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Mechanical Engineering Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Challenges And Opportunities In Machine-Augmented Plant Stress Phenotyping, Arti Singh, Sarah Jones, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Daren S. Mueller, Kulbir Sandhu, Koushik Nagasubramanian Aug 2020

Challenges And Opportunities In Machine-Augmented Plant Stress Phenotyping, Arti Singh, Sarah Jones, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Daren S. Mueller, Kulbir Sandhu, Koushik Nagasubramanian

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Plant stress phenotyping is essential to select stress-resistant varieties and develop better stress-management strategies. Standardization of visual assessments and deployment of imaging techniques have improved the accuracy and reliability of stress assessment in comparison with unaided visual measurement. The growing capabilities of machine learning (ML) methods in conjunction with image-based phenotyping can extract new insights from curated, annotated, and high-dimensional datasets across varied crops and stresses. We propose an overarching strategy for utilizing ML techniques that methodically enables the application of plant stress phenotyping at multiple scales across different types of stresses, program goals, and environments.


Automated Trichome Counting In Soybean Using Advanced Image‐Processing Techniques, Seyed Vahid Mirnezami, Therin Young, Teshale Assefa, Shelby Prichard, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Kulbir Sandhu, Soumik Sarkar, Sriram Sundararajan, Matthew E. O'Neal, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh Jul 2020

Automated Trichome Counting In Soybean Using Advanced Image‐Processing Techniques, Seyed Vahid Mirnezami, Therin Young, Teshale Assefa, Shelby Prichard, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Kulbir Sandhu, Soumik Sarkar, Sriram Sundararajan, Matthew E. O'Neal, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Premise Trichomes are hair‐like appendages extending from the plant epidermis. They serve many important biotic roles, including interference with herbivore movement. Characterizing the number, density, and distribution of trichomes can provide valuable insights on plant response to insect infestation and define the extent of plant defense capability. Automated trichome counting would speed up this research but poses several challenges, primarily because of the variability in coloration and the high occlusion of the trichomes.

Methods and Results We developed a simplified method for image processing for automated and semi‐automated trichome counting. We illustrate this process using 30 leaves from ...


Tetrahydrofuran-Based Two-Step Solvent Liquefaction Process For Production Of Lignocellulosic Sugars, Arpa Ghosh, Martin R. Haverly, Jake K. Lindstrom, Patrick A. Johnston, Robert C. Brown Jul 2020

Tetrahydrofuran-Based Two-Step Solvent Liquefaction Process For Production Of Lignocellulosic Sugars, Arpa Ghosh, Martin R. Haverly, Jake K. Lindstrom, Patrick A. Johnston, Robert C. Brown

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Large-scale production of biofuels and chemicals will require cost-effective, sustainable, and rapid deconstruction of waste biomass into its constituent sugars. Here, we introduce a novel two-step liquefaction process for producing fermentable sugars from hardwood biomass using a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (THF), water and dilute sulfuric acid. THF promotes acid-catalyzed solubilization of lignin and hemicellulose in biomass achieving 61% lignin extraction and 64% xylose recovery in a mild pretreatment step. The pretreatment opens the structure of biomass through delignification and produces a cellulose-rich biomass, which is readily solubilized at low temperature giving 65% total sugar yields in a subsequent liquefaction process ...


Soybean Root System Architecture Trait Study Through Genotypic, Phenotypic, And Shape-Based Clusters, Kevin G. Falk, Talukder Zaki Jubery, Jamie A. O’Rourke, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Asheesh K. Singh Jun 2020

Soybean Root System Architecture Trait Study Through Genotypic, Phenotypic, And Shape-Based Clusters, Kevin G. Falk, Talukder Zaki Jubery, Jamie A. O’Rourke, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Asheesh K. Singh

Mechanical Engineering Publications

We report a root system architecture (RSA) traits examination of a larger scale soybean accession set to study trait genetic diversity. Suffering from the limitation of scale, scope, and susceptibility to measurement variation, RSA traits are tedious to phenotype. Combining 35,448 SNPs with an imaging phenotyping platform, 292 accessions (replications=14) were studied for RSA traits to decipher the genetic diversity. Based on literature search for root shape and morphology parameters, we used an ideotype-based approach to develop informative root (iRoot) categories using root traits. The RSA traits displayed genetic variability for root shape, length, number, mass, and angle ...


