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Theses and Dissertations

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2000

Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

The Impact Of Patient-Specific Vascular Structure On Localized Cooling In The Human Heart, Nathan Paul Spangenberg Sep 2019

The Impact Of Patient-Specific Vascular Structure On Localized Cooling In The Human Heart, Nathan Paul Spangenberg

Theses and Dissertations

Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of worldwide death and disability, and approximately 720,000 Americans will experience an AMI in 2018. Studies have shown that rapid hypothermia therapy (<35°C) before reperfusion in patients with AMI can reduce infarct size by 37%. Localized therapeutic hypothermia has proven the potential to cool heart tissue rapidly following AMI, 3°C in 5 minutes. Using Materialise Mimics digital imaging software and the finite volume method we analyzed temperature distributions in six patient-specific left main coronary artery (LMCA) models. A mock circulatory loop was used to determine the exiting temperatures of a standard 7 Fr catheter to feed into our model with flow rates ranging from 29.2 ml/min to 68.85 ml/min. Our work showed that therapeutic hypothermia (TH) temperatures were evident at the outlets of three out of all six heart models, which varied in each left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCX) artery depending on flowrate. Results of this study indicate that biovariability in patient-specific vascular structures significantly impacts therapeutic hypothermia (TH) treatment methods. These results indicate that further research is needed to examine more accurate physiological effects, such as pulsatile flow and vessel wall thickness. Future models will be used to provide insight to guide more efficient TH device designs and operation parameters to optimize patient outcomes following AMI.


Initial Development Of A Prototype Sensor Testbed For Fetal Monitoring, Christian Beauvais Aug 2019

Initial Development Of A Prototype Sensor Testbed For Fetal Monitoring, Christian Beauvais

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to design and manufacture a device that exhibits some of the bio-physiological signals relevant to fetal health monitoring. Currently, limited options exist for testing the performance of monitoring devices such as the tocodynamometer (TOCO) and electrocardiograph (ECG) that measure the bio-physiological signals of a woman and her fetus. Sensor designers need ways of generating and acquiring signals that do not carry the ethical burden of human testing. The development of such a device, as considered in this work, may involve using muscle wire or an inflatable tube as prospective foundations for simulating uterine contraction ...


Functional Porous Polydimethlysiloxane As Piezoresistive And Piezoelectric Materials, Taissa Rose Michel Jul 2019

Functional Porous Polydimethlysiloxane As Piezoresistive And Piezoelectric Materials, Taissa Rose Michel

Theses and Dissertations

In this paper, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and zinc oxide (ZnO) were combined to create functionalized piezoresistive and piezoelectric sensors for pressure sensing and energy harvesting. Samples were foamed to show that the increased deformability of the foam sensors makes them suitable for a range of applications including dexterous robotics, tactile sensing, energy harvesting, and biosensing. Uniform dispersion of CNTs was achieved with chloroform as the solvent. Samples were foamed using chemical blowing and scaffolding but granulated sugar at 70% porosity resulted in foamed samples with the most consistent mechanical properties. Samples underwent tensile and compressive testing for their ...


Predicting The Mechanical Properties Of Nanocomposites Reinforced With 1-D, 2-D And 3-D Nanomaterials, Scott Edward Muller May 2019

Predicting The Mechanical Properties Of Nanocomposites Reinforced With 1-D, 2-D And 3-D Nanomaterials, Scott Edward Muller

Theses and Dissertations

Materials with features at the nanoscale can provide unique mechanical properties and increased functionality when included as part of a nanocomposite. This dissertation utilizes computational methods at multiple scales, including molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT), and the coupled atomistic and discrete dislocation multiscale method (CADD), to predict the mechanical properties of nanocomposites possessing nanomaterials that are either 1-D (carbyne chains), 2-D (graphene sheets), or 3-D (Al/amorphous-Si core-shell nanorod).

The MD method is used to model Ni-graphene nanocomposites. The strength of a Ni-graphene nanocomposite is found to improve by increasing the gap between the graphene sheet and ...


