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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Attitude Estimation And Maneuvering For Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance By Miniature Air Vehicles, James K. Hall Dec 2008

Attitude Estimation And Maneuvering For Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance By Miniature Air Vehicles, James K. Hall

Theses and Dissertations

Utilizing the Euler-Rodrigues symmetric parameters (attitude quaternion) to describe vehicle orientation, we develop a multiplicative, nonlinear (extended) variation of the Kalman filter (MEKF) to fuse data from low-cost sensors. The sensor suite is comprised of gyroscopes, accelerometers, and a GPS receiver. In contrast to the common approach of using the complete vehicle attitude as the quantities to be estimated, our filter states consist of the three components of an attitude error vector. In parallel with the time update of the attitude error estimate, we utilize the gyroscope measurements for the time propagation of the attitude quaternion. The accelerometer and the ...


Characterization Of The Thermal Transport Through A Temporally-Varying Ash Layer, Darron Palmer Cundick Dec 2008

Characterization Of The Thermal Transport Through A Temporally-Varying Ash Layer, Darron Palmer Cundick

Theses and Dissertations

Ash deposits in commercial coal-fired boilers frequently pose serious maintenance challenges and decrease thermal efficiency. A better understanding of fundamental thermal transport properties in ash deposits can help mitigate their negative effects. In order to characterize the thermal properties of boiler-side deposits, this work presents a thermal transport model and in-situ measurements of effective thermal conductivity in coal ash deposits. A simple model of the thermal transport through an ash deposit, with and with out slagging, was developed. The model approximates the deposit by dividing it into four regimes: particulate, sintered, solidified slag, and molten slag. The development of this ...


Investigation Of Heterogeneity Of Fsw Inconel 718 Coupled With Welding Thermal Cycle, Dong Fang Huang Dec 2008

Investigation Of Heterogeneity Of Fsw Inconel 718 Coupled With Welding Thermal Cycle, Dong Fang Huang

Theses and Dissertations

In order to develop a better understanding of the property, microstructure evolution and thermal history of FSW Inconel 718's, the strain, strain rate and thermal cycles need to be determined. In order to estimate the strain field of a deformed body, a displacement function needs to be determined. A 3D deformation model was developed to determine the displacement coefficients. A rectangular box created in this model deforms following a linear displacement function. Three orthogonal planes cut this deformed box, which leads to three deformed planes. The shape parameters (L, H, θ¹ and θ²) on the three orthogonal planes can ...


The Effect Of Liquid Hot Filling Temperature On Blow-Molded Hdpe Bottle Properties, Benjamin S. Hudson Dec 2008

The Effect Of Liquid Hot Filling Temperature On Blow-Molded Hdpe Bottle Properties, Benjamin S. Hudson

Theses and Dissertations

The occurrence of deformation in plastic bottles is a common problem in the bottling industry where bottles are blow molded, hot filled at high temperatures and sealed. Plastics have unique properties that make it difficult to predict when and why such changes may occur. The root cause of such deformation is unknown by many bottle producers and recent attempts have been made to minimize the occurrence of such defects. The purpose of this research is to determine which variables involved in the bottle production process influence bottle shape. Earlier variables that were tested included both blow molding resin and total ...


Product Family Design Using Smart Pareto Filters, Jonathan D. Yearsley Nov 2008

Product Family Design Using Smart Pareto Filters, Jonathan D. Yearsley

Theses and Dissertations

Product families are frequently used to provide consumers with a variety of appealing products and to help maintain reasonably low production costs for manufacturers. Three common objectives in the design of product families are used to balance the interests of both consumers and manufacturers. These objectives are to maximize (i) product performance, (ii) product distinctiveness as perceived by the consumer, and (iii) product commonality as seen by the manufacturer. In this thesis, three methods are introduced that use multiobjective optimization and Smart Pareto filtering to satisfy the three objectives of product family design. The methods are progressive in nature and ...


Design And Testing Of A Pumpless Microelectromechanical System Nanoinjector, Quentin Theodore Aten Nov 2008

Design And Testing Of A Pumpless Microelectromechanical System Nanoinjector, Quentin Theodore Aten

Theses and Dissertations

A deeper understanding of human development and disease is made possible partly through the study of genetically modified model organisms, such as the common mouse (Mus musculus). By genetically modifying such model organisms, scientists can activate, deactivate, or highlight particular characteristics. A genetically modified animal is generated by adding exogenous (foreign) genetic material to one or more embryonic cells at their earliest stages of development. Frequently, this exogenous genetic material consists of specially engineered DNA, which is introduced into a fertilized egg cell (zygote). When successfully introduced into the zygote, the exogenous DNA will be incorporated into the cell's ...