Multiscale Modeling Reveals The Cause Of Surface Stress Change On Microcantilevers Due To Alkanethiol Sam Adsorption, Yue Zhao, Agnivo Gosai, Kyungho Kang, Pranav Shrotriya May 2020

Multiscale Modeling Reveals The Cause Of Surface Stress Change On Microcantilevers Due To Alkanethiol Sam Adsorption, Yue Zhao, Agnivo Gosai, Kyungho Kang, Pranav Shrotriya

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Experimental results show that the adsorption of the self assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a gold surface induces surface stress change that cause a deformation of the underlying substrate. However, the exact mechanism of stress development is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, multiscale computational models based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are applied to study the mechanism governing surface stress change. Distinct mechanisms for adsorption induced surface deformation, namely inter chain repulsion and thiol-gold interaction driven gold surface reconstruction, are investigated. Two different inter-atomic potentials, embedded atom method (EAM) and surface embedded atom method (SEAM), are used in ...


Enhancing The Conductivity Of Cell-Laden Alginate Microfibers With Aqueous Graphene For Neural Applications, Marilyn C. Mcnamara, Amir Ehsan Niaraki-Asli, Jingshuai Guo, Jasmin Okuzono, Reza Montazami, Nicole N. Hashemi Mar 2020

Enhancing The Conductivity Of Cell-Laden Alginate Microfibers With Aqueous Graphene For Neural Applications, Marilyn C. Mcnamara, Amir Ehsan Niaraki-Asli, Jingshuai Guo, Jasmin Okuzono, Reza Montazami, Nicole N. Hashemi

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Microfluidically manufacturing graphene-alginate microfibers create possibilities for encapsulating rat neural cells within conductive 3D tissue scaffolding to enable the creation of real-time 3D sensing arrays with high physiological relavancy. Cells are encapsulated using the biopolymer alginate, which is combined with graphene to create a cell-containing hydrogel with increased electrical conductivity. Resulting novel alginate-graphene microfibers showed a 2.5-fold increase over pure alginate microfibers, but did not show significant differences in size and porosity. Cells encapsulated within the microfibers survive for up to 8 days, and maintain ~20% live cells over that duration. The biocompatible aqueous graphene suspension used in this ...


Wind Turbine And Turbomachinery Computational Analysis With The Ale And Space-Time Variational Multiscale Methods And Isogeometric Discretization, Yuri Bazilevs, Kenji Takizawa, Tayfun E. Tezduyar, Ming-Chen Hsu, Yuto Otoguro, Hiroki Mochizuki, Michael C.H. Wu Mar 2020

Wind Turbine And Turbomachinery Computational Analysis With The Ale And Space-Time Variational Multiscale Methods And Isogeometric Discretization, Yuri Bazilevs, Kenji Takizawa, Tayfun E. Tezduyar, Ming-Chen Hsu, Yuto Otoguro, Hiroki Mochizuki, Michael C.H. Wu

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The challenges encountered in computational analysis of wind turbines and turbomachinery include turbulent rotational flows, complex geometries, moving boundaries and interfaces, such as the rotor motion, and the fluid-structure interaction (FSI), such as the FSI between the wind turbine blade and the air. The Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) and Space-Time (ST) Variational Multiscale (VMS) methods and isogeometric discretization have been effective in addressing these challenges. The ALE-VMS and ST-VMS serve as core computational methods. They are supplemented with special methods like the Slip Interface (SI) method and ST Isogeometric Analysis with NURBS basis functions in time. We describe the core and ...


