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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Predicting Young’S Modulus Of Nanowires From First-Principles Calculations On Their Surface And Bulk Materials, Guofeng Wang, Xiaodong Li Dec 2008

Predicting Young’S Modulus Of Nanowires From First-Principles Calculations On Their Surface And Bulk Materials, Guofeng Wang, Xiaodong Li

Faculty Publications

Using the concept of surface stress, we developed a model that is able to predict Young’s modulus of nanowires as a function of nanowire diameters from the calculated properties of their surface and bulk materials. We took both equilibrium strain effect and surface stress effect into consideration to account for the geometric size influence on the elastic properties of nanowires. In this work, we combined first-principles density functional theory calculations of material properties with linear elasticity theory of clamped-end three-point bending. Furthermore, we applied this computational approach to Ag, Au, and ZnOnanowires. For both Ag and Aunanowires, our theoretical ...


Thermal Stability Of Electrodeposited Liga Ni-W Alloys For High Temperature Mems Applications, Haseeb Asma Oct 2008

Thermal Stability Of Electrodeposited Liga Ni-W Alloys For High Temperature Mems Applications, Haseeb Asma

Haseeb ASMA

For thermally stable LIGA materials for high temperature MEMS applications LIGA Ni-W layers and micro testing samples with different compositions (15 and 5 at% W) were electrodeposited. In order to investigate the thermal stability the Ni-W layers were annealed at different temperatures (300-700 degrees C) and for different durations (1, 4, 16 h). Their microstructure and micro-hardness were than analysed after annealing and compared with those of as-deposited states. The observed microstructures show, in comparison to pure LIGA nickel, a small grain growth and a relatively stable structure up to 700 degrees C. The micro-hardness values of the LIGA Ni-W ...


Production And Purification Of Zircon Opacifier From Zircon Found In The Coastal Area Of Bangladesh, Haseeb Asma Aug 2008

Production And Purification Of Zircon Opacifier From Zircon Found In The Coastal Area Of Bangladesh, Haseeb Asma

Haseeb ASMA

In this study the potentiality of Bangladesh zircon as a raw material for opacifier was examined. Preparation of zircon flour was done by both wet and dry ball milling. Wet milling of zircon was found to be much efficient than dry milling. Zircon flour of peak size 8 mu m obtained by wet milling was purified by leaching in concentrated H(2)SO(4) acid. Leaching time was varied from 2 to 20 h and sulphuric acid concentration ranged from 10 to 80 ml/l. Both un-purified and purified Bangladesh zircon flour were tested for their performance as opacifier in ...


Structure And Properties Of (1-X)Pb(Mg1/2w1/2)O3–Xpb(Zr0.5ti0.5)O3 Solid Solution Ceramics, D. White, X. Zhao, Matthew F. Besser, Xiaoli Tan Aug 2008

Structure And Properties Of (1-X)Pb(Mg1/2w1/2)O3–Xpb(Zr0.5ti0.5)O3 Solid Solution Ceramics, D. White, X. Zhao, Matthew F. Besser, Xiaoli Tan

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

The widely used piezoelectric Pb(Zr1−x Ti x )O3 ceramics have been known to have Zr4+ and Ti4+ randomly distributed on the B-site lattice in the ABO3 perovskite structure. In this study, we attempted to develop long range 1:1 B-site cation order by forming the solid solution of (1 − x)Pb(Mg1/2W1/2)O3xPb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 (x ≥ 0.60). High temperature X-ray diffraction tests indicate that the cation order is embedded in the structural order. The solid solution ceramics appear ...


Zr-Modified Pb(Mg1/3nb2/3)O3 With A Long-Range Cation Order, Xiaohui Zhao, Weiguo Qu, Xiaoli Tan Jul 2008

Zr-Modified Pb(Mg1/3nb2/3)O3 With A Long-Range Cation Order, Xiaohui Zhao, Weiguo Qu, Xiaoli Tan

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

The 1:1 structural order and B-site cation order in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics was significantly enhanced by Zr4+ substituting Nb5+ according to the chemical formula Pb(Mg1/3Zr2x/3Nb2(1−x)/3)O3−x/3. The enhanced structural and cation order was revealed by both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The increased charge difference and the introduced oxygen vacancies were suggested to account for the observed long-range cation order. Typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior was retained even in the ceramics with a high degree ...


