrete event simulation is applied to the facility planning process for a grain delivery terminal. The discrete event simulation approach has been applied to studies such as capacity planning and facility layout for a gasoline station and evaluating the resource requirements for a manufacturing facility. To ...


Astro Camp Presentation, Get Away Special Team 2011 Jul 2011

Astro Camp Presentation, Get Away Special Team 2011

Education and Outreach

No abstract provided.


A Quadrature-Based Kinetic Model For Dilute Non-Isothermal Granular Flows, Alberto Passalacqua, Janine E. Galvin, Prakash Vedula, Christine M. Hrenya, Rodney O. Fox Jul 2011

A Quadrature-Based Kinetic Model For Dilute Non-Isothermal Granular Flows, Alberto Passalacqua, Janine E. Galvin, Prakash Vedula, Christine M. Hrenya, Rodney O. Fox

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A moment method with closures based on Gaussian quadrature formulas is proposed to solve the Boltzmann kinetic equation with a hard-sphere collision kernel for mono-dispersed particles. Different orders of accuracy in terms of the moments of the velocity distribution function are considered, accounting for moments up to seventh order. Quadrature-based closures for four different models for inelastic collisionthe Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook, ES-BGK, the Maxwell model for hard-sphere collisions, and the full Boltzmann hard-sphere collision integral-are derived and compared. The approach is validated studying a dilute non-isothermal granular flow of inelastic particles between two stationary Maxwellian walls. Results obtained from the kinetic models ...


Model-Assisted Development Of A Laminography Inspection System, Robert J. Grandin, Joseph N. Gray Jul 2011

Model-Assisted Development Of A Laminography Inspection System, Robert J. Grandin, Joseph N. Gray

Center for Nondestructive Evaluation Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Traditional computed tomography (CT) is an effective method of determining the internal structure of an object through non-destructive means; however, inspection of certain objects, such as those with planar geometrics or with limited access, requires an alternate approach. An alternative is laminography and has been the focus of a number of researchers in the past decade for both medical and industrial inspections. Many research efforts rely on geometrically-simple analytical models, such as the Shepp-Logan phantom, for the development of their algorithms. Recent work at the Center for Non-Destructive Evaluation makes extensive use of a forward model, XRSIM, to study artifacts ...


Surface Geometry And Heat Flux Effect On Thin Wire Nucleate Pool Boiling Of Subcooled Water In Mictrogravity, Troy Munro, Heng Ban Apr 2011

Surface Geometry And Heat Flux Effect On Thin Wire Nucleate Pool Boiling Of Subcooled Water In Mictrogravity, Troy Munro, Heng Ban

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Surface Geometry And Heat Flux Effect On Thin Wire Nucleate Pool Boiling Of Subcooled Water In Microgravity, Troy Munro, Andrew Fassman Mar 2011

Surface Geometry And Heat Flux Effect On Thin Wire Nucleate Pool Boiling Of Subcooled Water In Microgravity, Troy Munro, Andrew Fassman

Presentations

The motivation of this nucleate boiling research is to understand the effects of surface geometry and heat flux as applied to a thin wire heater. This will further the understanding of the fundamental behaviors of boiling onset, steady state heat transfer, and bubble dynamics with respect to nucleate boiling with the goal of creating efficient thermal management systems for future space applications. Using three different thin platinum wire geometries and five different power levels, subcooled water was boiled over a period of approximately 30 seconds for 15 parabolic arcs to simulate microgravity. To represent the trends in bubbles behavior across ...


Effects Of Heat Flux On Nucleate Boiling In Microgravity, Andrew Fassman Feb 2011

Effects Of Heat Flux On Nucleate Boiling In Microgravity, Andrew Fassman

Presentations

No abstract provided.


The Design And Construction Of A Microgravity Boiling Experiment, Troy Munro Feb 2011

The Design And Construction Of A Microgravity Boiling Experiment, Troy Munro

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Mhz-Rate Nitric Oxide Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging In A Mach 10 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel, Naibo Jiang, Matthew Webster, Walter R. Lempert, Joseph D. Miller, Terrence R. Meyer, Christopher B. Ivey, Paul M. Danehy Feb 2011

Mhz-Rate Nitric Oxide Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging In A Mach 10 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel, Naibo Jiang, Matthew Webster, Walter R. Lempert, Joseph D. Miller, Terrence R. Meyer, Christopher B. Ivey, Paul M. Danehy

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging at repetition rates as high as 1 MHz is demonstrated in the NASA Langley 31 in. Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel. Approximately 200 timecorrelated image sequences of between 10 and 20 individual frames were obtained over eight days of wind tunnel testing spanning two entries in March and September of 2009. The image sequences presented were obtained from the boundary layer of a 20° flat plate model, in which transition was induced using a variety of different shaped protuberances, including a cylinder and a triangle. The high-speed image sequences captured a variety ...