Computer Vision And Machine Learning Enabled Soybean Root Phenotyping Pipeline, Kevin G. Falk, Talukder Z. Jubery, Seyed V. Mirnezami, Kyle A. Parmley, Soumik Sarkar, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Asheesh K. Singh Jan 2020

Computer Vision And Machine Learning Enabled Soybean Root Phenotyping Pipeline, Kevin G. Falk, Talukder Z. Jubery, Seyed V. Mirnezami, Kyle A. Parmley, Soumik Sarkar, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Asheesh K. Singh

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Background Root system architecture (RSA) traits are of interest for breeding selection; however, measurement of these traits is difficult, resource intensive, and results in large variability. The advent of computer vision and machine learning (ML) enabled trait extraction and measurement has renewed interest in utilizing RSA traits for genetic enhancement to develop more robust and resilient crop cultivars. We developed a mobile, low-cost, and high-resolution root phenotyping system composed of an imaging platform with computer vision and ML based segmentation approach to establish a seamless end-to-end pipeline - from obtaining large quantities of root samples through image based trait processing and ...


Heart Valve Isogeometric Sequentially-Coupled Fsi Analysis With The Space–Time Topology Change Method, Takuya Terahara, Kenji Takizawa, Tayfun E. Tezduyar, Yuri Bazilevs, Ming-Chen Hsu Jan 2020

Heart Valve Isogeometric Sequentially-Coupled Fsi Analysis With The Space–Time Topology Change Method, Takuya Terahara, Kenji Takizawa, Tayfun E. Tezduyar, Yuri Bazilevs, Ming-Chen Hsu

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Heart valve fluid–structure interaction (FSI) analysis is one of the computationally challenging cases in cardiovascular fluid mechanics. The challenges include unsteady flow through a complex geometry, solid surfaces with large motion, and contact between the valve leaflets. We introduce here an isogeometric sequentially-coupled FSI (SCFSI) method that can address the challenges with an outcome of high-fidelity flow solutions. The SCFSI analysis enables dealing with the fluid and structure parts individually at different steps of the solutions sequence, and also enables using different methods or different mesh resolution levels at different steps. In the isogeometric SCFSI analysis here, the first ...


Nurbs-Based Microstructure Design For Organic Photovoltaics, Ramin Noruzi, Sambit Ghadai, Onur Rauf Bingol, Adarsh Krishnamurthy, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian Jan 2020

Nurbs-Based Microstructure Design For Organic Photovoltaics, Ramin Noruzi, Sambit Ghadai, Onur Rauf Bingol, Adarsh Krishnamurthy, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The microstructure – spatial distribution of electron donor and acceptor domains – plays an important role in determining the photo current in thin film organic solar cells (OSCs). Optimizing the microstructure can lead to higher photo current generation, and is an active area of experimental research. There has been recent progress in framing OSC microstructure design as a computational design problem. However, most current approaches to microstructure optimization are based on volumetric distribution of material, which makes the design space very large. In contrast, we frame the microstructure design optimization problem in terms of designing the interface between the donor and acceptor ...


Sensor-As-A-Service: Convergence Of Sensor Analytic Point Solutions (Snaps) And Pay-A-Penny-Per-Use (Pappu) Paradigm As A Catalyst For Democratization Of Healthcare In Underserved Communities, Victoria Morgan, Lisseth Casso-Hartmann, David Bahamon-Pinzon, Kelli Mccourt, Robert G. Hjort, Sahar Bahramzadeh, Irene Velez-Torres, Eric Mclamore, Carmen Gomes, Evangelyn C. Alocilja, Nirajan Bhusal, Sunaina Shrestha, Nisha Pote, Ruben Kenny Briceno, Shoumen Palit Austin Datta, Diana C. Vanegas Jan 2020

Sensor-As-A-Service: Convergence Of Sensor Analytic Point Solutions (Snaps) And Pay-A-Penny-Per-Use (Pappu) Paradigm As A Catalyst For Democratization Of Healthcare In Underserved Communities, Victoria Morgan, Lisseth Casso-Hartmann, David Bahamon-Pinzon, Kelli Mccourt, Robert G. Hjort, Sahar Bahramzadeh, Irene Velez-Torres, Eric Mclamore, Carmen Gomes, Evangelyn C. Alocilja, Nirajan Bhusal, Sunaina Shrestha, Nisha Pote, Ruben Kenny Briceno, Shoumen Palit Austin Datta, Diana C. Vanegas