Fault Adaptive Workload Allocation For Complex Manufacturing Systems, Charlie B. Destefano May 2019

Fault Adaptive Workload Allocation For Complex Manufacturing Systems, Charlie B. Destefano

Theses and Dissertations

This research proposes novel fault adaptive workload allocation (FAWA) strategies for the health management of complex manufacturing systems. The primary goal of these strategies is to minimize maintenance costs and maximize production by strategically controlling when and where failures occur through condition-based workload allocation.

For complex systems that are capable of performing tasks a variety of different ways, such as an industrial robot arm that can move between locations using different joint angle configurations and path trajectories, each option, i.e. mission plan, will result in different degradation rates and life-expectancies. Consequently, this can make it difficult to predict when ...


Structural Health Monitoring Of Laminate Structures Using Shear-Mode Piezoelectric Sensors, Hussain Altammar May 2019

Structural Health Monitoring Of Laminate Structures Using Shear-Mode Piezoelectric Sensors, Hussain Altammar

Theses and Dissertations

Structural health monitoring (SHM) employing embedded piezoelectric transducers has shown potential as a promising solution for inspection of different engineering structures such as aircraft, bridges, and renewable energy structures. Despite advancements in the field of ultrasonic SHM, inspection of laminate structures is still a major challenge due to their susceptibility to various joint defects. This thesis presents a novel approach to tackle the challenge of inspecting laminate structures using shear-mode (d35) piezoelectric transducers that are made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT).

This study begins with the characterization of d35 piezoelectric transducers using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. The results were ...


Motor Control Systems Analysis, Design, And Optimization Strategies For A Lightweight Excavation Robot, Austin Jerold Crawford May 2019

Motor Control Systems Analysis, Design, And Optimization Strategies For A Lightweight Excavation Robot, Austin Jerold Crawford

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis entails motor control system analysis, design, and optimization for the University of Arkansas NASA Robotic Mining Competition robot. The open-loop system is to be modeled and simulated in order to achieve a desired rapid, yet smooth response to a change in input. The initial goal of this work is to find a repeatable, generalized step-by-step process that can be used to tune the gains of a PID controller for multiple different operating points. Then, sensors are to be modeled onto the robot within a feedback loop to develop an error signal and to make the control system self-corrective ...


Modeling Of Complex Parts For Industrial Waterjet Cleaning, Braden James May 2019

Modeling Of Complex Parts For Industrial Waterjet Cleaning, Braden James

Theses and Dissertations

Industrial high-pressure waterjet cleaning is common to many industries. The modeling in this paper functions inside a collaborative robotic framework for high mix, low volume processes where human robot collaboration is beneficial. Automation of pressure washing is desirable for economic and ergonomic reasons. An automated cleaning system needs path simulation and analysis to give the operator insight into the predicted cleaning performance of the system. In this paper, ablation, the removal of a substrate coating by waterjet, is modeled for robotic cleaning operations. The model is designed to work with complex parts often found in spray cleaning operations, namely parts ...


Plasma Surface Functionalization Of Afp Manufactured Composites For Improved Adhesive Bond Performance, Ibrahim Sarikaya Apr 2019

Plasma Surface Functionalization Of Afp Manufactured Composites For Improved Adhesive Bond Performance, Ibrahim Sarikaya

Theses and Dissertations

High-performance composite structures not only require a reliable fabrication process when creating primary structures, but also a high fidelity and repeatable bonding process for the assembled components. During the assembly process, surface contaminants are a major concern as they have the potential to compromise the bond quality resulting in poor bond strength, low failure load, and undesirable failure modes of the adhesively bonded structures. This is further complicated by composite materials inherently possessing low surface energy and thus exhibiting low adhesive property. Therefore, detecting and removing contaminants on the pre-bond composite surface is an active research topic in pursuit of ...