Report For 2011 Urco Funded Experiment: Development Of Optimal Bubble-Seeding Microheaters To Study Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer In Microgravity, Ryan Martineau Jan 2011

Report For 2011 Urco Funded Experiment: Development Of Optimal Bubble-Seeding Microheaters To Study Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer In Microgravity, Ryan Martineau

Reports and Proposals

No abstract provided.


Development Of Optimal Bubble-Seeding Microheaters To Study Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer In Microgravity, Ryan Martineau Jan 2011

Development Of Optimal Bubble-Seeding Microheaters To Study Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer In Microgravity, Ryan Martineau

Reports and Proposals

No abstract provided.


Get Away Special: Microgravity Research Team, Getaway Special Team Jan 2011

Get Away Special: Microgravity Research Team, Getaway Special Team

Education and Outreach

No abstract provided.


A Shock Tube Technique For Blast Wave Simulation And Studies Of Flow Structure Interactions In Shock Tube Blast Experiments, Nicholas N. Kleinschmit Jan 2011

A Shock Tube Technique For Blast Wave Simulation And Studies Of Flow Structure Interactions In Shock Tube Blast Experiments, Nicholas N. Kleinschmit

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

Improvised explosive devices (IED’s) are widely used against US and allied forces fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan. Exposure to IED blast may cause blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). The injury mechanisms are however not well understood. A critical need in bTBI-related research is the ability to replicate the loading conditions of IED blast waves in a laboratory environment. In this work, experimental studies have been carried out to explore the use of the shock tube technique for generating air shock waves that mimic the temporal and spatial characteristics of free-field blast waves and to investigate the blast wave-test sample ...


Numerical Forcing Of Horizontally-Homogeneous Stratified Turbulence, Kaustubh J. Rao Jan 2011

Numerical Forcing Of Horizontally-Homogeneous Stratified Turbulence, Kaustubh J. Rao

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

It is often desirable to study simulated turbulent flows at steady state even if the flow has no inherent source of turbulence kinetic energy. Doing so requires a numerical forcing scheme and various methods have been studied extensively for turbulence that is isotropic and homogeneous in three dimensions. A review of these existing schemes is used to form a framework for more general forcing methods. In this framework, the problem of developing a forcing scheme in Fourier space is abstracted into the two problems of (1) prescribing the spectrum of the input power and (2) specifying a force that has ...


Ultra-Abrupt Tapered Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Sensors, B. Li, J. Lan, W. Sumei, L. Zhou, Hai Xiao, Hai-Lung Tsai Jan 2011

Ultra-Abrupt Tapered Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Sensors, B. Li, J. Lan, W. Sumei, L. Zhou, Hai Xiao, Hai-Lung Tsai

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

A fiber inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) consisting of ultra-abrupt fiber tapers was fabricated through a new fusion-splicing method. By fusion-splicing, the taper diameter-length ratio is around 1:1, which is much greater than those (1:10) made by stretching. The proposed fabrication method is very low cost, 1/20-1/50 of those of LPFG pair MZI sensors. The fabricated MZIs are applied to measure refractive index, temperature and rotation angle changes. The temperature sensitivity of the MZI at a length of 30 mm is 0.061 nm/°C from 30-350 °C. The proposed MZI is also used to measure rotation ...


Size And Mechanics Effects In Surface-Induced Melting Of Nanoparticles, Valery I. Levitas, Kamran Samani Jan 2011

Size And Mechanics Effects In Surface-Induced Melting Of Nanoparticles, Valery I. Levitas, Kamran Samani

Aerospace Engineering Publications

Various melting-related phenomena (like surface melting, size dependence of melting temperature, melting of few nm-size particles and overheating at a very fast heating rate) are of great fundamental and applied interest, although the corresponding theory is still lacking. Here we develop an advanced phase-field theory of melting coupled to mechanics, which resolves numerous existing contradictions and allowed us to reveal exciting features of melting problems. The necessity of introducing an unexpected concept, namely, coherent solid-melt interface with uniaxial transformation strain, is demonstrated. A crossover in temperature dependence of interface energy for radii below 20 nm is found. Surface-induced premelting and ...