Mechanical Engineering Publications

In this manuscript, we discuss relevant socioeconomic factors for developing and implementing sensor analytic point solutions (SNAPS) as point-of-care tools to serve impoverished communities. The distinct economic, environmental, cultural, and ethical paradigms that affect economically disadvantaged users add complexity to the process of technology development and deployment beyond the science and engineering issues. We begin by contextualizing the environmental burden of disease in select low-income regions around the world, including environmental hazards at work, home, and the broader community environment, where SNAPS may be helpful in the prevention and mitigation of human exposure to harmful biological vectors and chemical agents ...


Isogeometric Analysis Of Ice Accretion On Wind Turbine Blades, Emily L. Johnson, Ming-Chen Hsu Jan 2020

Isogeometric Analysis Of Ice Accretion On Wind Turbine Blades, Emily L. Johnson, Ming-Chen Hsu

Mechanical Engineering Publications

For wind turbines operating in cold weather conditions, ice accretion is an established issue that remains an obstacle in effective turbine operation. While the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blades with ice accretion has received considerable research attention, few studies have investigated the structural impact of blade ice accretion. This work proposes an adaptable projection-based method to superimpose complex ice configurations onto a baseline structure. The proposed approach provides an efficient methodology to include ice accretion in the high fidelity isogeometric shell analysis of a realistic wind turbine blade. Linear vibration and nonlinear deflection analyses of the blade are performed ...


Usefulness Of Interpretability Methods To Explain Deep Learning Based Plant Stress Phenotyping, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian Jan 2020

Usefulness Of Interpretability Methods To Explain Deep Learning Based Plant Stress Phenotyping, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Deep learning techniques have been successfully deployed for automating plant stress identification and quantification. In recent years, there is a growing push towards training models that are interpretable -i.e. that justify their classification decisions by visually highlighting image features that were crucial for classification decisions. The expectation is that trained network models utilize image features that mimic visual cues used by plant pathologists. In this work, we compare some of the most popular interpretability methods: Saliency Maps, SmoothGrad, Guided Backpropogation, Deep Taylor Decomposition, Integrated Gradients, Layer-wise Relevance Propagation and Gradient times Input, for interpreting the deep learning model. We ...


How Useful Is Active Learning For Image-Based Plant Phenotyping?, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Talukder Z. Jubery, Fateme Fotouhi Ardakani, Seyed Vahid Mirnezami, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian Jan 2020

How Useful Is Active Learning For Image-Based Plant Phenotyping?, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Talukder Z. Jubery, Fateme Fotouhi Ardakani, Seyed Vahid Mirnezami, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Deep learning models have been successfully deployed for a diverse array of image-based plant phenotyping applications including disease detection and classification. However, successful deployment of supervised deep learning models requires large amount of labeled data, which is a significant challenge in plant science (and most biological) domains due to the inherent complexity. Specifically, data annotation is costly, laborious, time consuming and needs domain expertise for phenotyping tasks, especially for diseases. To overcome this challenge, active learning algorithms have been proposed that reduce the amount of labeling needed by deep learning models to achieve good predictive performance. Active learning methods adaptively ...


A Fully-Coupled Framework For Solving Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes Equations: Second-Order, Energy-Stable Numerical Methods On Adaptive Octree Based Meshes, Makrand A. Khanwale, Kumar Saurabh, Milinda Fernando, Victor M. Calo, James A. Rossmanith, Hari Sundar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian Jan 2020

A Fully-Coupled Framework For Solving Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes Equations: Second-Order, Energy-Stable Numerical Methods On Adaptive Octree Based Meshes, Makrand A. Khanwale, Kumar Saurabh, Milinda Fernando, Victor M. Calo, James A. Rossmanith, Hari Sundar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Mechanical Engineering Publications

We present a fully-coupled, implicit-in-time framework for solving a thermodynamically-consistent Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes system that models two-phase flows. In this work, we extend the block iterative method presented in Khanwale et al. [{\it Simulating two-phase flows with thermodynamically consistent energy stable Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes equations on parallel adaptive octree based meshes}, J. Comput. Phys. (2020)], to a fully-coupled, provably second-order accurate scheme in time, while maintaining energy-stability. The new method requires fewer matrix assemblies in each Newton iteration resulting in faster solution time. The method is based on a fully-implicit Crank-Nicolson scheme in time and a pressure stabilization for an equal order ...