Structural Health Monitoring And Non-Destructive Inspection Of Composite And Metallic Structures, Asaad Qasim Migot Apr 2019

Structural Health Monitoring And Non-Destructive Inspection Of Composite And Metallic Structures, Asaad Qasim Migot

Theses and Dissertations

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and Nondestructive Testing (NDT) techniques are being used as effective tools for investigating variety of civil, mechanical, and aerospace applications. In recent years, these techniques become such incredible tools for continuously monitoring of various structures. The aim of the dissertation work is to develop SHM and NDT methodologies for acoustic emission sources localization, damage detection and quantification in metallic and composite structures using a network of sensors, guided wave and developed imaging methods. This work is implemented through preparing metallic and composite specimens, setting up experiments, designing efficient networks of sensors, modeling guided wave interaction with ...


Understanding The Strain Localization And Progressive Damage Growth At The Free-Edge Of Composite Laminates Using Digital Image Correlation, Addis Tessema Apr 2019

Understanding The Strain Localization And Progressive Damage Growth At The Free-Edge Of Composite Laminates Using Digital Image Correlation, Addis Tessema

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the mechanics of Fiber Reinforced Composites (FRC) that guide the design and optimization of laminate structures, have attracted numerous researchers. For the last five decades, various analytical and numerical models have been developed to understand the damage and failure mechanisms in FRC. For long, Classical laminate plate theory (CLPT) has majorly been used as a theoretical guide in the design of composite structures. The CLPT framework is developed based on the consideration of an infinitesimal wide plate that depicts a planar stress condition. Thus, as it considers only the planar stresses, the out of plane interlaminar stresses are absent ...


Acoustoelastic Metamaterial With Simultaneous Noise Filtering And Energy Harvesting Capability From Ambient Vibrations, Fariha Mir Apr 2019

Acoustoelastic Metamaterial With Simultaneous Noise Filtering And Energy Harvesting Capability From Ambient Vibrations, Fariha Mir

Theses and Dissertations

Harvesting unused and untapped energy from ambient vibration noise and acoustic sound waves is an emerging field of research in the recent years. Utilization of the energy with a wide band of the frequency spectrum from the vibrational sources alone stands as one of the most promising ways to power small electronic devices, smartphones, local structural health monitoring (SHM) sensors and home and workshop appliances. Various sources of ambient vibration and acoustic noise can be found around us in our everyday life. These sources are abundant in almost all the engineering industries and manufacturing facilities for example in aerospace, mechanical ...


Development Of Scalable And Tunable Super- Hydrophilic And - Hydrophobic Coatings On The Cu Substrate For Phase Change Heat Transfer Applications, Raikan Saad Dawas Apr 2019

Development Of Scalable And Tunable Super- Hydrophilic And - Hydrophobic Coatings On The Cu Substrate For Phase Change Heat Transfer Applications, Raikan Saad Dawas

Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this study is to enhance and sustain the thin liquid film evaporation (TLFE) as well as dropwise condensation (DWC) on scalable copper substrates. The current dissertation consists of two sections. The objective of the first section is to enhance the dry cooling technology which is widely used in industrial applications such as in the air side of power plants, AC unit, or electronic cooling. However, the thermal dissipation performance is limited with low heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) due to the low thermal conductivity and density of the air. Inspired by the phase change heat transfer during the ...


Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing(Fsam) Of 2050 Al-Cu-Li Alloy, Ilana Lu Apr 2019

Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing(Fsam) Of 2050 Al-Cu-Li Alloy, Ilana Lu

Theses and Dissertations

As a solid state process, friction stir welding (FSW) is an advantageous joining method for higher strength aluminum alloys such as 2050 Al-Cu-Li which are not readily fusion welded. This study explores the potential of friction stir lap welding (FSLW) as an additive manufacturing process for this aluminum-lithium alloy. To accomplish this, lap weld joints were performed so that each additional layer would penetrate the preceding weld pass which creates a large, stacked build. Excess material is machined away leaving only weld. Cast AA2050 is explored in this study as a more cost-efficient feedstock for this process as compared to ...