Ecad To Mcad Interoperability For Automated Enclosure Design, Adam C. Wilcox Nov 2008

Ecad To Mcad Interoperability For Automated Enclosure Design, Adam C. Wilcox

Theses and Dissertations

Enclosure design is the process of creating a package that will support and protect enclosed circuitry. Electronic enclosures are used in almost all industries, such as aerospace, automotive, naval, computer, toy, etc. Many designers use computer aided design (CAD) packages to aid them in creating these enclosures. Enclosure creation involves a working knowledge of the physics behind electrical and mechanical systems. Each of these engineering disciplines has separate CAD packages with their own set of rules, programming language, and interfaces. This creates a barrier for communication flow between electrical CAD (ECAD) and mechanical CAD (MCAD). The purpose of this thesis ...


Design Of A Three-Passage Low Reynolds Number Turbine Cascade With Periodic Flow Conditions, Daniel R. Rogers Nov 2008

Design Of A Three-Passage Low Reynolds Number Turbine Cascade With Periodic Flow Conditions, Daniel R. Rogers

Theses and Dissertations

A numerical method for modeling a low Reynolds number turbine blade, the L1M, is presented along with the pitfalls encountered. A laminar solution was confirmed to not accurately predict the flow features known in low Reynolds number turbine blade flow. Three fully turbulent models were then used to try to predict the separation and reattachment of the flow. These models were also found to be insufficient for transitioning flows. A domain was created to manually trip the laminar flow to turbulent flow using a predictive turbulence transition model. The trip in the domain introduced an instability in the flow field ...


Lean Six Sigma As A Source Of Competitive Advantage, Alessandro Giorgio Cavallini Nov 2008

Lean Six Sigma As A Source Of Competitive Advantage, Alessandro Giorgio Cavallini

Theses and Dissertations

Anecdotal data affirms that companies applying Lean Six Sigma in their operations not only deliver higher quality products and services, but also obtain superior financial results. The goal of this research was to empirically verify anecdotal data. The study proposed to analyze a group of publicly traded manufacturing companies with the intent of verifying if a correlation exists between companies being lean and the attainment of superior returns on investments. The researcher performed a series of statistical tests comparing key Financial Performance Indicators (FPI) extracted from annual reports (10-K) from a large pool of companies. The outcome of this study ...


A Mechanistic Investigation Of Nitrogen Evolution In Pulverized Coal Oxy-Fuel Combustion, Andrew John Mackrory Oct 2008

A Mechanistic Investigation Of Nitrogen Evolution In Pulverized Coal Oxy-Fuel Combustion, Andrew John Mackrory

Theses and Dissertations

Oxy-fuel combustion is an enabling technology for capture of CO2 from coal combustion, the economics of which depends strongly on the ability of the process to produce low NOX emissions. The literature contains many reports of lower NOX emissions from oxy-fuel combustion but the reasons for this are not fully understood. The objective of this work was to gain understanding of nitrogen evolution under pulverized coal oxy-fuel conditions. Pulverized coal was burned in a once-through, down-fired, laminar flow reactor. Nitrogen compounds and other combustion species were measured at the reactor centerline as a function of distance from the burner. Dry ...


Design And Analysis Of A Positively Engaged Continuously Variable Transmission, Brandon Levi Haupt Oct 2008

Design And Analysis Of A Positively Engaged Continuously Variable Transmission, Brandon Levi Haupt

Theses and Dissertations

With energy demands at an all time high, mechanical power systems are under great scrutiny. Substantial efforts are being made throughout the world to reduce energy use in common mechanical systems such as the internal combustion engine and transmission system. Eliminating or reducing efficiency losses in the transmission is a potential source of improving the efficiency of the system. To do so, various alternative types of transmissions are being investigated. At Brigham Young University, development of a Positively Engaged Continuously Variable Transmission (PECVT) is progressing. In addition to the efficiency increases that would occur as a result of operating the ...


Evaluating Three-Dimensional Effects On The Behavior Of Compliant Bistable Micromechanisms, Brian B. Cherry, Larry L. Howell, Brian D. Jensen Sep 2008

Evaluating Three-Dimensional Effects On The Behavior Of Compliant Bistable Micromechanisms, Brian B. Cherry, Larry L. Howell, Brian D. Jensen

Faculty Publications

Fully compliant bistable micromechanisms (FCBMs) have potential use in numerous applications, including switches, relays, shutters, and low-power sensing arrays. Two-dimensional finite element models for these FCBMs have been used in device analysis and design, and provided an adequate match to preliminary experimental data. However, with more extensive experimentation over a large range of designs, some results proved to be radically different than predicted, with trends not consistent with effects such as stiction or electrostatic forces. Two different types of behavior, Behavior 1 and Behavior 2, are observed and explained, only one of which is predicted by 2-D models. This paper ...