Industrial Scale Large Eddy Simulations (Les) With Adaptive Octree Meshes Using Immersogeometric Analysis, Kumar Saurabh, Boshun Gao, Milinda Fernando, Songzhe Xu, Biswajit Khara, Makrand A. Khanwale, Ming-Chen Hsu, Adarsh Krishnamurthy, Hari Sundar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian Jan 2020

Industrial Scale Large Eddy Simulations (Les) With Adaptive Octree Meshes Using Immersogeometric Analysis, Kumar Saurabh, Boshun Gao, Milinda Fernando, Songzhe Xu, Biswajit Khara, Makrand A. Khanwale, Ming-Chen Hsu, Adarsh Krishnamurthy, Hari Sundar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Mechanical Engineering Publications

We present a variant of the immersed boundary method integrated with octree meshes for highly efficient and accurate Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of flows around complex geometries. We demonstrate the scalability of the proposed method up to O(32K) processors. This is achieved by (a) rapid in-out tests; (b) adaptive quadrature for an accurate evaluation of forces; (c) tensorized evaluation during matrix assembly. We showcase this method on two non-trivial applications: accurately computing the drag coefficient of a sphere across Reynolds numbers 1−106 encompassing the drag crisis regime; simulating flow features across a semi-truck for investigating the effect of platooning ...


A Deep Learning Framework For Design And Analysis Of Surgical Bioprosthetic Heart Valves, Aditya Balu, Sahiti Nallagonda, Fei Xu, Adarsh Krishnamurthy, Ming-Chen Hsu, Soumik Sarkar Dec 2019

A Deep Learning Framework For Design And Analysis Of Surgical Bioprosthetic Heart Valves, Aditya Balu, Sahiti Nallagonda, Fei Xu, Adarsh Krishnamurthy, Ming-Chen Hsu, Soumik Sarkar

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) are commonly used as heart valve replacements but they are prone to fatigue failure; estimating their remaining life directly from medical images is difficult. Analyzing the valve performance can provide better guidance for personalized valve design. However, such analyses are often computationally intensive. In this work, we introduce the concept of deep learning (DL) based finite element analysis (DLFEA) to learn the deformation biomechanics of bioprosthetic aortic valves directly from simulations. The proposed DL framework can eliminate the time-consuming biomechanics simulations, while predicting valve deformations with the same fidelity. We present statistical results that demonstrate the ...


Viscoelastic Properties Of Shock Wave Exposed Brain Tissue Subjected To Unconfined Compression Experiments, Annastacia K. Mccarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil Dec 2019

Viscoelastic Properties Of Shock Wave Exposed Brain Tissue Subjected To Unconfined Compression Experiments, Annastacia K. Mccarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) affect millions of people each year. While research has been dedicated to determining the mechanical properties of the uninjured brain, there has been a lack of investigation on the mechanical properties of the brain after experiencing a primary blast-induced TBI. In this paper, whole porcine brains were exposed to a shock wave to simulate blast-induced TBI. First, ten (10) brains were subjected to unconfined compression experiments immediately following shock wave exposure. In addition, 22 brains exposed to a shock wave were placed in saline solution and refrigerated between 30 minutes and 6.0 hours before undergoing ...