Predicting The Hydrogen Pressure To Achieve Ultralow Friction And Diamondlike Carbon Surfaces From First Principles, Haibo Guo, Yue Qi, Xiaodong Li Jun 2008

Predicting The Hydrogen Pressure To Achieve Ultralow Friction And Diamondlike Carbon Surfaces From First Principles, Haibo Guo, Yue Qi, Xiaodong Li

Faculty Publications

Hydrogen atmosphere can significantly change the tribological behavior at diamond and diamondlike carbon (DLC) surfaces and the friction-reducing effect depends on the partial pressure of hydrogen. We combined density functional theory modeling and thermodynamic quantities to predict the equilibrium partial pressures of hydrogen at temperature T, PH2 (T), for a fully atomic hydrogen passivated diamondsurface. Above the equilibrium PH2 (T), ultralow friction can be achieved at diamond and DLC surfaces. The calculation agrees well with friction tests at various testing conditions. We also show that PH2 (T) increases with temperature; therefore, the temperature effect ...


Benefits Of Leed Designs In Arkansas K-12 Schools, Philip Thrift May 2008

Benefits Of Leed Designs In Arkansas K-12 Schools, Philip Thrift

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper provides and evaluation of an existing LEED certified sustainable green building for energy-efficiency, environmental impact, economic value, and occupant health. The new Bethel Middle School located in Bryant, Arkansas was the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified public school building in the state. Based on actual building specifications and validated with the first year's utility bills, a simulation model was used to evaluate various design aspects of the school building. The building's baseline energy usage was compared with numerous energy and environmental scenarios. Results include both environmental and economic assessments. Overall, the study ...


Development Of Miniature Hybrid Rockets For Orbital Upkeep And Transfer Applications In Nano/Pico-Satellites, Derek Willingham May 2008

Development Of Miniature Hybrid Rockets For Orbital Upkeep And Transfer Applications In Nano/Pico-Satellites, Derek Willingham

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This research has developed and constructed a successful miniature hybrid rocket test assembly for research into hybrid rocket scaling issues. It is hoped that such systems will find eventual integration into small satellites. The test assembly houses 3" fuel grains and provides an inlet for gaseous oxidizer. Although far from complete, preliminary data were taken with PMMA and GOx and some useful conclusions were drawn that will benefit future research into this topic. Fuel grains with combustion chambers whose diameters range from 1/16" to 3/8" were tested at different flow rates and thrust data gathered. Maximum flow information ...


Traveling Wave Excitation Of Soft X-Ray Lasers, Steffan Francischetti Apr 2008

Traveling Wave Excitation Of Soft X-Ray Lasers, Steffan Francischetti

Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science Undergraduate Theses

This paper details the design and alignment of a specialized mirror that is to be used in the focusing system of a high-powered Ytterbium-Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Yb-YAG) laser system. The laser system will be used in conducting research into soft x-ray laser systems specifically using traveling wave excitation to achieve higher levels of soft x-ray amplification. The mirror is a small part of large system that is being designed to study the uses of soft x-rays for imaging systems. The system is essentially a high-powered microscope that will be able to image particles on the nanometer scale. The system also ...