Tooth Engagement Evaluation Of Involute Spline Couplings, Robert R. Robins Aug 2008

Tooth Engagement Evaluation Of Involute Spline Couplings, Robert R. Robins

Theses and Dissertations

Spline couplings are used in applications involving high torque; however, due to variations in teeth clearances, all teeth in spline couplings do not engage simultaneously, causing some of the teeth to carry a disproportionately large portion of the total load. Variations in tooth-to-tooth clearances mean the first pair of teeth to engage will carry more load and fail sooner. This has lead to an industry practice of designing splines around the criteria that only 25-50% of the teeth on a spline coupling will engage and carry the load, and the load is generally assumed to be uniformly distributed. This research ...


High-Level, Product Type-Specific Programmatic Operations For Streamlining Associative Computer-Aided Design, Nathan W. Scott Aug 2008

High-Level, Product Type-Specific Programmatic Operations For Streamlining Associative Computer-Aided Design, Nathan W. Scott

Theses and Dissertations

Research in the field of Computer Aided Design (CAD) has long focused on reducing the time and effort required of engineers to define three dimensional digital product models. Parametric, feature-based modeling with inter-part associativity allows complex assembly designs to be defined and re-defined while maintaining the vital part-to-part interface relationships. The top-down modeling method which uses assembly level control structures to drive child level geometry has proved valuable in maintaining these interfaces. Creating robust parametric models like these, however, is very time consuming especially since there can be hundreds of features and thousands of mathematical expressions to create. Even if ...


Optimization Constrained Cad Framework With Iso-Performing Design Generator, Kelly Eric Bowman Aug 2008

Optimization Constrained Cad Framework With Iso-Performing Design Generator, Kelly Eric Bowman

Theses and Dissertations

Design decisions have a large impact early in the design process. Optimization methods can help engineers improve their early decision making, however, design problems are often ill-posed for optimization at this early stage. This thesis develops engineering methods to use optimization during embodiment design, despite these difficulties. One common difficulty in designing mechanical systems is in handling the effects that design changes in one subsystem have on another. This is made more difficult in early engineering design, when design information is preliminary. Increased efforts have been made to use numerical optimization methods in early engineering design – because of the large ...


Aerobatic Maneuvering Of Miniature Air Vehicles Using Attitude Trajectories, James K. Hall, Timothy W. Mclain Aug 2008

Aerobatic Maneuvering Of Miniature Air Vehicles Using Attitude Trajectories, James K. Hall, Timothy W. Mclain

Faculty Publications

We develop aerobatic maneuvering for miniature air vehicles (MAVs) using time-parameterized attitude trajectory generation and an associated attitude tracking control law. We develop two methodologies, polynomial or trigonometric, for creating smooth functions that specify pitch and roll angle trajectories. For both approaches, the functions are constrained by the maneuver boundary conditions for aircraft position and velocity. We develop a feedback control law to regulate aircraft orientation throughout the maneuvers. The performance of our trajectory generation algorithm and our attitude tracking control law is demonstrated through simulated and actual flight tests of aerobatic maneuvers.


Predicting The Longevity Of Dvdr Media By Periodic Analysis Of Parity, Jitter, And Ecc Performance Parameters, Daniel Patrick Wells Jul 2008

Predicting The Longevity Of Dvdr Media By Periodic Analysis Of Parity, Jitter, And Ecc Performance Parameters, Daniel Patrick Wells

Theses and Dissertations

For the last ten years, DVD-R media have played an important role in the storage of large amounts of digital data throughout the world. During this time it was assumed that the DVD-R was as long-lasting and stable as its predecessor, the CD-R. Several reports have surfaced over the last few years questioning the DVD-R's ability to maintain many of its claims regarding archival quality life spans. These reports have shown a wide range of longevity between the different brands. While some DVD-Rs may last a while, others may result in an early and unexpected failure. Compounding this problem ...


Mode I Fracture Toughness Testing Of Friction Stir Processed Hsla-65, Jeffery D. Horschel Jul 2008

Mode I Fracture Toughness Testing Of Friction Stir Processed Hsla-65, Jeffery D. Horschel

Theses and Dissertations

In order to investigate the viability of friction stir welding for use in Naval construction, mode one elastic-plastic fracture toughness of friction stir processed HSLA-65 was determined using current ASTM 1820 and BS 7448 standards. Double-sided welds were used to achieve 12.7 mm thick samples. A constant feed rate of 100 mm/min was used for all welds. To explore the effect of weld parameters on toughness, welds were produced using two rotational speeds: 340 RPM and 490 RPM. The weld centerline, advancing side hardened region (ASHR), and TMAZ/HAZ regions were sampled, in addition to un-welded parent material ...