An Immersogeometric Formulation For Free-Surface Flows With Application To Marine Engineering Problems, Qiming Zhu, Fei Xu, Songzhe Xu, Ming-Chen Hsu, Jinhui Yan Nov 2019

An Immersogeometric Formulation For Free-Surface Flows With Application To Marine Engineering Problems, Qiming Zhu, Fei Xu, Songzhe Xu, Ming-Chen Hsu, Jinhui Yan

Mechanical Engineering Publications

An immersogeometric formulation is proposed to simulate free-surface flows around structures with complex geometry. The fluid–fluid interface (air–water interface) is handled by the level set method, while the fluid–structure interface is handled through an immersogeometric approach by immersing structures into non-boundary-fitted meshes and enforcing Dirichlet boundary conditions weakly. Residual-based variational multiscale method (RBVMS) is employed to stabilize the coupled Navier–Stokes equations of incompressible flows and level set convection equation. Other level set techniques, including re-distancing and mass balancing, are also incorporated into the immersed formulation. Adaptive quadrature rule is used to better capture the geometry of ...


Machine Learning Approach For Prescriptive Plant Breeding, Kyle A. Parmley, Race H. Higgins, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Asheesh K. Singh Nov 2019

Machine Learning Approach For Prescriptive Plant Breeding, Kyle A. Parmley, Race H. Higgins, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Asheesh K. Singh

Mechanical Engineering Publications

We explored the capability of fusing high dimensional phenotypic trait (phenomic) data with a machine learning (ML) approach to provide plant breeders the tools to do both in-season seed yield (SY) prediction and prescriptive cultivar development for targeted agro-management practices (e.g., row spacing and seeding density). We phenotyped 32 SoyNAM parent genotypes in two independent studies each with contrasting agro-management treatments (two row spacing, three seeding densities). Phenotypic trait data (canopy temperature, chlorophyll content, hyperspectral reflectance, leaf area index, and light interception) were generated using an array of sensors at three growth stages during the growing season and seed ...


Shared Genetic Control Of Root System Architecture Between Zea Mays And Sorghum Bicolor, Zihao Zheng, Stefan Hey, Talukder Jubery, Huyu Liu, Yu Yang, Lisa Coffey, Chenyong Miao, Brandi Sigmon, James C. Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Patrick Schnable Nov 2019

Shared Genetic Control Of Root System Architecture Between Zea Mays And Sorghum Bicolor, Zihao Zheng, Stefan Hey, Talukder Jubery, Huyu Liu, Yu Yang, Lisa Coffey, Chenyong Miao, Brandi Sigmon, James C. Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Patrick Schnable

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Determining the genetic control of root system architecture (RSA) in plants via large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) requires high-throughput pipelines for root phenotyping. We developed CREAMD (Core Root Excavation using Compressed-air), a high-throughput pipeline for the cleaning of field-grown roots, and COFE (Core Root Feature Extraction), a semi-automated pipeline for the extraction of RSA traits from images. CREAMD-COFE was applied to diversity panels of maize (Zea mays) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which consisted of 369 and 294 genotypes, respectively. Six RSA-traits were extracted from images collected from >3,300 maize roots and >1,470 sorghum roots. SNP-based GWAS identified 87 ...


Development And Optimization Of Ph-Responsive Plga-Chitosan Nanoparticles For Triggered Release Of Antimicrobials, Cicero C. Pola, Allan R.F. Moraes, Eber A.A. Medeiros, Reinaldo F. Teófilo, Nilda F.F. Soares, Carmen L. Gomes Oct 2019

Development And Optimization Of Ph-Responsive Plga-Chitosan Nanoparticles For Triggered Release Of Antimicrobials, Cicero C. Pola, Allan R.F. Moraes, Eber A.A. Medeiros, Reinaldo F. Teófilo, Nilda F.F. Soares, Carmen L. Gomes

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The aim of this work was to develop and optimize a pH-responsive nanoparticle based on poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and chitosan (CHIT) for delivery of natural antimicrobial using trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCIN) as a model compound. The optimization was performed using a central composite design and the desirability function approach. The optimized levels of variables considering all significant responses were 4% (w/w) of TCIN and 6.75% (w/w) of CHIT. After, optimized nanoparticles were produced and characterized according to their physicochemical properties and their antimicrobial activity against SalmonellaTyphimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Optimized nanoparticles characterization indicated a satisfactory TCIN ...