Liga Fabrication Of Nanocrystalline Ni-Walloy Micro Specimens From Ammonia-Citrate Bath, Haseeb Asma Mar 2008

Liga Fabrication Of Nanocrystalline Ni-Walloy Micro Specimens From Ammonia-Citrate Bath, Haseeb Asma

Haseeb ASMA

Ammonia-citrate bath has been investigated for the deposition of nano crystalline Ni - W alloy micro components using the LIGA process. First the bath stability and deposit characteristics were studied. Fabrication of micro specimens were then carried out on silicon substrates covered with novolac as well as thick PMMA resist for LIGA. Effects of different parameters like current density, nickel ion and tungsten ion concentration in the bath, deposition time etc. on the deposit characteristics and current efficiency were studied. The deposited Ni - W samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy depressive X-ray spectroscopy, light optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction ...


Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Nickel-Tungsten Alloy Films, Haseeb Asma Jan 2008

Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Nickel-Tungsten Alloy Films, Haseeb Asma

Haseeb ASMA

Electrodeposited nanocrystalline nickel-tungsten alloys are being investigated as an attractive alternative to electrodeposited nickel for applications involving fabrication of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). Ni-W alloys are also being considered as an environmentally friendly alternative to hard chrome plating in some cases. In applications involving sliding contacts such as in micro-gears in MEMS, mould inserts, etc., tribological properties of Ni-W alloys would be of relevance. In this work, the sliding friction and wear characteristics of Ni-W alloys with different tungsten contents were investigated and compared with that of nickel film deposited from sulphamate bath commonly used in microfabrication. For wear ...


The Dissipated Power In Atomic Force Microscopy Due To Interactions With A Capillary Fluid Layer, Nicole N. Hashemi, M.R. Paul, H. Dankowicz, W. Jhe Jan 2008

The Dissipated Power In Atomic Force Microscopy Due To Interactions With A Capillary Fluid Layer, Nicole N. Hashemi, M.R. Paul, H. Dankowicz, W. Jhe

Nastaran Hashemi

We study the power dissipated by the tip of an oscillating micron-scale cantilever as it interacts with a sample using a nonlinear model of the tip-surface force interactions that includes attractive, adhesive, repulsive, and capillary contributions. The force interactions of the model are entirely conservative and the dissipated power is due to the hysteretic nature of the interaction with the capillary fluid layer. Using numerical techniques tailored for nonlinear and discontinuous dynamical systems we compute the exact dissipated power over a range of experimentally relevant conditions. This is accomplished by computing precisely the fraction of oscillations that break the fluid ...


The Nonlinear Dynamics Of Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy With Capillary Force Interactions, Nicole N. Hashemi, H. Dankowicz, M.R. Paul Jan 2008

The Nonlinear Dynamics Of Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy With Capillary Force Interactions, Nicole N. Hashemi, H. Dankowicz, M.R. Paul

Nastaran Hashemi

We study the nonlinear dynamics of a tapping mode atomic force microscope with tip-surface interactions that include attractive, repulsive, and capillary force contributions using numerical techniques tailored for hybrid or discontinuous dynamical systems that include forward-time simulation with event handling and numerical pseudo-arclength continuation. We find four branches of periodic solutions that are separated by windows of complex and irregular dynamics. The branches of periodic solutions end where the cantilever comes into grazing contact with event surfaces in state space, corresponding to the onset of capillary interactions and the onset of repulsive forces associated with contact. These windows of irregular ...


Control Of The Nanoscale Crystallinity And Phase Separation In Polymer Solar Cells, Chih-Wei Chu, Hoichang Yang, Wei-Jen Hou, Jinsong Huang, Gang Li, Yang Yang Jan 2008

Control Of The Nanoscale Crystallinity And Phase Separation In Polymer Solar Cells, Chih-Wei Chu, Hoichang Yang, Wei-Jen Hou, Jinsong Huang, Gang Li, Yang Yang

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy were performed on bulk heterojunction regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl esters spin-cast films with different film processing conditions to correlate the crystalline nanostructure of P3HT with the corresponding solar cell performance. The increase in long wavelength absorption for solvent annealed films is related to highly conjugated crystal structure of RR-P3HT phase-separated in the active layer. Upon thermal annealing, the solvent annealed 50-nm-thick device shows high solar cell performance with fill factor up to 73% and power conversion efficiency of 3.80%.