Multi-Physics Modeling And Calibration For Self-Sensing Of Thermomechanical In-Plane Microactuators, Kendall B. Teichert Jul 2008

Multi-Physics Modeling And Calibration For Self-Sensing Of Thermomechanical In-Plane Microactuators, Kendall B. Teichert

Theses and Dissertations

As technology advances and engineering capabilities improve, more research has focused on microscopic possibilities. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is one area that has received much attention recently. Within MEMS much research has focused on sensing and actuation. This thesis presents work on a particular actuator of interest, the thermomechanical in-plane microactuator (TIM). Recent work has shown the possibility of a novel approach of sensing mechanical outputs of the TIM without ancillary sensors. This sensing approach exploits the piezoresistive property of silicon. However, to implement this approach a full model of the TIM would need to be obtained to describe the physics ...


Analog Feedback Control Of An Active Sound Transmission Control Module, Jason Derek Sagers Jul 2008

Analog Feedback Control Of An Active Sound Transmission Control Module, Jason Derek Sagers

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis provides analytical and experimental proof-of-concept for a new feedback-controlled sound transmission control module for use in an active segmented partition (ASP) array. The objective of such a module is to provide high transmission loss down to low audible frequencies while minimizing the overall mass of the module. This objective is accomplished in the new module by using actively controlled panels in conjunction with analog feedback controllers. The new module also overcomes two limitations that exist in current ASP modules: the inability to control broadband random-noise and the lack of bidirectional control through the module. Overcoming these limitations represents ...


A Compliant Threshold Acceleration Sensor Integrated With Radio Frequency Identifiable Tags, Benjamin L. Todd Jul 2008

A Compliant Threshold Acceleration Sensor Integrated With Radio Frequency Identifiable Tags, Benjamin L. Todd

Theses and Dissertations

Fully compliant bistable mechanisms have been proposed to be used as threshold accelerometers. The advantages to using these devices are that they require no external power to operate and maintain their sensing state. Using this characteristic the devices can be integrated with passive radio frequency identification tags (RFID). This allows for the sensing package to lay dormant with no maintenance needed until the sensor is read by the RFID reader. This thesis presents a successfully fabricated and integrated threshold accelerometer with a passive RFID tag. This in turn has been successfully read with an RFID reader and shown to act ...


Development Of A Particle Flow Test For Rotational Molding, Russell B. Whatcott Jun 2008

Development Of A Particle Flow Test For Rotational Molding, Russell B. Whatcott

Theses and Dissertations

One of the current testing method (the Dry Flow test) to qualify resin for use in production in the rotomolding process has been shown to have many flaws in both equipment and procedure. Research was done here to investigate a possible alternative that could eliminate some of these testing deficiencies. By reducing equipment and operator errors, the testing of materials becomes more valuable of an exercise. The Angular Flow test developed in this research can increase repeatability. By coming to understand the rotational molding process better, an evaluation that can give more valid information was devised.


Vision-Assisted Control Of A Hovering Air Vehicle In An Indoor Setting, Neil G. Johnson Jun 2008

Vision-Assisted Control Of A Hovering Air Vehicle In An Indoor Setting, Neil G. Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

The quadrotor helicopter is a unique flying vehicle which uses the thrust from four motors to provide hover flight capability. The uncoupled nature of the longitudinal and lateral axes and its ability to support large payloads with respect to its size make it an attractive vehicle for autonomous vehicle research. In this thesis, the quadrotor is modeled based on first principles and a proportional-derivative control method is applied for attitude stabilization and position control. A unique means of using an optic flow sensor for velocity and position estimation in an indoor setting is presented with flight results. Reliable hover flight ...


An Optimization-Based Framework For Designing Robust Cam-Based Constant-Force Compliant Mechanisms, John Christian Meaders Jun 2008

An Optimization-Based Framework For Designing Robust Cam-Based Constant-Force Compliant Mechanisms, John Christian Meaders

Theses and Dissertations

Constant-force mechanisms are mechanical devices that provide a near-constant output force over a prescribed deflection range. This thesis develops various optimization-based methods for designing robust constant-force mechanisms. The configuration of the mechanisms that are the focus of this research comprises a cam and a compliant spring fixed at one end while making contact with the cam at the other end. This configuration has proven to be an innovative solution in several applications because of its simplicity in manufacturing and operation. In this work, several methods are introduced to design these mechanisms, and reduce the sensitivity of these mechanisms to manufacturing ...