Rational Design Of Photoelectrodes For Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting And Co2 Reduction, Yu Hui Lui, Bowei Zhang, Shan Hu Oct 2019

Rational Design Of Photoelectrodes For Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting And Co2 Reduction, Yu Hui Lui, Bowei Zhang, Shan Hu

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Solar energy has promising potential for building sustainable society. Conversion of solar energy into solar fuels plays a crucial role in overcoming the intermittent nature of the renewable energy source. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell that employs semiconductor as photoelectrode to split water into hydrogen or fixing carbon dioxide (CO2) into hydrocarbon fuels provides great potential to achieve zero-carbon-emission society. A proper design of these semiconductor photoelectrodes thus directly influences the performance of the PEC cell. In this review, we investigate the strategies that have been put towards the design of efficient photoelectrodes for PEC water splitting and CO2 reduction in ...


Interpretable Deep Learning For Guided Microstructure-Property Explorations In Photovoltaics, Balaji Sesha Sarath Pokuri, Sambuddha Ghosal, Apurva Kokate, Soumik Sarkar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian Oct 2019

Interpretable Deep Learning For Guided Microstructure-Property Explorations In Photovoltaics, Balaji Sesha Sarath Pokuri, Sambuddha Ghosal, Apurva Kokate, Soumik Sarkar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The microstructure determines the photovoltaic performance of a thin film organic semiconductor film. The relationship between microstructure and performance is usually highly non-linear and expensive to evaluate, thus making microstructure optimization challenging. Here, we show a data-driven approach for mapping the microstructure to photovoltaic performance using deep convolutional neural networks. We characterize this approach in terms of two critical metrics, its generalizability (has it learnt a reasonable map?), and its intepretability (can it produce meaningful microstructure characteristics that influence its prediction?). A surrogate model that exhibits these two features of generalizability and intepretability is particularly useful for subsequent design exploration ...


An Optical-Based Technique To Obtain Vibration Characteristics Of Rotating Tires, Aakash Mange, Theresa Atkinson, Jennifer Bastiaan, Javad Baqersad Aug 2019

An Optical-Based Technique To Obtain Vibration Characteristics Of Rotating Tires, Aakash Mange, Theresa Atkinson, Jennifer Bastiaan, Javad Baqersad

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The dynamic characteristics of tires are critical in the overall vibrations of vehicles because the tire-road interface is the only medium of energy transfer between the vehicle and the road surface. Obtaining the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the tire helps in improving the comfort of the passengers. The vibrational characteristics of structures are usually obtained by performing conventional impact hammer modal testing, in which the structure is excited with an impact hammer and the response of the structure under excitation is captured using accelerometers. However, this approach only provides the response of the structure at a few discrete ...


Plant Disease Identification Using Explainable 3d Deep Learning On Hyperspectral Images, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Sarah Jones, Asheesh K. Singh, Soumik Sarkar, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian Aug 2019

Plant Disease Identification Using Explainable 3d Deep Learning On Hyperspectral Images, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Sarah Jones, Asheesh K. Singh, Soumik Sarkar, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Background

Hyperspectral imaging is emerging as a promising approach for plant disease identification. The large and possibly redundant information contained in hyperspectral data cubes makes deep learning based identification of plant diseases a natural fit. Here, we deploy a novel 3D deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) that directly assimilates the hyperspectral data. Furthermore, we interrogate the learnt model to produce physiologically meaningful explanations. We focus on an economically important disease, charcoal rot, which is a soil borne fungal disease that affects the yield of soybean crops worldwide.

Results

Based on hyperspectral imaging of inoculated and mock-inoculated stem images, our 3D ...