Event-Based Visual-Inertial Odometry On A Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Kaleb J. Nelson Mar 2019

Event-Based Visual-Inertial Odometry On A Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Kaleb J. Nelson

Theses and Dissertations

Event-based cameras are a new type of visual sensor that operate under a unique paradigm. These cameras provide asynchronous data on the log-level changes in light intensity for individual pixels, independent of other pixels' measurements. Through the hardware-level approach to change detection, these cameras can achieve microsecond fidelity, millisecond latency, ultra-wide dynamic range, and all with very low power requirements. The advantages provided by event-based cameras make them excellent candidates for visual odometry (VO) for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) navigation. This document presents the research and implementation of an event-based visual inertial odometry (EVIO) pipeline, which estimates a vehicle's ...


Micro-Contacts With 3-D Surfaces Made With Grayscale Lithography, Paul L.J. Michaud Mar 2019

Micro-Contacts With 3-D Surfaces Made With Grayscale Lithography, Paul L.J. Michaud

Theses and Dissertations

MEMS switches show advantages over FET transistors and PIN diodes for switching applications due to low contact resistance, high linearity, low power use, better isolation and lower insertion loss. The switches have not replaced FETs or PIN diodes due to perceived limitations in their reliability and the need for stable contact resistance. In order to create switches acceptable for industry applications, research on micro-contact physics and failure mechanisms of micro-contacts is necessary to develop durable contact surfaces. The aim of this research was to design and fabricate micro-contacts with three-dimensional surfaces using grayscale lithography. The goal was to create devices ...


A Mems Dual Vertical Electrometer And Electric Field-Mill, George C. Underwood Mar 2019

A Mems Dual Vertical Electrometer And Electric Field-Mill, George C. Underwood

Theses and Dissertations

Presented is the first iteration of a Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) dual vertical electrometer and electric field-mill (EFM). The device uses a resonating structure as a variable capacitor that converts the presence of a charge or field into an electric signal. Previous MEMS electrometers are lateral electrometers with laterally spaced electrodes that resonate tangentially with respect to each other. Vertical electrometers, as the name suggests, have vertically spaced electrodes that resonate transversely with respect to each other. The non-tangential movement reduces damping in the system. Both types demonstrate comparable performance, but the vertical electrometer does so at a fraction of the ...


Fracture Toughness And Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Characterization Of Inconel 718 Formed By Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Charles C. Hohnbaum Mar 2019

Fracture Toughness And Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Characterization Of Inconel 718 Formed By Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Charles C. Hohnbaum

Theses and Dissertations

Continuing improvement in the field of AM of metals provides the opportunity for direct fabrication of aerospace parts. AM was once used in large part for rapid prototyping but improvements in technology and increases in the knowledge base of AM materials has provided the opportunity for manufacture of AM parts for operational use. The ability to create low numbers of unique parts without having to invest in expensive tooling provides great economic incentive to utilize this technique. IN718 is the most common high temperature alloy used in the aerospace industry and lends itself readily to formation by LPBF. The superior ...


Flow Behavior In Radial Rotating Detonation Engines, Scott A. Boller Mar 2019

Flow Behavior In Radial Rotating Detonation Engines, Scott A. Boller

Theses and Dissertations

Recent progress has been made in demonstrating Radial Rotating Detonation Engine (RRDE) technology for use in a compact Auxiliary Power Unit with a rapid response time. Investigation of RRDEs also suggests an increase in stable operating range, which is hypothesized to be due to the additional degree of freedom in the radial direction which the detonation wave can propagate. This investigation seeks to determine if the detonation wave is in fact changing its radial location. High speed photography was used to capture chemiluminescence of the detonation wave within the channel to examine its radial location, which was found to vary ...


Examination Of Flow Dynamics And Passive Cooling In An Ultra Compact Combustor, Tylor C. Rathsack Mar 2019

Examination Of Flow Dynamics And Passive Cooling In An Ultra Compact Combustor, Tylor C. Rathsack

Theses and Dissertations

The Ultra Compact Combustor (UCC) promises to greatly reduce the size of a gas turbine engine’s combustor by altering the manner in which fuel is burnt. Differing from the common axial flow combustor, the UCC utilizes a rotating flow, coaxial to the engine’s primary axis, in an outboard circumferential cavity as the primary combustion zone. The present study investigates two key UCC facets required to further this combustor design. The first area of investigation is cooling of the Hybrid Guide Vane (HGV). This UCC specific hardware acts as a combustor center body that alters the exit flow angle ...