Material Flow Behavior In Friction Stir Welding, Brian C. Liechty Jun 2008

Material Flow Behavior In Friction Stir Welding, Brian C. Liechty

Theses and Dissertations

Material flow in friction stir welding is largely uncharacterized due to the difficulty in material flow measurement and visualization in metals. This study investigates plasticine for use as an analog for modeling material flow in friction stir welding (FSW) of metals. Qualitative comparisons between welded plasticine and metal sections exhibit many similarities. The transient temperature response of the plasticine also shows the same qualitative behavior as welds conducted in metal. To quantify its similarity to metal, the plasticine is further analyzed through compression tests to characterize its strain, strain-rate, and temperature sensitivities. A detailed analysis is presented which defines the ...


Adaptive Quaternion Control Of A Miniature Tailsitter Uav, Nathan B. Knoebel, Timothy W. Mclain Jun 2008

Adaptive Quaternion Control Of A Miniature Tailsitter Uav, Nathan B. Knoebel, Timothy W. Mclain

Faculty Publications

The miniature tailsitter is a unique aircraft with inherent advantages over typical unmanned aerial vehicles. With the capabilities of both hover and level flight, these small, portable systems can produce efficient maneuvers for enhanced surveillance and autonomy with little threat to surroundings and the system itself. Such vehicles create control challenges due to the two different flight regimes. These challenges are addressed with a computationally efficient adaptive quaternion control algorithm. A backstepping method for model cancellation and consistent tracking of reference model attitude dynamics is derived. This is used in conjunction with a regularized data-weighting recursive least-squares algorithm for the ...


An Investigation Of Positive Engagement, Continuously Variable Transmissions, Ryan R. Dalling May 2008

An Investigation Of Positive Engagement, Continuously Variable Transmissions, Ryan R. Dalling

Theses and Dissertations

A Positive Engagement, Continuously Variable Transmission (PECVT) allows for a continuously variable transmission ratio over a given range using positively engaged members, such as gear teeth, to transmit torque. This research is an investigation of PECVTs to establish a classification system and governing principles that must be satisfied for an embodiment to overcome the non-integer tooth problem. Results of an external patent search are given as examples of different concepts and PECVT embodiments that have been employed to negate the effects of the non-integer tooth problem. To classify all published and unpublished PECVT embodiments, a classification system is developed, based ...


Measurements And Modeling Of Coal Ash Deposition In An Entrained-Flow Reactor, Ryan P. Blanchard Apr 2008

Measurements And Modeling Of Coal Ash Deposition In An Entrained-Flow Reactor, Ryan P. Blanchard

Theses and Dissertations

Coal plays a significant role in meeting the world's need for energy and will continue to do so for many years to come. Economic, environmental, and public opinion are requiring coal derived energy to be cleaner and operate in a more narrow window of operating conditions. Fouling and slagging of heat transfer surfaces continues to be a challenge for maintaining boiler availability and expanding the use of available fuels and operating conditions. The work incorporates existing information in the literature on ash deposition into a User-Defined Function (UDF) for a commercial comprehensive combustion and CFD code. Results from the ...


Development Of A Miniature Vtol Tail-Sitter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Jeffrey V. Hogge Apr 2008

Development Of A Miniature Vtol Tail-Sitter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Jeffrey V. Hogge

Theses and Dissertations

The design, analysis, construction and flight testing of a miniature Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) tail-sitter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) prototype is presented in detail. Classic aircraft design methods were combined with numerical analysis to estimate the aircraft performance and flight characteristics. The numerical analysis employed a propeller blade-element theory coupled with momentum equations to predict the influence of a propeller slipstream on the freestream flow field, then the aircraft was analyzed using 3-D vortex lifting-line theory to model finite wings immersed in the flow field. Four prototypes were designed, built, and tested and the evolution of these prototypes is ...


Parametric Optimization Design System For A Fluid Domain Assembly, Matthew Jackson Fisher Apr 2008

Parametric Optimization Design System For A Fluid Domain Assembly, Matthew Jackson Fisher

Theses and Dissertations

Automated solid modeling, integrated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and optimization of a 3D jet turbine engine has never been accomplished. This is due mainly to the computational power required, and the lack of associative parametric modeling tools and techniques necessary to adjust and optimize the design. As an example, the fluid domain of a simple household fan with three blades may contain 500,000 elements per blade passage. Therefore, a complete turbine engine that includes many stages, with sets of thirty or more blades each, will have hundreds of millions of elements. The fluid domains associated with each blade ...