Stamped Multilayer Graphene Laminates For Disposable In-Field Electrodes: Application To Electrochemical Sensing Of Hydrogen Peroxide And Glucose, Loreen R. Stromberg, John A. Hondred, Delaney Sanborn, Deyny Mendivelso-Perez, Srikanthan Ramesh, Iris V. Rivero, Josh Kogot, Emily Smith, Carmen Gomes, Jonathan C. Claussen Aug 2019

Stamped Multilayer Graphene Laminates For Disposable In-Field Electrodes: Application To Electrochemical Sensing Of Hydrogen Peroxide And Glucose, Loreen R. Stromberg, John A. Hondred, Delaney Sanborn, Deyny Mendivelso-Perez, Srikanthan Ramesh, Iris V. Rivero, Josh Kogot, Emily Smith, Carmen Gomes, Jonathan C. Claussen

Mechanical Engineering Publications

A multi-step approach is described for the fabrication of multi-layer graphene-based electrodes without the need for ink binders or post-print annealing. Graphite and nanoplatelet graphene were chemically exfoliated using a modified Hummers’ method and the dried material was thermally expanded. Expanded materials were used in a 3D printed mold and stamp to create laminate electrodes on various substrates. The laminates were examined for potential sensing applications using model systems of peroxide (H2O2) and enzymatic glucose detection. Within the context of these two assay systems, platinum nanoparticle electrodeposition and oxygen plasma treatment were examined as methods for improving sensitivity. Electrodes made ...


Development Of Optimized Phenomic Predictors For Efficient Plant Breeding Decisions Using Phenomic-Assisted Selection In Soybean, Kyle Parmley, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Asheesh K. Singh Jul 2019

Development Of Optimized Phenomic Predictors For Efficient Plant Breeding Decisions Using Phenomic-Assisted Selection In Soybean, Kyle Parmley, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Asheesh K. Singh

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The rate of advancement made in phenomic-assisted breeding methodologies has lagged those of genomic-assisted techniques, which is now a critical component of mainstream cultivar development pipelines. However, advancements made in phenotyping technologies have empowered plant scientists with affordable high-dimensional datasets to optimize the operational efficiencies of breeding programs. Phenomic and seed yield data was collected across six environments for a panel of 292 soybean accessions with varying genetic improvements. Random forest, a machine learning (ML) algorithm, was used to map complex relationships between phenomic traits and seed yield and prediction performance assessed using two cross-validation (CV) scenarios consistent with breeding ...


Immersogeometric Analysis Of Moving Objects In Incompressible Flows, Songzhe Xu, Fei Xu, Aditya Kommajosula, Ming-Chen Hsu, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian Jul 2019

Immersogeometric Analysis Of Moving Objects In Incompressible Flows, Songzhe Xu, Fei Xu, Aditya Kommajosula, Ming-Chen Hsu, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Mechanical Engineering Publications

We deploy the immersogeometric approach for tracking moving objects. The method immerses objects into non-boundary-fitted meshes and weakly enforces Dirichlet boundary conditions on the object boundaries. The object motion is driven by the integrated surface force and external body forces. A residual-based variational multiscale method is employed to stabilize the finite element formulation for incompressible flows. Adaptively refined quadrature rules are used to better capture the geometry of the immersed boundaries by accurately integrating the intersected background elements. Treatment for the freshly-cleared nodes (i.e. background mesh nodes that are inside the object at one time step, but are in ...


Promoting Microbial Utilization Of Phenolic Substrates From Bio-Oil, Kirsten Davis, Marjorie R. Rover, Davinia Salvachúa, Ryan G. Smith, Gregg T. Beckham, Zhiyou Wen, Robert C. Brown, Laura R. Jarboe Jul 2019

Promoting Microbial Utilization Of Phenolic Substrates From Bio-Oil, Kirsten Davis, Marjorie R. Rover, Davinia Salvachúa, Ryan G. Smith, Gregg T. Beckham, Zhiyou Wen, Robert C. Brown, Laura R. Jarboe

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The economic viability of the biorefinery concept is limited by the valorization of lignin. One possible method of lignin valorization is biological upgrading with aromatic-catabolic microbes. In conjunction, lignin monomers can be produced by fast pyrolysis and fractionation. However, biological upgrading of these lignin monomers is limited by low water solubility. Here, we address the problem of low water solubility with an emulsifier blend containing approximately 70 wt% Tween® 20 and 30 wt% Span® 80. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 grew to an optical density (OD600) of 1.0 ± 0.2 when supplied with 1.6 wt% emulsified phenolic monomer-rich product produced ...