Process Parameter Development Of Additively Manufactured Af9628 Weapons Steel, Erin M. Hager Mar 2019

Process Parameter Development Of Additively Manufactured Af9628 Weapons Steel, Erin M. Hager

Theses and Dissertations

The manufacture of components in Additive Manufacturing processes is limited by the range of materials available. Qualification of materials for Additive Manufacturing is time intensive, and is often specific to a single type of machine. In this study, an approach to selecting power, speed, and hatch spacing values for a newly powderized material, AF9628 weapons steel, is described that results in highly dense (>99.9%) parts on an MLab 200R Cusing. Initial power and speed values used in a weld track study were selected based on a survey of parameters used on similar materials, with a focus on the energy ...


A Study Of Catalytic Microcombustion For A Portable Power Supply Device, Bhanuprakash Reddy Guggilla Jan 2019

A Study Of Catalytic Microcombustion For A Portable Power Supply Device, Bhanuprakash Reddy Guggilla

Theses and Dissertations

The essential need for portable and dense power sources has been greatly increased with the prevalence of portable electronic devices in the past decade. Catalytic combustion of hydrocarbon and oxygenated fuels has the potential to provide an alternative power source for portable electronic devices by replacing relatively today's heavy battery technology. A successful self-ignition and sustainable catalyst combustion for a variety of fuels using Platinum (Pt)-impregnated substrate was demonstrated in our previous work.

Present work explores the performance of a microcombustion thermoelectric coupled (MTC) device with improved reactor configuration design. Chemically synthesized platinum nanoparticles with particle diameters of ...


Compositional Analysis Of Cerium And Cesium In Rapid Setting Cement As An Immobilization Agent For Nuclear Waste, Riyadh M. Motny Jan 2019

Compositional Analysis Of Cerium And Cesium In Rapid Setting Cement As An Immobilization Agent For Nuclear Waste, Riyadh M. Motny

Theses and Dissertations

A feasibility of rapid setting cement (RSC) as an agent of immobilization for certain elements such as fission products or radioactive materials was explored. Cerium (Ce) and cesium (Cs) have been selected as a surrogate for U and/or Pu and fission products, respectively, in this study in three phases. In Phase I, RSC was evaluated for physical properties (e.g., porosity, density, pH values, etc.) using two groups methods—the cement powder at different concentrations of Ce (2 – 10 wt%) with deionized water (DIW) and artificial seawater (ASW). The results showed that the final setting time and compressive strength ...


Computational Study Of Water Desalination Using Forward Osmosis, Ahmed Mohammed Alshwairekh Jan 2019

Computational Study Of Water Desalination Using Forward Osmosis, Ahmed Mohammed Alshwairekh

Theses and Dissertations

Forward Osmosis is a natural phenomenon that takes places across a semi-permeable membrane when there is a concentration difference across the membrane. Pure water permeates to the highly concentrated channel until the concentration across the membrane equilibrates. In water desalination applications, the same principle is applied. Spiral-wound membrane, flat sheet, or hollow fiber module are typical configurations in forward osmosis desalination modules. The application of water desalination using forward osmosis requires the existence of two channels separated by a suitable forward osmosis membrane. Sea or Brackish water is introduced in one side while the other side has a suitable draw ...


Performance And Stability Of Cacl2·6h2o-Based Phase Change Materials, Joshua Charles Jan 2019

Performance And Stability Of Cacl2·6h2o-Based Phase Change Materials, Joshua Charles

Theses and Dissertations

Thermal energy storage is receiving increased attention as the world transitions away from fossil fuels and seeks to improve the efficiency of existing energy production systems. While higher-temperature thermal energy storage has received the majority of attention in the field, thermal energy storage at temperatures close to ambient conditions may also have some practical applications. Hydrated salt phase change materials (PCMs) store thermal energy in this temperature range and can have high gravimetric and volumetric energy storage capacities while having a very low cost. Despite the benefits of these salts, they generally suffer from supercooling, phase segregation during cycling, and ...


Modeling And Analyzing A Patch Of Human Red Blood Cell By Coarse-Grained Particle Method, Orhan Kaya Jan 2019

Modeling And Analyzing A Patch Of Human Red Blood Cell By Coarse-Grained Particle Method, Orhan Kaya

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis consists of three sections. First, some background information and theories about the erythrocyte membrane are provided. Second, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model for a patch of erythrocyte membrane is built up. Third, the mechanical responses of the patch of red blood cells to diffusion and diffusivity, tension, rupture, and shear-induced pore area are analyzed.The patch of erythrocyte membrane is validated by modeling diffusivity and determining the diffusion coefficient constant. Then, the patch of the coarse-grained erythrocyte membrane is stretched uniformly until rupture. The critical stress/strain from simulation match with those obtained in experiments in laser optical ...


Efficient Modeling Of Latent Thermal Energy Storage Systems For Optimal Design And Operational Research, Chunjian Pan Jan 2019

Efficient Modeling Of Latent Thermal Energy Storage Systems For Optimal Design And Operational Research, Chunjian Pan

Theses and Dissertations

As a booming economy drives the need for more electricity, demands on freshwater for thermoelectric power generation also grow. Facing the limited freshwater resources, alternative dry cooling technologies such as air cooled condensers (ACCs) that reduce water consumption are becoming more prevalent. However, the performance of air ACCs is seriously deteriorated at ambient temperature. To address this challenge, a novel application of a Phase Change Material (PCM) based cooling system for supplementary cooling of ACCs is proposed. One of the engineering challenges that prevent the commercial application of latent thermal energy storage (LTES) systems is the lack of computationally efficient ...


Multiphase Droplet Interactions With A Single Fiber, Noor M. Farhan Jan 2019

Multiphase Droplet Interactions With A Single Fiber, Noor M. Farhan

Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Multiphase Droplet Interactions with a Single Fiber

By: Noor M. Farhan

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Virginia Commonwealth University.

Virginia Commonwealth University, 2019

Director: Hooman V. Tafreshi,

Professor, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

Formulating the physics of droplet adhesion to a fiber is interesting intellectually and important industrially. A typical example of a droplet–fiber system in nature is the dew droplets on spider webs, where droplets first precipitate and grow on the fibers, but they eventually fall when they become too heavy. Obviously, quantifying the ...


Analysis Of Movement Of A 3t3 Cell With A Lamellipodium On A Substrate With Variable Rigidity, Alan Wopperer Jan 2019

Analysis Of Movement Of A 3t3 Cell With A Lamellipodium On A Substrate With Variable Rigidity, Alan Wopperer

Theses and Dissertations

Live cells move in the body in response to physiological and mechanical stimuli. Cells move using lamellipodium which extend beyond the leading edge of the cell. This lamellipodium is part of the cytoskeleton of the cell which pulls the cell forward in cell migration. It is observed that cells will move directionally depending on the stiffness of the substrate the cell comes into contact with. It is hypothesized that cells probe their environment to test the stiffness of their substrate. As a cell comes into contact with a substrate, the resulting force is dependent on how rigid or soft the ...


Resonant Acoustic Wave Assisted Spin-Transfer-Torque Switching Of Nanomagnets, Austin R. Roe Jan 2019

Resonant Acoustic Wave Assisted Spin-Transfer-Torque Switching Of Nanomagnets, Austin R. Roe

Theses and Dissertations

We studied the possibility of achieving an order of magnitude reduction in the energy dissipation needed to write bits in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) by simulating the magnetization dynamics under a combination of resonant surface acoustic waves (r-SAW) and spin-transfer-torque (STT). The magnetization dynamics were simulated using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation under macrospin assumption with the inclusion of thermal noise. We studied such r-SAW assisted STT switching of nanomagnets for both in-plane elliptical and circular perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) nanomagnets and show that while thermal noise affects switching probability in in-plane nanomagnets, the PMA nanomagnets are relatively robust to the ...